CELTA Teacher Training Course Day 1, 28/2/2011General Advice Script what you are going to say in the class room. Grade your language to suit students’ level Stage your instructions. Don’t give all instructions at once.Throwing the ball activity (Ball Game)* Preparation: make students stand in a circle before giving any instructions. Have a ball in yourhand. Explain that the purpose of this activity is to use a fun way to learn each others names. (1) Stage One Instructions: Ill say my name and then throw the ball any person in the group. Then the person who gets the ball would say his/her name and then throw the ball to another person. Instruction Checking Questions: Before I throw the ball what are you going to say? Practice Example: teacher practices the instructions with one person, and that person practices the instruction with the teacher This is carried on until everyone gets the ball about two or three times. (2) Stage Two Instructions: Now before I throw the ball Ill say the name of the person Im throwing the ball to. If I want to throw the ball to Amy, I say, Amy, then throw the ball to Amy. Instruction Checking Questions: Before I throw the ball what are you going to say? Practice Example: teacher practices the instructions with one person, and that person practices the instruction with the teacher This is carried on until everyone gets the ball about two or three times. (3) Stage Three Instructions: Now Ill give the ball to the one next to me, and everyone in the group would say the name of that person. Instruction Checking Questions: When someone gets the ball what are you going to say? Practice Example: teacher practices the instructions with one person, and that person practices the instruction with the teacher This is carried on until everyone gets the ball two times.Find Someone Who …You have as many facts as there are people in a sheet of paper.* Preparation: Leave students seated in their places. Explain that the purpose of this activity is tolearn some interesting facts about people in the group. To get to know each other. (1) Stage One Instructions: While students are seated explain the process. You have some facts in this sheet (chest the handout) and we need to know which facts are about which person. To link the fact to the person. Try to ask for more details. Write on the board: find someone who … comes from a big family. Make this into a question: do you come from a big family. Yes. Oh, really. How many brothers and sisters do you have? The rule is: you can ask each person three questions. If you find a fact that is true about that person, write the persons
name next to it. And try to learn more about that fact. And the person will ask you three questions in their turn. After you finish with one person, you move on to another person. You can come back to the same person, but after you meet someone else. Warm-up example on question asking: Write on the board: find someone who .... likes coffee. Then ask students how do you ask a question. Practice Example: I’ll try this out with one person. Now Ill ask you three questions to find out some facts about you, and then it will be your turn to ask me three questions. Instruction Checking Questions: How many questions you can ask a person? And how many questions the other person will ask you? If you find that the fact is true about that person, what will you do? (Write the persons name down next to it and try to learn more about that fact) (2) Handout. While students are seated, give them the hand-outs and give them two minutes to have a look at them. (3) (Mingled activity) Class Arrangement: Now you need to stand up, have the handout in your hand with a pen or pencil. Find a partner and ask him/her your questions. You have 5 minutes. Instructor role: monitor and facilitate. [Monitor, Give time warning, Signal taking turns, observe errors for linguistic feedback] Time warning: Now you have 2 minutes... 30 seconds... Now time is up... (4) (Pair checking) Instructions: Now you go back to your original seats. With the person sitting next to you, check your fact and try to fill in the gaps. Instruction Checking Questions: What are you going to do with the partner next to you? Now you have 3 minutes. [Monitor, Give time warning, Signal taking turns, observe errors for linguistic feedback] Time warning: Now you have 2 minutes... 30 seconds... Now time is up... (5) (Open Class Feedback): Now you go to the questions one by one and find out the answers from the students. (6) (Linguistic Feedback): problems with language usage/grammar that you noticed in the group. Explain. Explain question formation.Find Someone Who … (Suggestion for my Teaching Practice)(1) _________ plays tennis.(2) _________ comes from a big family (has 4 brothers and sisters or more).(3) _________ has lived in Dublin for 2 years or more.(4) _________ likes Irish weather.(5) _________ does not like pizza.(6) _________ had toast and butter for breakfast today.(7) _________ speaks 3 languages or more.(8) _________ has visited 3 foreign countries or more.(9) _________ can play music.(10) _________ likes acting.
(11) _________ will spend the summer holiday in Spain.(12) _________ wants to work as a teacher.(13) _________ likes to drink green tea.(14) _________ comes to International House Dublin by bicycle.(15) _________ has a driving license.(16) _________ enjoys loud music.(17) _________ appeared on TV.(18) _________ has an MP3 player.(19) _________ likes history and maths.(20) _________ will have to stay home and work this weekend.Sticker Game (1) Stage One Instructions I will give each of you a sticker (chest sticker), and I’ll ask 8 questions. Then you need to write the answer on the sticker. Make sure to fit all 8 answers on the sticker. If I ask you ‘what is your favourite animal’ wait for answer from students ... ‘cat’ draw a box on the board and write cat in the middle to fill the whole space. Ask students is this right? Wait for answer... cat If no answer, give clues. Do you have one question or 8 questions... Instructions two: there are two sides to the sticker. You need to write on the white side. Instruction Checking Questions: How many questions I’m going to ask? What are you going to write on the sticker, the question or the answer? Which side are you going to write on, the white side or the side with blue boxes? (2) Stage One. Give out the stickers and start asking the questions: * If you were an animal, which animal would you like to be? [Monitor, see if students have finished writing] * What is your favourite place? [Give clues: It can be a city, a building, a park] * What is your favourite book? * What meal can you cook? * Who do you wish to have dinner with? [This can be a person who is living or dead] * What is your favourite subject at school? * What is the thing that annoys you most? (3) Stage Two (pair checking) Instructions. Now you peel the sticker and stick it in your chest. Divide students into pairs. Talk to your partner and ask him/her about their answer, and why he likes this place or this meal. You have 3 minutes. [Monitor, Give time warning, Signal taking turns, observe errors for linguistic feedback] (4) Stage Three (group checking) Instruction. Now we are going to break into two groups. ABABABAB. I want all the A’s to stand please and sit on this side. In you group discuss what you learned about other people. Instruction check questions: Are going to talk about yourself, or about your partner? your
partner .. very good. You have 3 minutes. [Monitor, Give time warning, Signal taking turns, observe errors for linguistic feedback] Time warning. You have 1 minute ... 30 second ... OK. That’s good... Thank you. (5) Stage Four (open class discussion). While students are seated in their groups. Ask them about interesting things that they learned. (6) Stage Five (Linguistic feedback). Ask students to go back to their original places. Then give them linguistic feedback, if any.Carousel /carəsel/ (1) Stage One Instruction. Arrange the class in two circles inner circle and outer circle. Stand up with your paper and pen, as you will need them in this activity. We’ll make two groups ABABABAB. A’s come to this side please. This group will make a circle. Then turn around so that you’re facing outside. Second group will make a circle around the first group. (2) Stage Two Instructions. I’ll give you one question. You ask this question to your partner, that is the person in front of you. Then you write something interesting. You have two minutes fro asking the question, then 30 seconds to write. When I say ‘Turn’, the inner circle stand as they are, the circle in the outside will move one step to the right. Instruction Checking Questions: * How many minutes you have for each question? ... 2 minutes. * How much time do you have for writing? ... 30 seconds. * When I say “Turn” what the circle in the inside going to do? ... stand as they are * What the circle in the outside going to do? ... move one step * To the right or to the left? ... to the right Questions: What does a good teacher do? [Monitor, Give time warning, Signal taking turns, observe errors for linguistic feedback] Did you succeed in learning a foreign language? Where do you want to work after you finish this course? Signal end of activity. OK. That’s good. Thank you. You can now go to your original places. (3) Stage Three Questions. Now in pairs. Discuss with your partner what you learned about other people. Instruction Checking Questions: With your partner, are you going to talk about yourself? ... no, you are going to talk about what you learned from other people. Time Warning: you have 3 minutes. (4) Stage Four (Open Class Discussion & Feedback) (5) Stage Five (Linguistic Feedback) Day 2, 1/3/2011DVD Observation of Teaching PracticeBefore you watch the video, try to guess the meaning of these words in pairs.Word Definition Activity(In short)Give students a sheet with difficult words and ask them to read through and guess the meaning ofwords. Split students into groups. Give each group some words in flash cards, and ask them to
guess the meaning of the words. Then tell them that the definitions of the words are stuck (with bluetack) around the room and they have to go around and find the right definition. With students seatedwith their groups, make an open class discussion of the meaning of words. In the end returnstudents to their original places.Remember staging, instruction checking questions, example/demonstration, monitoring and timewarning.Teaching Terminologymonitoring: walking around, observing, guiding, kicking offrealia: real objects used in the classroom for demonstration (real bannana to show what a bannana looks like)eliciting: What do you call the things that you buy for a friend in their birthday? ... present What is the problem with the second verb?flash card: cards used in activitieschecking instructions: How long do you have to read this paragraph? What is the first thing you need to do? ... fold the paperfinger highlighting: two syllables, 3 minutes, one wordconcept checking questions: gadgets. Are they neccessary? If we dont have them will we die?pairwork: work students do in pairsgroupwork: work students do in groupsteacher-centred activity: feedback, open-class discussionsstudent-centered activity: writing, readingopen pairs: An open pair is a pair of learners working together with the rest of the group observing. Example The learners are working on developing telephone conversations using prompts. The teacher asks one pair to continue working while the rest of the group watches. In the classroom Open pair work can be a fast and effective way to highlight language learners might need for an activity, and clarify that people understand what to do. It needs to be managed sensitively, choosing confident learners to demonstrate, and dealing with errors through a "hotsheet"; a record of errors in performance, which can be discussed later.closed pairs: All the learners work in pairs that do not monitor each other.Choral drilling: Asking the group to repeat words in a pronunciation activity.individual drills: Asking an individual to repeat words in a pronunciation activity.modelling language:
highlighting language:feedback stages:Stop the Bus (Vocabulary Drilling Game)(In short)Split class into two groups. Each group will have one person sitting with his/her back to the board.Teacher will write a word on the board. Each group will try to explain to the person the wordwithout saying the actual word. The team who guesses it first would “say stop the bus” and the teamwould win a point. Then each team will swap places.Remember staging, instruction checking questions, example/demonstration, monitoring and timewarning. Giving Instructions 1) Starting – make it clear when you are starting to give instructions. Remember – “eyes on you.” Don’t forget your body language – it counts. 2) Topic – making sure students know the theme of the lesson segment helps to activate their “top-down knowledge” of the world, i.e. what they already know about the topic in their language. 3) Interaction – make it clear which interaction pattern is being used: a. S – student work alone b. PW – pairwork c. GW – groupwork d. OC – open class (teacher addressing / eliciting from / asking whole class) If there are changes of interaction during the activity make sure that the changes are as smooth as possible and use gestures where appropriate. [Avoid cliques /kli:k/. Prevent students from always working with the same people. Remember also that it is important to vary the interaction pattern] 4) Task – make it clear, keep it simple and logical – again, use gestures where possible. 5) Staging – give one instruction at a time, and don’t give handouts at the same time as you’re speaking. If possible, give them afterwards – otherwise the students will be looking at the paper and not listening to you. (You can chest [keep in front of your chest] the handout while explaining the activity, and give the handout later.) If you have to give two instructions at once, pause between them to make them clear. 6) Check understanding – ask different students questions to check what they are supposed to be doing. Avoid the question “What are we doing?” but choose tricky aspects of the instructions and ask directed questions, e.g. “Where do you write the answer?”, “How many questions should you ask your partner”, “Does one person speak or both people in this activity?”, etc. Ask the people you think haven’t understood (without seeming to pick on them). 7) Example/Demonstration – demonstrate how the activity works with another student to check understanding further. It’s often useful to do the first question of an exercise together as a class and then let students get on with the rest. 8) Time limit – giving students time limit provides security and focus. If appropriate, give a time limit warning, e.g. “two minutes left!”. There is room for flexibility but try to stick to the time limit given. 9) Signal to start – students may need training to wait for this, but there’s little point in them starting (possibly the wrong thing) while you’re still explaining or demonstrating.
10) Monitoring – check they’re doing the activity right. This gives you the chance to explain to weaker students who, despite all the above, haven’t understood.Remember – Negotiating the meaning of instructions is one of the best ways of learning.Aspects of Classroom managements - Interaction patterns - Boardwork - Physical factors - Rapport - Monitoring - Instructions Classroom Management 1) Rapport What is Rapport and how do you build/maintain it? Consider: ◦ The teachers physical position – distance from the students, central positioning, sitting or standing, movement (teacher pacing up and down is distracting for most students) ◦ Eye Contact – maintaining even eye contact (looking at one or a few students only comes across as favourtism) ◦ Use of students names – remembering names, nominating students, and, when you do, saying their name at the end of the question rather than the beginning. ◦ The teachers personal involvement – showing interest in what students say as well as how they say it, active listening, showing interest with facial expressions and body language, responding to what they say in a natural way. ◦ Use of praise and encouragement – graded praise (i.e. Not saying “excellent” when the contribution was “good”), giving enough praise for good work done (i.e. Saying “exactly” or “yes, very good”, rather than “OK”) ◦ Body language and facial expressions – open, smiling, friendly, show interest, enthusiasm, humour. ◦ Classroom atmosphere – relaxed, trusting, supportive. ◦ Level of student involvement – not more than 30% teacher talking time, allowing students enough thinking time to prepare ideas alone or in pairs. ◦ Spread the attention – avoiding favouritism, actively involving shy and weaker students rather than “flying with the fastest”. ◦ Cliques – preventing students from always working with the same people. ◦ Allowing students to express their personality – what might you want/not want to contribute to a class discussion? How would you feel if your teacher never asked you about your life/opinions? 2) Monitoring What should you bear in mind when monitoring individual, pair and groupwork? Consider ◦ Teachers position – trying not to loom over them, but crouching to their level, and walking behind them. ◦ Eye contact – trying not to hijack the conversation but being there if students need help, making sure students are on task and communicating (kick-starting the conversation if necessary and then leaving students to get on with it) ◦ Making notes for feedback – noting down good/bad points for language
feedback later.3) BoardworkWhat should you think about when writing on the board? Consider the following: ◦ Upper/lower case – When writing on the board, write in lower case and only capitalise when you normally would in English. So, if youre writing a list of words on the board (e.g. Car, lorry, bus, taxi), dont capitalise the first letter (e.g. Car, lorry, But, Taxi) because this isnt how you would usually see the words written. ◦ Colour coding – When writing new words, sentences or questions on the board, use the dark colours, i.e. Black or blue. Use red and green to highlight, e.g. part of speech, phonemic symbols, syllables, intonation, etc. ◦ Size – Dont write in huge/tiny letters on the board. Try to write using a reasonable size and test the “readability” by writing something and standing at the back of the classroom to see if yuor writing is easy to read. ◦ Board plan – Plan your boardwork before teaching the lesson. Make a board plan. Write (in the relevant colours) what youre going to put on the board and where.
In the board below: Titles are blue, sentences and words are black, pronunciation is green, grammar notes are read Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Continuous Vocabulary Corner /d/ lazy (adj) /bin/ Ive watched three films today. Ive been watching films all day spectacular (adj) have/has + past participle have/has + been + past participle to suggest sth. to Emphasis on result Emphasis on activity sbd. Now 4) Physical Factors How do physical factors influence a class? Consider: ◦ Positions of students and teacher – horseshoe or rows? With Tables or without? Teacher standing, sitting or kneeling (variety is good), how near is the teacher to the students? ◦ Voice projection – making sure volume is sufficient to hear comfortably and not speaking too fast, making sure students can hear each other. ◦ Temperature, space, air, light, noise ◦ Equipment – using the board, tapes, CDs, OHPs, visuals, videos, DVDs, etc. Bad Instruction Example“Now we are going to split into 3 groups of 4 people. “Here is one group and here is another group.No, there is not enough people. We are going to split into two groups of five then. You havequestions from the five questions in the handout. Teacher gives the handout while talking. Then youneed to choose two questions to discuss with your group.“Off you go..”… and don’t forget to use the opinion expressions we have been learning at the start of the lesson.Correction:What’s wrong with this example, how it can be done in a better way. 1) State the purpose of the activity at the start. Now the purpose of this activity is to use he opinion expression that we have learned. 2) Count before you split into groups to avoid confusion. Now we are going to split into two groups of five. 3) Don’t give the handouts and talk at the same time. Chest the handout and give the instructions. This sheet has five questions. You need to choose only two questions to discuss with your group. 4) ICQ (Instruction Checking Questions): How many questions do you need to choose? What expressions will you use? How long do you have to finish this activity? 5) Now give the handout and give them time to read it.
6) Monitor and make sure that people are following your instructions correctly. Pay attention for people who can be nominated in the open class checking. Pay attention for good and bad language usage for linguistic feedback. 7) Give time warning. 8) Open class discussion. 9) Linguistic feedback. Day 2, 3/3/2011 First Basque Language Vocabulary LessonTeacher enters the class and speaks in Basque only. Only a few manageable words and phrases(nothing complicated) said slowly and clearly. Teacher uses gesture effectively and effortlessly toexplain instructions and meanings.Introduction Activity(Teacher does not write anything on the board)Kaixo!Nira itsina Carmel da.Nira itsina …. da.(with the voice tone and gesture teacher indicates to student to repeat after her)Nira itisina … da.Nira itsina …. da.(Teacher stands up and indicates with her hands for students to stand up)(Mingled Activity)Teacher indicates to students to move around and introduce themselves to other students. Sakehands and say.Kaixo! Nira itsina … da.Kaixo! Nira itsina … da.Kaixo! Nira itsina … da.Aswondo! Aswondo! = well doneTeacher indicates to students to go back to their places.Numbers ActivityTeacher takes out large flash cards of numbers from her bag.Teacher places number 1 on the floor facing students and says baat, and waits for students to repeatafter her. Then she asks some individuals to say the number ‘baat’. Then she does the same for thefollowing numbers. And each time she adds a new number she revises the previous numbers.1 baat2 bee3 eero4 law5 bast(Pair checking Activity)Teacher divides class into pairs using gesture. And shows them how to do the activity. You raise onefinger and wait for your partner to say the number. Then you raise any number of fingers from 1 to5. Then you change turns.
Objects ActivityTeacher takes a bottle of water from her bag and says ‘oor’. She waits for students to repeat afterher. Then she asks some individuals by name to say the word. Then she does the same for thefollowing objects. And each time she adds a new object she revises the previous objects.oor = watersagar = applelarankha = orangetomati = tomatoundo = mushroomTeacher says ‘oor baat’, then she takes out another apple and says ‘bee sagar’. She waits forstudents to repeat after her. Then she asks some individuals by name to say the expression. Then shedoes the same for the following objects. And each time she adds a new object she revises theprevious objects.oor baatbee sagareero larankhalaw tomatibast undoTransaction ActivityTeacher leaves all objects on the table. She shows one Euro and says ‘Euro baat’. She gives the euroto a students and hints to him to buy something from the table.The student says ‘oor baat’. The teacher says ‘Euro baat’. The student gives the teacher the moneyand the teacher gives the object and says ‘Eskerrik asko’ which means ‘thank you’. Anotherstudents would say, ‘bee larankh’ and the teacher does the same with him/her, with everythingcosting one euro. Teacher does the activity until everyone gets something.Writing down ActivityTeacher writes down the correct spelling for every word on the board.1 bat2 bi3 hiro4 lau5 bost(without writing the English words, but pointing to the objects)water = urapple = sagarorange = laranjatomato = tomatemushroom = onddonire izena Carmel daTeacher goes out and waves her hand and says ‘Agur’ which students guess to be ‘goodbye’ and say‘Agur’ to her.(Pairwork)
In pairs discuss these questionsForeign Language Lesson: Reflection on Techniques How did the teacher make the target language interesting? Was there too little / just enough / too much new language? How did the teacher keep you involved? Was there pair and group work? Did you have a chance to use the target language? How much time did you have to think about and process the language? Did you have a chance to recap and revise the target language? Did you feel under pressure to be accurate with the language? Overall, what would need to be changed in the lesson to suit your own learning preferences? Lesson Plan and ProceduresTeacher practices a vocabulary lesson and then gives us her lesson plan and procedure.
Name: Lesson number:Class Level:Date: Length: minutesLesson Type (tick as appropriate):Speaking Writing Reading Listening Functions Grammar Vocabulary Pronunciation XMain Aim(s): To enable ss to understand and be able to use 4 verbs connected to WAYS OF WALKING in the context of an incident on the street in San Sebastian.Subsidiary Aim(s): To practice listening to specific information.Evidence: How will I know if my aims have been achieved? My aims will have been achieved if the ss can use the target language accurately in the controlled and freer practice stages.Personal Aims (I, as a teacher, will be working on improving / trying out …) Ensuring my boardwork is presentable. Using a variety of concept checking questions.Materials (including source): Pictures of San Sebastian. Teacher’s own freer practice – Discussion QsInternational House Dublin Teacher Training
Lesson Plan Procedure (Vocabulary Lesson) Time Stage and Aim Procedure Interaction Tutor ’s Comments Lead-in Have you ever witnessed an ‘altercation’, PW3–4 Generate an exciting, strange or dramatic incidentmins interest in the topic of the story on the street? Discuss in pairs for 2 mins Brief open class feedback5–6 Set context (through listening Ask ss to look at the pictures and guess PWmins task) which place it is (San Sebastian) Enable ss to hear the target language in Tell ss I’m going to tell them about context something that happened to me in San Give ss Sebastian. Tell them to listen carefully practice in listening for specific because they will have to tell each other information the story afterwards. Tell story about men outside bookies Ask students to retell the story to each other in pars7–8 Focus on Language: Open class feedback to the story – elicit OCmins Clarification of meaning the 4 target verbs (in the sentences) from Enable the context and write up on the students to understand the whiteboard meaning of the target language - I was sprongling around the backstreets of Budapest. - A man was fritting up and down outside a bookies. - The anxious man thropped backwards and then thropped off down the street.
Time Stage and Aim Procedure Interaction Tutor ’s Comments3 mins Clarification of Form Highlight aspects of form: OC Enable ss to sprongle (regular) use the target language in frit (double t in past simple) sentences accurately sprat (irregular – sprot, sprotten) throp (double p in past simple)2 mins Pronunciation Focus Model and drill (choral and individual) OC Enable ss to target language say the words accurately and deal with specific pronunciation problems2 mins Controlled Practice Act out the verbs and ss write down the S Ensure that ss infinitive and past simple of them understand the target language PW and can use it accurately Feedbak in pairs Feedback open class OC6–7 Freer Practice Ss get Qs to ask and answer in groups of GWmins Enable ss to three use target language in a more authentic way Feedback open class some answers and OC check accuracy of TL use
Questions on Ways of Walking 1) When you’re in a new place, do you like sprongling around the streets? 2) When was the last time you sprongled? 3) When you get anxious do you frit up and down? If not, what do you do instead? 4) Do you sprat? Do any of your friends sprat? Do you sprat in particular situations? Which one? 5) When was the last time you thropped? Why? Did you fall over as well? Did you hurt yourself? Day 4, 7/3/2011Matching GameYou have a group of cards. You place them on the table facing downwards. You turn two cards andif they match you keep them. If not you put them back in the same place. It is a memory game aswell. You take turns with your partner. The one who wins is the one with the most cards.Draw on the table Subject Pronoun HeInstruction Checking Questions.Do you put the cards on the table facing up or down?How many cards do you pick up?If the cards are matching what do you do?If the cards are not matching what do you do?CardsPresent Perfect I’ve taken your camera.Possessive Adjective ourObject Pronoun him3rd Person Singular overtakesEllipsis Nice day?Relative Clause the book that I lent youQuestion tag You’re Swiss, aren’t you?Subject pronoun wePast perfect I’d already seen it.Grammar ActivitySetting the context: Teacher shows ss a picture of a woman with two children and asks ss todescribe the picture (OC). She tells ss that the picture is of her friend, Clodagh, from primaryschool.PW: Teacher asks ss to talk in pairs about their friends from childhood. 2 mins
OC: Teacher asks ss to talk about their partner’s experience. 2 mins.Teacher writes on the board.I used to play computer games with Clodagh.I didn’t use to like fish.PW: Teacher asks ss to discuss with their partner the meaning of the two sentences.OC: Teacher asks for ss’ feedback.Teacher asks which sentence describes action and which describes state.PW: Answer the question with your partner.OC: Teacher solicits answer.PW: Talk to your partner about the things that you used to / didn’t use to do when you were young.OC: Teacher solicits feedback.Teacher draws timeline on the board.Action now ______________________________________|_______ x x x x x x x x x x x ..Teacher adds grammar (in red) and pronunciation (in green) to the sentence on the board. /ju:ztә/I used to play computer games with Clodagh.Subject + used to + infinitive /ju:ztә/I didn’t use to like fish.Subject + didn’t used to + infinitiveReading ActivityTeacher changes pairs: Listen to your number 12121212. Where are ones hands up. Where are two?Hands up. Ones sit in this side and two sit in this side.Teacher shows ss some pictures of whales.PW: Teacher asks ss to talk to their partners about whale and what they know about them.OC: Teacher solicits feedback.
Teacher write ‘whale’ in a bubble on the board and asks us for information about whales Can get beached Whales Live in pods migrate big They sing Hunted for their blubber mammalsTeacher divides the board and gives a corner for vocabulary Vocabulary /sizәl/ to sizzle (v) sludge (n)(uncountable) vegetation (n)(uncountable)To explain the verb sizzle, teachers tells students a story about her house mate when she waspreparing her dinner. She had sausages sizzling in the pan.She asks student what it means to sizzle. What things can sizzle. Can people sizzle.To teach the word sludge, teacher shows a picture of a puddle on the side of the road and discussesit with ss.To teach the word vegetation, teacher shows a picture of dense wood from Brazil, and says that shereceived this picture from a friend and discusses this picture with ss.Reading for GistAfter the vocabulary analysis, teacher chests the handout and says that we need to read this sheet todecide how whales view humans. Do whale have positive, negative, or neutral view towardshumans.
Teacher gives 2 mins.Teacher gives the handout.handout A Whale’s Eye ViewA mother whale and a father whale were swimming along the coast with their son when they founda school of people lying on the beach.“What’s that?” asked the son whale, who had never seen people, or even one person before, one hisown.“People, son,” said the father whale. “you see them all up and down this coast at this time of year.They never lie on the sand without covering themselves with oil, and they boil themselves untilthey burn completely.”“But they’re such little things,” said the son whale. “I bet I could swallow one whole and keep itunharmed in my stomach.”His mother said she would not want her stomach full of anything that had been boiled in oil and hadsand all over it. And, she added, “It would be very unhealthy because they are usually filled withsmoke and hot dogs.”“What do people do on the beach?” asked the son whale.“They sit there and stare at the ocean,” the father whale said. “And they eat hot dogs.”The mother whale said that in the ocean they also splashed around in such a clumsy manner that thefish had to get out of their way.The father whale drew their attention to several people who had moved away from the beach andwere getting into a metal box on wheels. When they were all inside the metal box, it began to movealong the beach, throwing up a great cloud of sand.“What are they doing now?” asked the son whale.“Making pollution,” said the father whale. “People make almost all the pollution in the world, andthey use those little moving boxes to do it.”He showed his son the dark gases which came out of the box.“And inside the box,” he said, “they are also preparing rubbish.”“They seem to be useless,” said the son whale. “Why did the Great Whale create people anyway?”“Son, said the father whale, “no creature in the Great Whale’s universe exists without a purpose. Ifthe Great Whale created people, it was for a good reason.”At that moment, six beer cans flew out of the box, followed by a bag containing a half-eaten hotdog, and an empty plastic body-oil container.“Maybe that’s the reason the Great Whale created people,” said the son whale. “To make rubbish.”“The world doesn’t need rubbish,” said the father whale.“Now, now,” said the mother whale, who always became uneasy whenever her husband had a fightwith their son, “we must take the world as it is and learn to be at peace with it.”“Sometime,” said the father whale, “I think the Great Whale is not aware of what he’s doing.” “Your father has always been very sensitive about rubbish,” the mother whale explained, “eversince accidentally dived into 800 tons of rubbish that had been dumped into the sea. He smelleddisgusting for weeks.” “This news stirred the son whale so much that he spouted, and the people on the shore saw it andcried, “Whales!” Then somebody threw a beer bottle at them. The whales made for the deep,distant water. Later that night, as they drifted off in the Gulf Stream admiring the stars, a large shippassed by and spilled oil over them. However, they remained at peace with the world as it was andafterward dreamed of the unfortunate people far behind them making rubbish throughout the sweetsummer night.Time warning.(PW) in pairs, discuss with your partner whether whales have a positive, negative, or neutral view
towards humans.(OC) Teacher solicits feedback.Reading for specific informationTeacher chests a sheet and says that the sheet has five question about the topic and that we need toread the passage again to find the answer. Teacher gives 3 minsTeacher gives the handout.handoutA Whale’s Eye ViewRead the text again and answer these questions1. When the father whale says ‘That’s people son,’ he goes on to explain what the people are doing. What are the people doing?2. Why does the mother say that having people in her stomach would be unhealthy?3. Do the whales think humans are good swimmers?4. Why is the father whale so sensitive about garbage?5. What happened to the family of whales later and how did they respond to it?Time warning.(PW) in pairs, check your answer with your partner.(OC) Teacher checks answers with the whole class.Teacher rearranges the pairs.Can I ask you to stand up please, with your paper, pens and all your stuff.I want you to stand according to your date of birth, January will be first on the left, December willbe last on the right. If two people are born in the same month check the day with you partner todecide the order.ICQs. So if I’m born in November where shall I stand. Around here, right!The 5 Stages of a Receptive Skills (Reading/Listening) Lesson (1) Lead-in Grab their attention using visuals Pictures of whales, discussion of whales (PW -> OC) Set the context. We are going to read about whales and their view of us. (2) Vocabulary Analysis Pre-teach vocabulary. Teach the meaning, form and pronunciation (MFP) of some difficult words in the text. Limit the number of words to teach to a maximum of five. You don’t need to teach all new words. Give them space to guess and predict from context. (3) Reading for Gist Give them a small task to concentrate on “How do whales view humans? Do they have positive, negative or neutral view of humans?” Set the task before the reading. Students work in this sequence (Individual -> PW -> OC) (4) Reading for specific information Give them a sheet of some question to try to answer from the text. Or ask them to look for
specific information. Students work in this sequence (Individual -> PW -> OC) Important: Set the task before they read or listen, so that they have a clear purpose. (5) Follow-up The follow-up discussion can be speaking or writing activity (usually speaking). It is a discussion related to the theme of the text. For example after the whales text, ss can be asked to discuss wildlife, protecting the environment, or things that people do on the beach.Listening ActivitySubject: Listening DifficultiesLead-in(OC) Why is listening difficult for learners? - speed - you can’t go back and read - accent - vocab = slang - background noise - acoustics - absence of facial expressions/gestures/body language (paralinguistic clues)Listening for Gist Count the number of problems learners have in listening. |||||| Answer is 6 (OC)Listening for Specific Information List the difficulties 1) word boundaries – connected speech 2) students try to understand every word 3) absence of paralinguistic clues 4) ellipses and redundancies 5) students panic because they cannot control or interrupt 6) lack of purpose: general or specific understandingHandoutStages and Aims of Receptive Skills Lessons (Reading and Listening)Stages Steps Aims(1)Lead-in to get ss interested in the topic and prepare them for the text Set context of the text to help ss tune into what they’re going to listen to/read(2) Pre-Teach to enable ss to have sufficient vocabulary to doVocabulary the tasks you set to prevent ss blocking on key vocabulary central to the topic(3) Gist Task Set initial task To give ss a reason to listen/read at a gist level
students do initial task to allow ss to try and answer the gist questions (gist) individually Students check answers to allow ss to check their answers in a ‘safe’ in pairs (teacher environment monitors) to allow the teacher monitor and see how they did Open class feedback to check answers and see where problems lie(4) Specific Task Set specific task To give ss a reason to listen/read more intensively students do initial task to allow ss to try and answer the specific (gist) questions individually Students check answers to allow ss to check their answers in a ‘safe’ in pairs (teacher environment monitors) to allow the teacher monitor and see how they did Open class feedback to check answers and see where problems lie to allow ss to correct their own errors by referring them to parts of the reading/listening text again(5) Follow-up To exploit the topic of the text for a productive sillActivity (i.e. speaking or writing) or exploit the text for languageReceptive Skills QuestionsIndividually -> PW -> OCAre the following things advisable or not when doing a receptive skills lesson? 1. The students read the text out loud. (no. this is pronunciation drill) 2. The teacher corrects and drills the answers to the comprehension task. (no) 3. The teacher pre-teaches all the vocabulary in the text which students probably won’t understand. (no. limit to 5 essential words) 4. The teacher says, “Ask me any words you don’t know.”. (no) 5. The students predict what the text will be about e.g. by discussing pictures and then read/listen to check. (yes) 6. The students listen or read as many times as they want. (no) 7. The teacher provides a more general, easier task first followed by a more detailed task second. (yes) 8. The teacher gives students the task before they read/listen. (yes) 9. The teacher says, “Just read/listen to get the general idea.” (no) 10. The teacher pauses the recording when students are doing a very intensive task, for example, writing down numbers and addresses from the tape. (yes, because it’s not a test on how fast they can write) 11. The teacher gives students a little time to read the task before they listen. (yes) 12. The teacher refers students back to parts of the tape/reading text in order to get students to correct their mistakes.
Day 5, 8/3/2011Review main concepts (PW -> OC)Instructions (Some points in giving instructions) 1. Eye contact 2. Graded language (script your instructions) 3. Not too many instructions at the same time (staging) 4. Don’t give the handout while talking 5. Use example/demonstration 6. Use Instruction Checking QuestionsMonitory (why it is important) - for linguistic feedback - for highlighting language - make sure everyone is on task - cocktail monitoring with PW - how close: enough to hear but not to distract. From the back or while sitting - Don’t interrupt the flow.Interaction Types - PW - GW - OC - SC - TCTypes of Feedback - Content - LinguisticStages of Situational Presentation (setting the context for receptive skills lesson) - Lead-in (set the context) - Give a story (presentation of language) - Language clarification (meaning, form and pronunciation) - Controlled practice. Think of things you used to do Individually -> PW -> OC - Freer practiceUse timeline for tenses onlyI was watching TV when the phone rang.Concept Checking Questions with tenses - When did the story happen? – in the past - What happened first? – watching the TV - What happened next? – the phone rang - Did I carry on watching the TV? – no
- Why? – to answer the phoneConcept Checking Questions with vocabularyShe crept along the corridor.concept of ‘creep’Key concepts (for the teacher) Concept Checking Questions (for ss)walking slowly Did she move fast or slow?walking quietly Did she make noise?to avoid attention Did she want to be seen/heard?to avoid being seen/heard Did she run? Did she want people to notice her (to personalize) When did you last creep? Why?Types of Concept Checking Questions He crept along the corridor. He crept along the corridor. Display Questions Referential (real) (Teacher knows the answer) (Teacher doesn’t know the answer) Closed Open When was the last time you crept? Did he walk or run? Why do people Did he walk quietly? creep? Did he want people to Can you show me hear him? how you creep?Look at the following concept checking questions for ‘burglar/to burgle’ and decide what kind ofquestions they are. 1. Has someone ever burgled your house? What happened? R 2. What’s the difference between burgle and steal? O 3. What do burglars usually take? O 4. What do people usually do after someone burgles their house? O
5. What might burglar wear? O6. Do they have permission to enter your house? C7. Are there many burglaries where you live? R
Handout Checking Meaning – Concept QuestionsWhen you plan to clarify language, you need to plan to convey the meaning and then check thatstudents understand the meaning. A very important technique is asking concept checking questions. 1. Choose an example of the target language from your context. 2. Break down the meaning of the target language (word/structures) 3. Turn those aspects of meaning into questions, which, if answered correctly, how understanding of the target language.For example: Your TL is personality adjectives, including “shy”. The context is a description ofyour friends. One of them is Sarah, who’s a shy person.Meaning: It’s not easy for Sarah to talk to people. She doesn’t feel comfortable when she talks to new people. Maybe she wants to talk to new people but can’t. She’s not a bad person and she’s not unfriendly.To check understanding of all aspects of the meaning, the teacher asks the questions: Is it easy for Sarah to talk to people? (no) Does she feel OK when she talks to new people? (no) Do you think she wants to talk to new people? (maybe) Is she a bad person? Is she unfriendly? (no)These closed display questions pin down the meaning. The teacher then asks follow-up questions toconsolidate and personalize, e.g. Do you know anyone who is shy? In which situations are they the most shy? Are you ever shy? In which situations?Good concept checking questions… shouldn’t simply re-use the target language, e.g. Do you have to do your homework? doesn’t check ss understand the meaning of “have to”. shouldn’t be the same as eliciting, i.e. the answer to the questions shouldn’t be target language. should be graded so that the language in the questions is simpler than the target language. should initially relate to the context of the target language. should check the target language rather than something else in the sentence. should cover all areas of concept checking and potential confusion. should focus on the meaning of idioms and phrasal verbs rather than breaking them down into individual components. shouldn’t be a guessing game. should be limited in number (usually 2 or 3 is enough) should have clear answers which you need to plan, unless they are the referential questions (e.g. personalized concept checking questions)
Day 6, 7/3/2011Observe teacher teach real studentsNames of studentsLeandroEvonaAdrianeFredricoVeriMaitaAdolphEdgarMiguelCarmenJulia
Day 7, 14/3/2011 Text-Based Presentation Lesson FrameworkThe purpose of this lesson is to explain a grammar point (the difference between Present Perfectand Past Simple). Other purposes of text-based presentation lessons could be to teach a number ofvocabulary items related to a certain subject or theme. The text that the teacher chose to highlightthe target language is talking about university application, so the theme goes in this direction.(1) Lead-in (1.1) Warm-up GW: In two groups, talk about university application and requirements in your country. Teacher was keen to put me (from Egypt) in one group and Lucas (from Poland) in a different group. OC: Discuss answers. Ask individuals to talk about what they found out about other people. (1.2) Set the Context PW: Teacher lays a large piece of paper with large font on the floor in front of the whole class. The paper contains a university application question: In order for the admissions staff of our university to get to know you, the applicant, better, we ask that you answer the following question : Are there any significant experiences you have had, or accomplishments you have realised, that have helped to define you as a person ? Teacher asks ss in pairs to discuss this question. OC: Teacher solicits feedback from ss.(2) Pre-teach Vocabulary Set the vocabulary context. Tell ss that in a moment they will read a student’s answer the university application question, but first we need to look at some words. (1) moulinex. Eliciting. (meaning) Teacher shows ss a picture of a food processor and asks ss what’s in the picture. Ss answer blender, food processor … Teacher asks what’s the brand, and tells us that sometimes people use names of brands instead. Then teacher writes moulinex on the board. (form) teacher asks what type of word this is. then she writes (n) next to it on the board. (pronunciation) teacher says moulinex and says ‘every one’ (choral drilling) then she picks up a couple of people to say the word. (2) spelling bee. Eliciting. (meaning) You know, in the US there is a competition between students to spell words. Do you know what this competition is called? (form) what type of word? (noun). (pronunciation). Choral drilling, individual drilling. (3) stucco. (meaning). Teacher show a picture of stucco. Do you know that this is? (form) what type of word is this? (noun) Is it countable or uncountable? (uncountable). (pronunciation) CD, ID. (freer practice). Did you see any stucco before? Where? (4) frolic. Concept Checking. (meaning) If you go to a mountain you can see a group of lambs frolic up and down. Where can you see children frolic? (form)(pronunciation)
(3) Gist Task Interaction pattern change. Teacher divides class into 3 groups of 3, 3 and 2 people. Chest handout. Teacher says in this sheet there is an answer by a student to the application question you’ve seen earlier. Read it alone and find three interesting achievements. ICQ: How many achievements do you need to find? Handout. I am a dynamic figure, often seen scaling walls and crushing ice. I have been known to remodel train stations on my lunch breaks, making them more efficient in the area of heat retention. I translate ethnic slurs for Kenyan refugees, I write award-winning operas, and manage time efficiently. Occasionally, I tread water for three days in a row. I woo women with my sensuous and godlike trombone playing, I can pilot bicycles up severe inclines with unflagging speed, and I cook thirty Minute Brownies in twenty minutes. I am an expert in stucco, a veteran in love, and an outlaw in Peru. Using only a hoe and a large glass of water, I once single-handedly defended a small village in the Amazon Basin from a horde of ferocious army ants. I play bluegrass cello, I had trials with Manchester United, I am the subject of numerous documentaries. When Im bored, I build large suspension bridges in my garden. I enjoy urban hang gliding. On Wednesdays, after school, I repair electrical appliances free of charge. I am an abstract artist, a concrete analyst, and a ruthless bookie. Critics worldwide swoon over my original line of corduroy evening wear. I dont perspire. I am a private citizen, yet I receive fan mail. I have appeared on Through the Keyhole and won the gold plaque. Last summer I toured Eastern Europe with a traveling centrifugal-force demonstration. I run the 100m in 9.65 secs. My deft floral arrangements have earned me fame in international botany circles. Children trust me. I can hurl tennis rackets at small moving objects with deadly accuracy. I once read Paradise Lost, Moby Dick, and David Copperfield in one day and still had time to refurbish an entire dining room that evening. I know the exact location of every food item in the supermarket. I have performed several covert operations for the CIA. I sleep once a week; when I do sleep, I sleep in a chair. While on vacation in Canada, I successfully negotiated with a group of terrorists who had seized a small bakery. The laws of physics do not apply to me. I balance, I weave, I dodge, I frolic, and my bills are all paid. On weekends, to let off steam, I participate in full-contact origami. Years ago I discovered the meaning of life but forgot to write it down. I have made extraordinary four course meals using only some vegetables and a Breville Toaster. I breed prizewinning clams. I have won bullfights in Madrid, cliff-diving competitions in Sri Lanka, and chess competitions at the Kremlin. I have played Hamlet, I have performed open-heart surgery, and I have spoken with Elvis. But I have not yet gone to this University. GW: Check with your group. OC: Feedbak
(4) Language Clarification MEANING: Explaining the meaning of the grammatical structure (tenses) Teacher picks up three sentences from the text that highlight the target language (Past Simple and Present Perfect) and writes down 4 questions. Instruction, chesting the handout. Interaction pattern: SS -> PW -> OC Handout a) Years ago I discovered the meaning of life but forgot to write it down. b) I have played Hamlet. c) I have spoken with Elvis. In pairs, discuss these questions: (i) When did he discover the meaning of life? (ii) When did he play Hamlet/speak to Elvis? (iii) Is it important when he played Hamlet or spoke to Elvis? (iv) What’s the difference between saying, ‘I have played Hamlet’ and ‘I played Hamlet’? FORM: Explain the form of the grammatical structure. Teacher asks ss to unfold the sheet. Interaction pattern: SS -> PW -> OC Handout In pairs, discuss these questions: (i) PAST SIMPLE discover/forget – which one is regular/irregular? What’s the form of each? (ii) PAST PERFECT Form ______/______ + ________________ PRONUNCAITION. Teacher asks ss “What do you think ss might need help with?” Interaction pattern: SS -> PW -> OCControlled Practice Instruction, chesting the handout. Write the correct form. Handout Have you ever … … (be) sky diving? … (find) money in the street? … (break) a mirror or a window? … (see) an eclipse? … (be) on TV or the radio? … (stay) up to watch a sunrise? … (be) to New York? … (meet) a famous person? … (have) your wallet stolen? … (win) money in the lottery? … (do) graffiti? … (be) mugged? Interaction pattern: SS -> PW -> OC
Freer Practice Interaction pattern: Mingled Activity -> OC Teacher gives each student a card. Each card has one question. Each student should move around in the room and ask people in the room. If the answer is yes, you ask for more details. What tense do you use when you ask for details? Right, past simple. Ss need to remember the most interesting answer to tell the class later. Card Questions Have you ever been sky diving? Have you ever seen an eclipse? Have you ever stayed up to watch a sunrise? Have you ever been to New York? Have you ever met a famous person? Have you ever had your wallet stolen? Have you ever won money in the lottery? Have you ever been mugged?Handout A Text-Based Presentation Lesson FrameworkPlanningChoose/write/record a text through which to introduce the new language. Make sure there aren’tdistractions such as new and complicated grammar or vocabulary.Lesson1) Conduct the beginning of a normal reading/listening lesson Lead-in Pre-teach key vocab (max 3 words) set a gist task, read/listen, check in pairs, feedback.2) Clarification Stage pick out, or get ss to pick out an example of the new language. If appropriate, get ss to come up with more than one example, e.g. ways of expressing likes and dislikes. clarify meaning check meaning clarify form drill pronunciation address appropriacy issues (if necessary)3) Practice target language pre-teach any relevant vocabulary relating to the activity (which wasn’t in the original text) set task ss prepare for task if necessary do task (s/pw/gw) feedback with correction slot if appropriate
Advantages of Text-Based Presentation has very clear (real world) language in a natural context can be very up-to-date if authentic texts are used adds variety to the structure of the lessons there’s a good level of student involvement creates a good balance to the lesson – authentic context + skills practice + language input and practice ss do the work and teacher manages a lot of itDisadvantages of Text-Based Presentation texts need careful selection/creation – for language, interest and relevance it’s possible that other new grammar and vocabulary distract ss from the target language – ss have to understand the text before they can focus on the language it takes time and sometimes means that language practice is compromisedStory Writing ActivityGW: The idea is that you can create your own text for text-based presentation if you cannot find anappropriate authentic text. In two groups teacher asks each group to write a story together. Eachone of them should write the text of the story.Group one: Write a story where you can integrate 7 vocabulary items related to wedding.Group two: write a story where you can use Past Continuous and Past SimpleGroup one story:The stag night was a nightmare. When I woke up I couldn’t find the rings. After a short search Ifound them down the back of the couch. The bride and bridegroom had a row and wanted to cancelthe wedding. As a best man, I met the bride and persuaded her to go ahead. I told her it would be ashame to waste the wedding cake and presents and the dress. In the end we had a lovely weddingparty.Group two story:As I was walking down the street, I heard a young lady crying. Somebody was trying to mug her. Iwent to the lady and shouted to the mugger who ran away. As I was phoning the police the muggercame back with a group of people. We ran away before they attack us.GW: Swap 2 people from each group and give them a chance to read the story of the other group. Phonology LessonLesson Aim The target of the lesson is to allow students understand and use phonemic transcription. Evidence. My target will be achieved if ss can use the phonemic transcription accurately in the freer and controlled practice.Lead-in
Red and blue game Ask student to choose two colors (say red and blue). The reds will sit on chairs in front of the board. The blues will stand behind the reds. There are 4 pieces of paper (containing conversation) stuck on the board. Instructions: The blues will go to the board, read one sentence, go to his/her red partner and tell them the sentence. The reds will write down the sentences. When you come to the middle line of the sheet, the reds and blues will swap places. ICQs. Who is going to read? blues Who is going to write? red When you come to the middle line, what will happen? Sheet: Helen: Hello Ellen. Ellen: Hi Helen. Helen: Did you hear what happened to Henry Higgins yesterday? Ellen: What happened? _____________________________ Helen: He fell of the horse and was taken to hospital. Ellen: I hope it’s not anything serious. Helen: He broke his arm and was in terrible pain. Ellen: I hope he gets well soon.Explain monophthongs Dominos game PW: Give a number of cards to each pair of students and ask them to connect them like dominos. Demonstration: Do one example cat ɑ: father æ weed ɛ: bird ɪExplain diphthongs Two exercises: s -> PW -> OC 1) Write the phonemic symbol next to the word. Students can look on the table on the board. eight /ei/ hair hello house here high fly phone cow enjoy beer noise way there 2) Circle the correct phonemic transcription a. why 1. /wei/ 2. /wai/ 3. /wie/ b. pay c. coin d. beard e. their f. house g. coat h. wait i. now
Explain consonants Freer Practice PW: Write one word in phonemic transcription and ask your partner to read it.Controlled practice 8 flash cards are glued to the wall with blue tack. The card contain questions written in phonemic transcription. Read the question and write the answer. The questions are: 1. What is 3 squared? 2. What is the capital of Australia? 3. Who wrote the Da Venci Code? 4. Where is the sea of tranquility? 5. What is the highest mountain in Europe? 6. Who are the stars in Titanic? 7. Give an example of the first conditional. 8. Who invented the radio? PW: Check your answer with your partner OC: Seek feedback from whole class
HandoutPRONUNCIATION AND THE USE OF THE PHONEMIC CHART1) Why should I use the phonemic chart with students in the class? Familiarisation with the phonemic symbols means that students can become more independent language learners. They can go away and look up pronunciation in the dictionary without needing the teacher to model it for them. When covering language in the class, students are able to note the pronunciation for reference later (either in the lesson or at home). It benefits visual learners who often like to see sounds represented visually as well as hearing them.2) Do I have to teach my students all the symbols? It makes sense to start off looking at sounds that are problematic for a particular group of students, e.g. /b/ and /v/ for Spanish speakers, /v/ and /w/ for German speakers. It’s not a good idea to teach the whole chart to a class in one lesson – it’s better to introduce it gradually as needs dictate. If you’re dealing with a tricky word, you can write the word in symbols above the word on the board (in a different colour) or just the problematic part of the word. After a while students start recognising sounds that come up a lot (i.e. the ones they need to work on)3) Do I have to speak with ‘Received Pronunciation’ English in order to use the chart? Definitely not! The chart should be used to interpret the way that you speak English. It’s unnatural to change the way that you speak. Although in certain dialects it’s useful for students to know what is dialect and what is commonly said by the majority of speakers.4) Will students expect me to know and use the chart? It’s reasonable to expect teachers to have a decent working knowledge of the chart as a tool for clarification of vocabulary. You can ‘sell’ the idea to students by pointing out that it adds another dimension to independent dictionary use.
TP1 Feedback Don’t use connected writing on the board Sit down more Voice was too loud for the small number of students Be careful with correct language modelling Be natural with pronunciation drilling
Day 10, 21/3/2011 Focus on VocabularyWhen do we need to teach vocabulary? 1. In pre-teach for receptive skills lessons (max 5) 2. In vocabulary lesson (max 7) 3. Before tasks if they include a difficult word.What is the word activity (GW -> OC)Words are written on cards with letters in random order, for example ‘register’ is written as‘rgeesrit’Each group is given 9 cards, one person holds the card and the other try to guess the word. Thegroup that finishes first says ‘stop the bus’The 9 words connected to vocabulary are: register (formal or informal) spelling form example connotation (positive or negative) synonyms pronunciation collocation meaningDecide if this clarification of meaning is student-centred or teacher centred. 1. Write words on the board (TC) 2. Elicit with realia/picture/anecdote (TC) 3. Contextualize the target language in reading text. Discuss meaning in pairs. 4. Put all words on the board, students match to pics/definitions (SC) 5. Test-teach-test (SC) 6. Categorize: inside/outside (SC) 7. Words on cards (SC)
handout Ways of Teaching Vocabulary Teacher-centred Student-centredVisual aids, e.g. pictures, diagrams, realia Matching words to pictures/labelling diagramsMime Gapfill with/without list of wordsEliciting from a situation/story Matching oppositesUsing synonyms and antonyms Brainstorming meaning in pairs or groupsEliciting headword from examples of types, e.g. Matching words to definitionshammer, screwdriver – toolsLabelling a cline (e.g. freezing cold, warm, hot, Deducing meaning from context (in a reading orboiling) listening text)Giving examples Giving examplesBuilding word families, e.g. fright, frighten, Explaining differences between similar wordsfrightenedBuilding lexical sets, e.g. car, train, plane Sorting words into know/not sure/don’t know categoriesSome other considerations with planning a vocabulary lesson: When selecting vocabulary, you need to consider the following criteria: o Frequency of use o Range – how many contexts can it be used in? o Usefulness to learners’ needs o Whether it is for active or passive use Learners need to be actively involved in learning new vocabulary. Memory of new words can be reinforced if it is used in a personally relevant way. Learners need to record vocabulary in a meaningful context – they need to write a definition, not just a translation of the word. They also need to learn and note new words in phrases (with dependent prepositions and collocations) not in isolation. Learners need to revisit a word at least seven times before they can remember it completely.<<You need to vary technique and make process as learner centred as possible>>
Eliciting vocabulary activityTeacher explains that she is going to ask us to guess 10 words and mark the first letter of each word. What teacher does Word Initial lettershows a picture of a volcano volcano VDraws a picture of an octopus octopus Omimes sitting on her toes crouching Csynonyms: what is a word like arrogant Aconceitedmimes: putting her hand under below/beneath Bthe tablerealia: shows an umbrella umbrella Uanecdote: tells us about her leaking Lfriend whose neighbourupstairs leaves the tap open andso the ceiling is …Examples: What is ‘Brave Action films AHeart’, ‘Gladiator’cline: teacher draws a scale on rarely Rthe table with ‘always’ on topand ‘never’ on bottom and putsa mark near to ‘never’antonym: what is the opposite young Yof oldQuiz for training teachers:How best to teach these vocabulary itemsembarrassed anecdotereluctantbutcher visualwardrobea tiny bit mimeover/underupset mimeto limpa jugglermean/generous synonymsbaggy/loosepencil/elbow realiaavocadowrinkled visualfur coatmoustache/beard drawprawn
Handout Stages and Aims for a Vocabulary Lesson Stage AimLead-in To generate interest in the context/topic related to the target vocabulary.Set Context To enable ss to hear/see the language in contextFocus on Meaning To convey and check ss’ understanding of the target languageFocus on Form To highlight form issuesFocus on Pronunciation To model and drill the target language so that ss can confidently use it when speaking.Controlled Practice To give ss practice in the target language and to focus on accuracyFreer Practice To give ss practice in the target language in a wider, more authentic context and to focus on fluency
handout Checklist for Teaching Vocabulary 2) What problems could ss have with the meaning of the word? 3) What about problems with form? Consider: part of speech (sometimes both a verb and a noun) prefix/suffix collocations L1 interference irregularities e.g. one fish (singular), two fish (plural) countable/uncountable or both (e.g. coffee) compounds – are they written as one word, e.g. weekend; two words with a hyphen, e.g. heavy-set or two words, e.g. shoe shop. consider also homonyms, e.g. bank/bank; homophones, e.g. flower/flour; homographs, e.g. windy/windy. 4) What problems might ss have with pronunciation? Consider: sound vs spelling word stress L1 Interference changes in the plural, e.g. woman/women changes as a result of word type, e.g. record/record 5) Appropriacy – is the word formal/colloquial/slang? (e.g. tired/knackered) 6) Des the word have a negative/positive/neutral connotation? (e.g. slim/skinny) 7) Is there a US/UK equivalent? 8) Does the word have any synonyms/opposites? 9) Could the word be easily confused with other words? 10) Can you put the word in an example sentence? 11) How are you going to convey the meaning of the word to ss? 12) How are you going to check that the word has been understood?
Mingled activityGive each student a card with different question, e.g.Are you a friends person or family person?Are you a beer person or wine person?Are you a crisps person or cake person?
Learner Style See ScannedDocs/HO3_Vocabulary&LearnerStyles.pdfFacts that affect the learning processThe learner Learning Context Language cultural background group size L1 interference personality time of the day Alphabet learner style length of the course sounds - visual L1 environment - auditory L2 - kinaesthetic previous learning experience education age reason for learning motivation: extrinsic/intrinsic sexImplications of learning styles on teaching 1. Instructions not clear (A) 2. Too much TTT (A) 3. Lack of handouts (A) 4. Insisting on silence (A) 5. Writing everything on the board (V) 6. Too much movement (K) 7. Lack of variety (VAK)
28/3/2011Activity for introductionTell us your name and something nice that you did last week. Anticipated Problem see ScannedDocs/HO4_AnticipatedProblem&ErrorCorrection.pdfAnticipated problems 1. Blocking vocabulary 2. Students read word for word 3. Students take too long 4. Students not interested in the text(Activity) Questions on a handout and discuss with your partner When I was at school, - When my classmates made mistakes, I felt ………….. - When I made mistakes, I felt …………….. - When the teacher corrected me, I felt, …………….. - The way I like a teacher to correct me is for them to ……………………Types of student errors 1. Failure in rule application 2. Tense concept 3. Vocabulary misuseWhy students make errors 1. habits: fossilization 2. bad teaching 3. slip 4. overgeneralization 5. culture awareness 6. careless 7. mishearing 8. new infoError correction techniques: see handout.Among the methods of error correction is ‘reformulation’ when a student says the wrongpronunciation and you repeat the word with the correct pronunciation.
Ideas for clarification of meaning that are more student-centredIdea 1I traced the paw prints to my dog.What do you think the underlined word means? Discuss in pairs.Idea 2Match the form to the meaning1. I’m going to study. a. a timetable for future events2. It will be a great game. b. a future intention3. They are taking me to the airport. c. an arrangement4. The train leaves at 6:00. d. a prediction based on opinion (no evidence)
Guided Discovery see ScannedDocs/HO5_GuidedDiscovery.pdfA guided discovery lesson plan is used with language lessons (grammar/vocabulary)Advantages of guided discovery approach 1. student-centred 2. no lecture mode 3. cuts down TTT 4. more engaging 5. students do everything 6. students teach pair studentsSummary of techniques for guided discoveryWhich technique you use will depend on the language you are teaching. Match example sentences to explanations Odd one out: examples / rules Complete a table: e.g. spelling rules for comparatives. Timelines: label the parts of the timeline / match to example / match to explanations Match example sentences to visuals/diagrams Complete the rule (gapfil) Choose the correct rule (circle or tick) Cline – put language in order, e.g. adverbs of frequency (often, sometimes, rarely, never) Concept checking questions on handout Guiding questionsRemember that students need to be able to refer to contextualized examples in order to analyse thelanguage.
Controlled Practice see ScannedDocs/HO6_ControlledPractice.pdf- The focus is on accuracy- The teacher is in control- There are clear answers for the questions, although there can be more than one valid answer.Activity: PelmanismPelmanism: Matching card while they are facing down. Turn two cards and if they are not matchingput them back in their places facing down again. It relies on memory to find out where cards are.Activity: Find the differenceSee handout. Each partner takes a different picture and using description with your partner try tofind 7 differences. The pair that finishes first wins.Activity: Disappearing dialoguesA: is a shop assistantB: is a customerThe teacher acted the dialogue and we had to guess what each participant said. Then she wrote thedialog on the boardA: Hello! Can I help you?B: I’d like an ipod in a lovely red colour, please!A: I’m sorry, we only have them in black or white.B: OK, I’ll have the black one. How much is that?A: That’ll be EUR 300 please.B: EUR 300! Are you kidding?A: No.B: I’ll leave it.A: ByeDivide class into two groups. One group says A and one group says B. Rub a line each time and letthem say the dialogue, until all the dialogue and they say it all from their heads.Activity: Coffee potThink of a verb in your head and don’t say it to any one.Students in the class will as you max 10 questions to help them guess the verb.Example: Do you coffee pot everyday? Do you like coffee potting? Where do you usually coffee pot?Carmel: singDarren: descendThis activity can be used to practice question making and tenses.Control the language in a controlled practice. 1. Give example by answering the first question/ or demonstration if it is
a different activity2. Clear instructions3. Make it suit their learning styles4. Put an element of competitionActivity: Information GapA: The Titanic was built in Belfast.B: The Titanic was built in ……….Ask your partner some questions to try to find the missing information.
Authentic Text See ScannedDocs/HO7_ReceptiveSkills&ProductiveSkills.pdfAdvantages and disadvantages of using authentic texts: cultural references not known to the group The text is interesting and relevant now. connects to the real world structures not introduced to students confidence in facing real world motivating gives information transfer skills independent teacher needs to grade the task not the language Productive Skills see above handoutActivityGive one sentence to each student. Read your sentence and hide it. One topic for each pair. Put in your sentence without your partner noticing. Try to guess your partner’s sentence.My sentence: It’s all down to global warming.Topic: Family.Decide if focus is on accuracy or fluency Find someone who… (Acc) Practice a tongue twister. (Acc) Acting out a scripted dialogue. (Acc) Talking about how they felt about the lesson. (Fl) Talking about their weekend. (Fl) Answering teacher’s CCQs. (Acc) Giving a pre-prepared presentation. (Acc) Describing person who has inspired them. (Fl) In pairs, describe a picture to find 10 differences. (Acc) Role-playing a conversation with a stranger at a bus stop. (Fl)Advantages of fluency activities: Students use all the language at their disposal. promotes creativity and experimentation pushes students and builds confidenceWhy are fluency activity important? - To cope with real-life situations.Why do students sometimes not talk?- shyness, not interested, not engaged, confidence, and cultureHow can we make freer speaking activities more successful?- making the topic personalized, choosing a topic that they are interested in, encouragement, providing safe learning environment.
Activity: SpeakingMatch-makingGive student 4 pictures of males and 4 pictures of females.Give them a thinking time: tell them to think about the person they have in the picture, what age they are, what they do, what their hobbies are, their personality, etc.Let the people with female pictures sit in the inner circle facing outside.Let the people with male pictures sit in the outer circle facing the inner circle.Talk to your partner for 2 minutes and see if they are matching.Outer circle moves one space to the right until they meet everyone in the inner circle.At the end see which are the matching couples.
Writing see ScannedDocs/HO9_Writing028.pdf Audience Purpose Genre Language (formal or informal) informal greetings: hi informal abbreviations: hol for holiday informal ellipsis: Hope you had a great time. All fine here. colloquial language: TaFormal invitation set layout/structure set phrases/expressions: … are delighted to invite … to join with them in the celebration of their marriageStages in a writing lesson 1. Lead-in: guess the place in the postcards 2. Pre-teach: tasty 3. Gist task: Read this postcard from Carmel to her friend and decide if you like to go on holiday to this place and why. 4. Genre analysis: a. content: topics (weather, food, location, people), b. language: adjectives to describe the weather, food, location and people), see handout 5. Motivation to write: Visualization: close your eyes and think of a place to go on holiday. Give them time to think. Think of the places you visited, the food that you ate, the people that you met, etc. 6. Writing task: Audience: to Carmel. Purpose: tell her about your holiday. Genre: Postcard. Tell them to write carefully as it will be read by other students. 10 minutes, active monitoring. Walk around behind students. 7. Follow up task. Hang postcards with blue tac around the room. Ask student to go around read the postcards and decide, next to your own which place do you want to go on holiday. 8. Feedback. Content feedback and linguistic feedback.
Activity: snail race the pictures of snails stuck on the board divide class into three teams, one runner and the rest are sitters Each team chooses one snail. have 6 questions written on flash cards placed on the floor next to the teacherThe runner runs to get a question card and takes it back to the team. They discuss the answer. The runner goes and tells the teacher the answer. If correct the snail moves one step on the board. If wrong the runner puts it back and takes another card.Sample questions are:1 – used to express something already arranged in the future. – present continuous2 – used to express something that happened in the past with connection to the future. presentperfect3 – used to express something done/not done in the past which is wrong. should/shouldn’t havedone a b c d e fSamSuzySandy
Activity: matching cardsPairworkCards are in two different colours: say read and green. Read contains the target language and green contains an example Relative pronouns who, which Passive be + past participle future perfect continuous In 2020, more people will be learning EnglishActivity: Answer the questionsDivide into two groups. Give each group 7 cards with 7 questions. Each group has different questions than the other group. Each person in the group write the question and the answers. They discuss the answer together to make sure it is the right answer.After they finish each group thinks of two more difficult question from their own.After they finish, the first group is divided ABCD, and the second group is divided ABCD. The all the As go together, Bs, together, etc.In the new pairs each student will test the other student with his questions, if they don’t know the answer they explain it to him.Examples of questions:1 – give adjectives of frequency ever, never, always2 – Give 2 verbs that are followed by to want, try3 – one example of comparative and superlative better, best4 – What are the articles in English? a, an, the5 – What are phrasal verbs made out of? verb + adverb6 – Give 2 verbs that are followed by –ing start, stop7 – What is the difference between past simple and past participle----1 – What is the difference between must and have to (intrinsic, extrinsic obligation)2 – What is the negative of must