Reprogramming Piaget:  A Developmental Look at ICT and 21 st  Century Learning SITE Conference 2006 Authors: Mechelle De C...
“ Piaget found the secrets  of human learning  and knowledge  hidden behind the cute  and seemingly illogical notions of c...
Imagine if Piaget were alive today.   <ul><li>What would he think of technology… </li></ul><ul><li>in our 21 st  Century <...
Techno-Epistemology <ul><li>What manipulatives would he use to explore cognition relating to technology? </li></ul><ul><li...
Purpose <ul><li>Our preliminary research examines the ways in which children acquire the skills and concepts of Informatio...
Rational for Reprogramming: <ul><li>Students have usurped their teachers’ traditional Piagetian paradigm. </li></ul><ul><l...
Rational: So why  Piaget? <ul><li>“ Pragmatic Transformation clearly embodies a characteristic aspect of technology, and a...
Research Questions <ul><li>Q1: What is the relationship between Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory and 21 st  Century L...
Methodology <ul><li>In the same way that Piaget observed his children to glean valuable information regarding development,...
A Theory in Progress <ul><li>The provisional name of our hypothesis-in-progress is provisionally titled Cybernetic Develop...
Sensorimotor (Typically Birth-Age 2)   <ul><li>This stage typically extends from birth to the acquisition of language. </l...
Sensorimotor (Interface) <ul><li>First Contact…computer interface begins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple reflex activity exhi...
Sensorimotor (Skills & Schemas) <ul><li>Circular Reactions (Primary & Secondary) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematic movement...
Sensorimotor (Skills & Schemas) <ul><li>Coordination of Secondary Schemas </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  Appearance of Intent...
Pre-operational (Typically ages 2-7) <ul><li>The individual acquires language and symbolic functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Th...
Pre-operational ICT Skills & Schemas: <ul><li>Basic keyboarding skills </li></ul><ul><li>Hunt-and-Peck </li></ul><ul><li>U...
Pre-operational (cont.) <ul><li>Schemas for Desktop Icons emerge </li></ul><ul><li>Basic E-mail (e.g. replying to grandma)...
Concrete (Typically Ages 7-11) <ul><li>The individual develops conservation skills </li></ul><ul><li>Mental Operations are...
Concrete (Skills & Schemas) <ul><li>Full keyboarding skills including function, number, and command keys </li></ul><ul><li...
Concrete (Skills & Schemas) <ul><li>Procedure/Rules oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. typically follows the school’s Acc...
Concrete (Skills & Schemas) <ul><li>Cooperative Computer Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. sharing computer with classm...
Formal (Typically Age 11 & Up) <ul><li>Piaget (1958) contended that not everyone will achieve Formal Operations.  </li></u...
Formal (Skills & Schemas) <ul><li>Questioning whether information gleaned on the Internet is a valid resource. </li></ul><...
Formal (Skills & Schemas) <ul><li>Innovative Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. nanotech </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cyber Ident...
Educational Implications <ul><li>This model is “kid-driven” (i.e. student centered) rather than teacher-centered. </li></u...
Educational Implications <ul><li>Teachers cognizance of student interface behavior is important. </li></ul><ul><li>Student...
Further Research If you are interested in collaborating, please leave your contact information.
Conclusion <ul><li>Piaget asserted,  “The current state of knowledge is a movement in history, changing just as rapidly as...
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Cybernetic Developmental Theory

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This PowerPoint is from part of our presentation at the Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education (SITE) in 2006.

It is a framework for which teachers can understand how children learn computer skills and the schemas they develop.

On this PowerPoint I had to take out the pictures to post on the web. Therefore, it is a bit uniform looking, but the points are still there.

I would love to get some feedback from fellow teachers.

Kind Regards,
Mechelle

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Cybernetic Developmental Theory

  1. 1. Reprogramming Piaget: A Developmental Look at ICT and 21 st Century Learning SITE Conference 2006 Authors: Mechelle De Craene M.Ed. and John Cuthell Ph.D.
  2. 2. “ Piaget found the secrets of human learning and knowledge hidden behind the cute and seemingly illogical notions of children.” -Seymour Papert
  3. 3. Imagine if Piaget were alive today. <ul><li>What would he think of technology… </li></ul><ul><li>in our 21 st Century </li></ul><ul><li>schools today? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Techno-Epistemology <ul><li>What manipulatives would he use to explore cognition relating to technology? </li></ul><ul><li>What curiosities would he have only to be discovered through the eyes of Cyberkids? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Purpose <ul><li>Our preliminary research examines the ways in which children acquire the skills and concepts of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Rational for Reprogramming: <ul><li>Students have usurped their teachers’ traditional Piagetian paradigm. </li></ul><ul><li>Watch a child and you will see that digital acquisition is largely and unschool phenomenon. </li></ul><ul><li>Education in the 21st Century is “flattening” due to global technologies. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Rational: So why Piaget? <ul><li>“ Pragmatic Transformation clearly embodies a characteristic aspect of technology, and a theory of pragmatic subject would certainly be welcome for technology education. Yet, this area of neo-Piagetian research appears, up to now, to have yielded only scant,even if interesting results” (Verillon, 2000). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Research Questions <ul><li>Q1: What is the relationship between Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory and 21 st Century Learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Q2: How do children acquire technology skills? </li></ul><ul><li>Q3: What schemas do children hold regarding ICT? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Methodology <ul><li>In the same way that Piaget observed his children to glean valuable information regarding development, we’ve been observing children and how they relate to technology. </li></ul><ul><li>In short, we’ve matched detailed observations of learners using ICT to Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory. </li></ul>
  10. 10. A Theory in Progress <ul><li>The provisional name of our hypothesis-in-progress is provisionally titled Cybernetic Developmental Theory, which explains how technology skills and schemas can be viewed through a Piagetian Perspective. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sensorimotor (Typically Birth-Age 2) <ul><li>This stage typically extends from birth to the acquisition of language. </li></ul><ul><li>The individual passes through six substages. </li></ul><ul><li>Two major themes preside: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) Causality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) Object Permanence </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Sensorimotor (Interface) <ul><li>First Contact…computer interface begins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple reflex activity exhibited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. baby mouths corner of laptop or mouse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Playing with the keys </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sensorimotor schemas are exercised </li></ul><ul><li>Setting up ergonomical schema between self and artifact </li></ul>
  13. 13. Sensorimotor (Skills & Schemas) <ul><li>Circular Reactions (Primary & Secondary) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematic movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grasping </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scratching the mouse pad </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Swirling mouse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repetitive playing with the keys </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repetitive movements of self and artifact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(e.g. Baby repeatedly drops mouse to see parents pick it up). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall Navigational Exploration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clicking on various icons to see morphology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scrolling up and down to watch the hypertext blur </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Sensorimotor (Skills & Schemas) <ul><li>Coordination of Secondary Schemas </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Appearance of Intentionality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two or more schemas combine to obtain a goal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Click and drag a virtual puzzle </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Coloring with a virtual paintbrush </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiary Circular Reactions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trail and Error </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Causality </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intention of new means through Mental Combination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Object Permanence </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. “Losing Our Virtual Marbles Experiment” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Pre-operational (Typically ages 2-7) <ul><li>The individual acquires language and symbolic functions. </li></ul><ul><li>The individual understands the world through ego-centrism and magical thinking rather than logic. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Pre-operational ICT Skills & Schemas: <ul><li>Basic keyboarding skills </li></ul><ul><li>Hunt-and-Peck </li></ul><ul><li>Using the toolbar </li></ul><ul><li>Keyword Searching </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(e.g. via Google) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Familiarity with School Reading & Math Programs </li></ul>
  17. 17. Pre-operational (cont.) <ul><li>Schemas for Desktop Icons emerge </li></ul><ul><li>Basic E-mail (e.g. replying to grandma) </li></ul><ul><li>Internet schema emerges (I.e. from a thing to a place) </li></ul><ul><li>Animation & Magical Thinking (i.e. computers have feelings) </li></ul><ul><li>Solo game-play (e.g. Pokemon) </li></ul><ul><li>Egocentric Cybertime Schema </li></ul>
  18. 18. Concrete (Typically Ages 7-11) <ul><li>The individual develops conservation skills </li></ul><ul><li>Mental Operations are applied to real (concrete) objects or events </li></ul>
  19. 19. Concrete (Skills & Schemas) <ul><li>Full keyboarding skills including function, number, and command keys </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of skills and task needs </li></ul><ul><li>Reversibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Back/Forward Arrow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut & Past </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conservation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saving & transferring information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Desktop to memory stick, Internet to iPod </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Schema that computer game characters can morph, die and come back to original state </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Concrete (Skills & Schemas) <ul><li>Procedure/Rules oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. typically follows the school’s Acceptable User Policy (AUP) with little question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. believes bootlegging music is “wrong” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Believing that everything online is a valid academic resource </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. citing a blog in a science paper </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Concrete (Skills & Schemas) <ul><li>Cooperative Computer Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. sharing computer with classmate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefers Multiple Player Computer Games </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Schema that Cyberspace Time is simultaneous </li></ul>
  22. 22. Formal (Typically Age 11 & Up) <ul><li>Piaget (1958) contended that not everyone will achieve Formal Operations. </li></ul><ul><li>During this period, individuals can think abstractly, formulate hypothesis, use both inductive and deductive reasoning and check solutions. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Formal (Skills & Schemas) <ul><li>Questioning whether information gleaned on the Internet is a valid resource. </li></ul><ul><li>Inference-Making </li></ul><ul><li>Questions and may challenge rules </li></ul><ul><li>Automaticity </li></ul><ul><li>NetSpeak </li></ul><ul><li>Subordination of technology to the needs and creativity of the user </li></ul><ul><li>Programming </li></ul>
  24. 24. Formal (Skills & Schemas) <ul><li>Innovative Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. nanotech </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cyber Identity Formation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Postmodern Cyborgs Identity Schema </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Schema tech & global citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Participation and sense of belong to a Virtual Community </li></ul><ul><li>Schema of “Flattening Effect” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. The World is Flat (Friedman, 2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Artificial Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Altruism </li></ul>
  25. 25. Educational Implications <ul><li>This model is “kid-driven” (i.e. student centered) rather than teacher-centered. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a developmental model to help educators understand cognitive development related to ICT, not an Instructional/Curricular Model. </li></ul><ul><li>The Digital Divide Exists and impedes 21 st Century Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Perspectives via ICT are important for every classroom. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Educational Implications <ul><li>Teachers cognizance of student interface behavior is important. </li></ul><ul><li>Students will special needs have been observed and show atypical development relating to ICT. </li></ul><ul><li>Precarious judgements related to students’ potential technical abilities do not serve the student well. </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of ICT in special needs classrooms should not be forgotten. ICT is a valuable asset in serving the diverse learning styles of our students with special needs (e.g. CAST). </li></ul><ul><li>Education in the 21 st Century is going global via ICT. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Further Research If you are interested in collaborating, please leave your contact information.
  28. 28. Conclusion <ul><li>Piaget asserted, “The current state of knowledge is a movement in history, changing just as rapidly as the state of knowledge in the past has ever changed, and in many instances more rapidly.” Thus, shouldn’t our developmental frameworks evolve to embrace ICT for 21 st Century Learning? </li></ul>

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