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- 1. SPM Physics 2009.Speed Distance / Time takenVelocity Displacement / Time takenNewton’s First Law of Object will remain moving / rest unless acted byMotion (Inertia) unbalance foreMomentum Product of mass and velocity. mvConservation of If there’s a collision, initial momentum = finalmomentum momentumBalanced force Do not affect an object’s motion. Eg, Engine speed up the car, air resistance slow down the car. But the force is balance. Therefore, car move in constant speed & direction.Unbalanced force Affect an object’s motion.Newton’s Second Law Acceleration directly proportional to net force butof Motion inversely proportional to mass. F=maImpulsive force Rate of change of momentumImpulse Change in momentumEquilibrium force Zero net forceWork Product of applied force and displacement. W=FsConservation of energy Energy can transform from one kind to anotherHooke’s Law Force applied to a spring is directly proportional to spring extensionPressure Force / AreaPascal’s Principle Force applied = force produced . FA=FAArchimedes Principle Buoyant force = Fluid displaced by objectBernoulli’s Principle When speed increase, pressure decreaseThermal equilibrium No net heat flowSpecific heat capacity Amount of heat needed to change temperature of 1 kg by 1 KBoyle’s Law Pressure increase, volume decrease (inversely proportional) PVCharles’ Law Volume increase, temperature increase (directly proportional) V/TPressure Law Pressure increase, temperature increase (directly proportional) P/TDamping Oscillating system that loses energy to the surroundingReflection of wave Constant frequency, wavelength, speedRefraction of wave Constant frequency. Change wavelength and speed. *in deep area, longer wavelength and less speedDiffraction of wave Constant frequency, wavelength, speed. Only direction of propagation changed.Coherent wave Same wavelength, frequencyInterference Two wave meetsSound wave AmpLitude – Louder Frequency – Pitch Electromagnetic Range of low frequency to high frequency spectrum Ohm’s Law Current is directly proportional to potential difference Circuits Series Circuit Parallel CircuitIman’s Property 2009
- 2. I=I=I I=I+I V=V+V V=V=V R=R+R 1/R=1/R+1/RElectromotive force (V) Work done by cellElectromagnet Magnet made by winding a coil round a soft iron core. Magnetic force is produced when current passed thru the coil.Induced current When a wire cuts magnetic fluxLenz’s Law Direction of induced current will opposedFaraday’s Law Magnitude of induced current is directly proportional to the rate of cutting the magnetic fluxDirect current Current which flow in one directionAlternating current Current that flows to and fro in two opposite directionThermionic emission Emission of electron when a metal surface is heatedDoping Adding impurities to semiconductor to increase their conductivityRectification Using diode to convert alternating current into direct currentCapacitor To maintain a steady output voltage. (smoothing the capacitor)Transistor Amplify small currentLogic gate Digital circuit that design to make decisionNucleon number Total proton & neutrons. Known as mass number.Isotopes Same proton, different nucleonRadioactivity Natural disintegration of unstable nucleusRadioisotopes Unstable isotopes that give out radioactivity emissionsNuclear fission Splitting a heavy nucleus into two lighter nucleiNuclear fusion Combining of two lighter nuclei to form heavier nucleusIman’s Property 2009

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