Electricity and Magnetism


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Electricity and Magnetism

  1. 1. Magnetism is the property of changed particles in motion due to the spin of electrons within the atoms. It is a property of materials that respond to an applied magnetic field.
  2. 2. Electromagnetism is the study of the interaction between electrically charged particles and magnetic fields.
  3. 3. A magnet is an object that can attract or repel pieces of materials with magnetic properties. The magnetic field is the area that a magnet influences.
  4. 4. RetentivityAbility of a magnetic material to retain itsmagnetism after it has been magnetized
  5. 5. Magnets were named after Magnesia, in Asia Minor, where the Greeks discovered metallic rocks that could attract metal and other rocks.Early peoples called magnets lodestones. These stones were used in navigation as compasses, therefore they were called lodestones, from the words lode (meaning course or way) and stone.
  6. 6. Classification of Different Magnetic Materials1. Ferro Magnetic- Substances that are highly attracted by magnets2. Non-Ferro Magnetic – non-magnetic substance3. Diamagnetic – materials are slightly repelled by a magnet4. Paramagnetic – slightly attracted by powerful magnets
  7. 7. Classification of Magnets2. Natural3. Artificial4. Electromagnet
  8. 8. General Properties of Magnets1. Magnets usually have two poles2. Like magnetic poles repel and unlike poles attract3. A piece of magnetite when made to hang freely would align itself with the magnetite field of the earth following the N.S. direction4. Permanent magnets are magnets made from alloys of cobalt and nickel5. Other metal like iron can be magnetized by interaction
  9. 9. Causes of Magnetism1. Molecular Theory2. Electron Theory3. An electron revolving around the nucleus gives the atom a magnetic property4. The electron opening at its own axis becomes a tiny permanent magnet
  10. 10. Scientists with ImportantContributions to the Field of Electromagnetism
  11. 11. Hans Christian OerstedDanish scientist who proved the relationship between magnetism and electricity
  12. 12. William GilbertThe scientist who made the earliest investigation to the discovery of the many properties of natural and artificial magnets
  13. 13. Andre Marie AmpereFormulated laws on electromagnetic forces based on his experiments
  14. 14. Heinrich Friedrich Emil LenzFormulated Lenz’s law, for determining the sign and direction of an induced current or voltage.
  15. 15. Michael FaradayDiscovered electromagnetic induction.
  16. 16. Laws ConcerningElectromagnetism
  17. 17. Lenz’s LawThe direction of an induced current (andhence, induced voltage) is opposite thedirection of what causes it.
  18. 18. Faraday’s LawThe induced EMF in a coil is proportional to the product of the number of loops and the rate at which the magnetic flux changes within the loops.
  19. 19. Coulomb’s Law of MagnetismThe force between two magnetic poles isdirectly proportional to the products of thestrength of the poles and inversely proportionalto the square of the distance between them.
  20. 20. Right Hand Rule Point the fingers to the direction of the magnetic field and the thumb to the direction of the velocity of a positive charge. The palm then points to the direction of the force on the charge.
  21. 21. Applications of Electromagnetism
  22. 22. SemiconductorsA substance that allows only little current to pass through.
  23. 23. InsulatorsMaterials that resist the flow of charged particles.
  24. 24. SuperconductorsMaterials thatoffer zeroresistance to theflow of electriccurrent.
  25. 25. GeneratorConverts electrical mechanical energy into electrical energy.
  26. 26. Commutator – used to produce Armature – also known as direct current in a generator. rotor, part which carries the coil.
  27. 27. Stator – the stationary parts of a Dynamo – electromagnet in a generator. direct current generator.
  28. 28. Alternator- the electromagnet in an alternating current generator. Produces polyphase AC.
  29. 29. TransformerA transformer is an device that converts voltages from one magnitude to another.
  30. 30. Types of TransformersA step-up transformer A step-down converts to a higher transformer converts to voltage rating. a lower voltage rating.
  31. 31. MotorConverts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
  32. 32. Electromagnetic InductionThe generation of an electromotive force and current by a changing magnetic field.
  33. 33. Ways of Generating andDistributing Electric Energy
  34. 34. Power PlantAny system used to generate mechanical or electrical power plant that can be utilized to perform work.
  35. 35. Hydroelectric Power PlantsConverts the energy of falling water from dams into electric energy.
  36. 36. Geothermal Power PlantsUtilizes energy from the heat beneath the Earth’s surface to generate electricity,
  37. 37. Solar Power PlantsHarnesses energy that comes from the sun.
  38. 38. Fossil FuelsMade up of decomposed plant and animal matter formed many hundreds of millions of years ago.
  39. 39. Forms of Fossil Fuel•Coal•Natural Gas•Oil
  40. 40. Liquefied Petroleum GasBy-product produced during the oil refining process.
  41. 41. BiodieselAgriculture based-product made from vegetable oil and animal fat.
  42. 42. Process of Charging1. Conduction – charging by contact between the neutrals body and the charging body2. Induction – does not involver contact between the neutral body and the charging body
  43. 43. ElectroscopeDevice for determining the kind of charge of abody
  44. 44. Electric PotentialScalar quantity equivalent to voltage
  45. 45. CapacitanceAbility of the capacitor to store charges
  46. 46. Different Uses of MagnetismA. Magnetic Memo HolderB. Washing MachineC. RefrigeratorD. Electric FansE. Loud Speaker
  47. 47. Uses of Electromagnet1. Doorbell2. Electric Motor3. Generators4. Telegraphs5. Microphones, Earphones6. Lifting heavy pieces of scrap iron
  48. 48. Project in Physics
  49. 49. Presented by: Mark Oliver Ian C. Delos Reyes Pia Marie V. Alhambra Mary Justleene C. Calara Ma. Angelica T. Castro Vanessa C. Chua