2.  Learn more about Dr. Schlesinger here: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/01/washington/01schlesinger.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 He was a famous American historian. He served as a special assistant to President John F. Kennedy from 1961-1963 and worked for the Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. Presidential campaign. He was the national chairman of the ADA from 1953 to 1954 and he was also a two-time Pulitzer prize winner (the Age of Jackson in 1946 and A Thousand Days in 1966). As multiculturalism emerged, he became one of its biggest opponents, which resulted in his 1991 book The Disuniting of America, which has since been revised.
3.  How can multiculturalism hinder the development of a cohesive American identity? What are the possible hazards of teaching ethnocentric history? What are the differences between cultural pluralism versus multiculturalism? What are some reasons why an ethnic minority would cling to what Eric Hosbawn calls “the invention of tradition”? If assimilation is a two-way street, what should be the roles of those in the ethnic majority and ethnic minority? What are the implications for teacher’s and classrooms? What role does self esteem play in performance and achievement?
4.  According to Schlesinger, what are the main differences between Cultural Pluralism and Multiculturalism? Which one is damaging to the American identity? Why?
5.  Why does Schlesinger reject multicultural? Schlesinger claims that it stands in the way of forming one collective American identity as we will begin to concentrate more on how we are different then how we are alike Why does Schlesinger reject Afrocentrism? It is bad history as it is inaccurate information The very teaching of it separates students into ethnic categories and keeps them from identifying themselves as American No form of ethnocentrism should be tolerated. (Schlesinger, 1992)
6.  What the following Schlesinger interview below:http://www.c-spanvideo.org/clip/4077828Do you agree with Schlesinger’s“ethnic cheerleading” remark?Why or why not?
7.  Is a perspective of history that emphasizes or promotes emphasis on African culture and “contributions of Africans to the development of Western civilization.” (“afrocentric,” Merriam-Webster Dictionary) It developed as a reaction to what was thought to be a Eurocentric worldview of history. The validity of some of the claims made by the historians in the Afrocentric school of thought have raised some serious questions. Here are some instances in which teachers and historians alike have debated over this historical perspective:
8. A Teacher’s Look on Afrocentrismhttp://www.adi.org/journal/fw94/Editorial-JohnsonFall1994.pdf
9. Afrocentrism: Balancing or Skewing History? http://www.nytimes.com/1991/08/11/us/afrocentrism-balancing-or- skewing-history.html
10. Reason vs. Race-based Schools : The Canadian Debatehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=llqN07FWbHY&feature=relmfu
11. According to what wehave learned so far,what are some of thearguments for andagainst an Afrocentriccurriculum?
12.  What the following Schlesinger interview (44:30-46:40 minutes) below: http://www.c-spanvideo.org/program/103669-1 Do you agree or disagree with Schlesinger’s assertion about the role of self-esteem in academic achievement?
13.  According to Maureen Manning, people often confuse the terms self- concept and self-esteem. She defines self-concept as “a student’s perceptions of competence or adequacy in academic and nonacademic domains and best represented by a profile of self- perceptions across domains.” Self esteem “is a overall evaluation of him- or herself, including feelings of general happiness and satisfaction.” (Manning 2007) There are myths and misunderstandings about self-esteem and self-concept as far as there effect on high performance. To date, research shows that high self-esteem appears to be a result rather than a cause of high achievement. (Baumeister et al., 2003)
14. Referencesafrocentric.. 2012. In Merriam-Webster.com. Retreived October 25, 2012, from http://www.merriam- webster.com/dictionary/afrocentrismBaumeister et al.,. (2003). Does high self-esteem cause better. Psychological Science in the Public interest 4(1), 1-44.Johnson, R. (1994). A teachers look at Afrocentrism. The School Community Journal, 4(2), 9-11. Retrieved from http://www.adi.org/journal/fw94/Editorial-JohnsonFall1994.pdfManning, M. (2007, February). Self-concept and self-esteem in adolescents. Retrieved from http://www.nasponline.org/families/selfconcept.pdfMarriott, M. (1991, August 11). Afrocentrism: balancing or skewing history? The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/1991/08/11/us/afrocentrism- balancing-or-skewing-history.html?src=pmMartin, D. (2007, March 01). Arthur Schlesinger, historian of power, dies at 89. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/01/washington/01schlesinger. html?_ r=2&adxnnl=1&pagewanted=all&adxnnlx=1351149902-L9 WH1ba3/4yoc1PwVfVrjw&Schlesinger, A. (1992). The disuniting of america: reflections on a multicultural society. (pp. 9-20, 73-99). New York: W.W. Norton.