Ma. Martha Manette Apostol Madrid Professor Graduate Studies, Master in Education, Major in Special Education Panpacific University North Philippines Urdaneta City, Pangasinan email@example.com
Field Theory Proposed that behavior is the result of the individual and the environment. This theory had a major impact on social psychology, supporting the notion that our individual traits and the environment interact to cause behavior.
Kurt Lewin“If you want to truly understand something, try to change it. If you want to truly understand something, try to change it.” Kurt Lewin (1890-1947) was a famous, charismatic psychologist who is now viewed as the father of social psychology. viewed the social environment as a dynamic field which impacted in an interactive way with human consciousness well known for his terms "life space" and "field theory“ sought to not only describe group life, but to investigate the conditions and forces which bring about change or resist change in groups.
Kurt Lewin In the field (or matrix) approach, Lewin believed that for change to take place, the total situation has to be taken into account. well known for his terms "life space" and "field theory“. Influenced by Gestalt model, Lewin developed a theory that emphasized the importance of individual personalities, interpersonal conflict, and situational variables.
Gestalt Theory Proposes that learning consists of the grasping of a structural whole and not just a mechanistic response to a stimulus. An integrated whole system with its parts enmeshed. The whole is greater than just the sum of the parts. emphasizes that the whole of anything is greater than its parts. That is, the attributes of the whole are not deducible from analysis of the parts in isolation. The word Gestalt is used in modern German to mean the way a thing has been “placed,” or “put together.”
Field Theory This theory believed that a holistic investigation of human behavior and learning must include the environment in which the learning is taking place, including the psychological environment of the learner and others with whom he interacts.
Field Theory The following two passages offer a more detailed summary of Lewins field theory: From Smith (2001): Determined by totality of an individual’s situation. In his field theory, a ‘field’ is defined as ‘the totality of coexisting facts which are conceived of as mutually interdependent, and Individuals were seen to behave differently according to the way in which tensions between perceptions of the self and of the environment were worked through.
Field Theory From Hall and Lindzey (1978): Behaviour is a function of the field that exists at the time the behaviour occurs, Analysis begins with the situation as a whole from which are differentiated the component parts, and The concrete person in a concrete situation can represented mathematically.
Field Theory in Psychology Field theory is a psychological theory which examines patterns of interaction between the individual and the total field, or environment. Field theory holds that behavior must be derived from a totality of coexisting facts. These coexisting facts make up a "dynamic field," which means that the state of any part of the field depends on every other part of it. Behavior depends on the present field rather than on the past or the future.
Field TheoryCONCLUSION:The field theory is the "proposition that humanbehavior is the functionof both the person andthe environment.
Biomedical Model “Health seen as not passive. Health can be defined on a health-illness continuum” The model emphasises the link between psychological factors and illness. The model was theorized by psychiatrist George L. Engel at the University of Rochester, and putatively discussed in a 1977 article in Science, where he posited "the need for a new medical model.
Biomedical Model draws on " biological sciences " including genetics, biology, medicine and biological psychology. It is this model that defines problem behaviours as " neurobehavioural ". It assumes that certain behaviors are caused by biological factors inherent to the individual, or to external factors operating at a biological level.
Biomedical Model Conditions such as AD/HD are seen as disorders and disabilities that have biological aetiologies. Thus it is that " problem " behaviour is a symptom caused by an underlying biological abnormality that can be described by biological sciences such as genetics, biochemistry and neuro-anatomy and treated mainly by psychopharmacology and behavioural therapy.
Biomedical Model of Mental Health model used by some physiciatrists in the diagnosis of mental disorders. The term is used by practitioners of of biological psychiatry, in contrast to the biopsychosocial model, which incorporates psychological and social factors.
Biopsychosocial Model (BPS) a general model or approach that posits that biological, psychological (which entails thoughts, emotions, and behaviors), and social factors, all play a significant role in human functioning in the context of disease or illness. a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors rather than purely in biological terms.
Biomedical Model Biopsychosocial ModelWhat causes Such diseases are caused by a Human beings should be seen asillness? number of factors, including complex systems and illness is chemical imbalances, bacteria, caused by a multitude of factors viruses and genetic and not by a single causal factor. predisposition.Who is responsible Illnesses arise from biological Illnesses regarded as the result offor illness? changes beyond the patients a combination of factors, the control; individuals are therefore individual is no longer simply not seen as being responsible for seen as a passive victim. the illnesses.How should illness Treatment is in terms of a The whole person should bebe treated? vaccination, surgery, treated, not just the physical chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, changes that have taken place. all of which aimed to change the This can take the form of physical state of the body. behaviour change, encouraging changes in beliefs and coping strategies, and compliance with medical requests.
Biomedical Model Biopsychosocial ModelWho is The responsibility for treatment The patient is in partresponsible for rests with the medical profession. responsible for their treatment.treatment? This may take the form of responsibility to take medication, responsibility to change beliefs and behavior. They are not seen as a victim.What is the Health and illness are seen as Health and illness are notrelationship qualitatively different-you are either qualitatively different, but existbetween health healthy or ill, there is no continuum on a continuum. Rather thanand illness? between the two. being either healthy or ill, individuals progress along this continuum from health to illness and back again.What is the The mind and body function There is an increasing focus onrelationship independently of each other. The an interaction between thebetween the mind mind is incapable of influencing mind and the body. This shift inand the body? physical matter. The mind is seen as perspective is reflected in the abstract and relating to feelings and development of a holistic or a thoughts, and body is seen in terms whole person approach to of physical matter such as skin, health. The mind and body muscles, bones, brain and organs. interact.
Biopsychosocial Biomedical Model ModelWhat is the Illness may have Psychological factorsrole of psychological are seen as not onlypsychology in consequences, but not possiblehealth and psychological causes. consequences ofillness? For example, cancer illness but as may cause unhappiness contributing to its but mood is not seen as aetiology. related to either the onset or progression of the cancer.
Psychodynamic Approach Sigmund Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis and the psychodynamic approach to psychology. The words “psychodynamic’ and “psychoanalysis” are often confused. Remember that Freud’s theories were psychoanalysis, whereas the term “psychodynamic” refers to both his theories and those of his followed. Freud’s psychoanalysis was the original psychodynamic theory, but the psychodynamic approach as a whole includes all theories that were based on his ideas, e.g. Jung (1964), Adler (1927) and Erickson(1950).
Psychoanalysis in Psychology Both a theory and a therapy. Major Thinkers Associated With Psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud, Anna Freud and Erik Erikson. Emphasized the influence of the unconscious mind on behavior. Freud believed that the human mind was composed of three elements: the id, the ego, and the superego.
Psychoanalysis in Psychology Conscious- includes everything that is inside of our awareness. This is the aspect of our mental processing that we can think and talk about in a rational way. Defense Mechanism- A tactic developed by the ego to protect against anxiety. Defense mechanisms are thought to safeguard the mind against feelings and thoughts that are too difficult for the conscious mind to cope with. Ego - largely unconscious part of personality that mediates the demands of the id, the superego, and reality. The ego prevents us from acting on our basic urges (created by the id), but also works to achieve a balance with our moral and idealistic standards (created by the superego).
Psychoanalysis in Psychology Id- The personality component made up of unconscious psychic energy that works to satisfy basic urges, needs, and desires. Superego- The component of personality composed of our internalized ideals that we have acquired from our parents and from society. The superego works to suppress the urges of the id and tries to make the ego behave morally, rather than realistically. Unconscious- A reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that outside of our conscious awareness. Most of the contents of the unconscious are unacceptable or unpleasant, such as feelings of pain, anxiety, or conflict.
Psychodynamics systematized study and theory of the psychological forces that underlie human behavior, emphasizing the interplay between unconscious and conscious motivation. In Psychology, Psychodynamics is the study of the interrelationship among the several areas of the mind, personality, or psyche as they relate to mental, emotional or motivational focuses emphasizing on the dynamism of unconsciousness.
Psychodynamics focuses on the formation of psychic energy and its distribution over the human system and development by the virtue of interaction among the Freud-defined mental states – id, ego and superego. main objective of psychodynamics comprises the attempt of explanation or interpretation of overt behaviour or mental state by the virtue of inert unconscious conflict or forces or processes.
Basic Constituents ofPsychodynamic ApproachFreud proposed three levels of conscious awareness (1) Unconscious (2) Preconscious (3) ConsciousAccording to Freud, the personality has three components acting together to produce the overt complex behavior and attitude towards any object or events (1) ID (2) Ego (3) Superego
Psychodynamic Approach Assumptions Our behavior and feelings are powerfully affected by unconscious motives. Our behavior and feelings as adults (including psychological problems) are rooted in our childhood experiences. All behavior has cause (usually unconscious) even slips of the tongue. Therefore, all behavior is determined. Personality is made up of three parts (id, ego and superego).
Psychodynamic Approach Assumptions Behavior is motivated by two instinctual drives: Eros (the sex drive and life instinct) and Thanatos (the aggressive drive and death instinct). Both these drives come from the “id”. Parts of the unconscious mind (the id and superego) are in constant conflict with the conscious part of the mind(the ego). Personality is shaped as the drives are modified by different conflicts at different times in childhood (during psychosexual development).
Psychodynamic Approach in Therapy The main aim of Psychodynamic approach (Brenner, C., 1954) in therapeutic setting involves some key- points – (1) Client centered approach (2) Metaphoric communication (3) Human development (4) Personality structure
Strength of Psychodynamic Approach The strength of Freud employed psychodynamic approach includes disclosure and treatment of the origins of abnormal or maladaptive behaviour.Weakness of Psychodynamic Approach The primary criticize comes with it’s over- emphasize on the generalization of an individual event or result.
PsychodynamicCONCLUSION Psychodynamic approach focuses on unconscious processes influencing the individual’s present behaviour in the context of his past experiences. The therapy focuses on the issues and conflicts resolved at the unconscious level resulting from past dysfunctional relationships and various maladaptive manifestations. The focus of this approach primarily concerns on cognitive therapy as well as behavioural therapy.
Behavioral ApproachBehaviorism (or behaviourism) the learning perspective (where any physical action is a behavior), is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things that organisms do — including acting, thinking and feeling — can and should be regarded as behaviors. Comprises the position that all theories should have observational correlates but that there are no philosophical differences between publicly observable processes (such as actions) and privately observable processes (such as thinking and feeling).
Behavioral Approach Based on the concept of explaining behavior through observation, and the belief that our environment is what causes us to behave differently or suffer illnesses.
Behavioral Approach The main categories of behaviorism are: Classical Behaviorism: this behaviorist approach in psychology is described as "a purely objective experimental branch of natural science". Methodological Behaviorism: based on the idea that all types of psychological research are based to a greater or lesser extent on observing behaviors. Radical Behaviorism: all our actions can be explained in terms of environmental factors.
Assumptions of Behavioral Approach Behaviorists assume that we can understand people by observing their behavior. Behavior can be observed in terms of responses to certain stimuli. Behaviorism also assumes that we are born as a blank slate, or tabula rasa, and so equal at birth.
Cognitive Model An approximation to animal cognitive processes (predominantly human) for the purposes of comprehension and prediction. Cognitive modeling historically developed within cognitive psychology / cognitive science (including human factors) and has received contributions from the fields of machine learning and artificial intelligence and others.
Cognitive Psychology A discipline within psychology that investigates the internal mental processes of thought such as visual processing, memory, thinking, learning, feeling, problem solving, and language. The school of thought arising from this approach is known as cognitivism which is interested in how people mentally represent information processing. Cognitive psychologists use psychophysical and experimental approaches to understand, diagnose, and solve problems, concerning themselves with the mental processes which mediate between stimulus and response.
Sports Psychology The Cognitive Model Obviously, our thinking processes during competition and practice are the primary area where Cognitive theory applies. There are a variety of Cognitive techniques used to help us be more productive and successful in games and practice. Lets look at some of these applications: Self-talk Visualization Arousal Motivation Attribution Retraining Relaxation and Imagery
Cognitive ModelCONCLUSION Cognitive psychology is largely responsible for the presence of so many "mind-power" presentations in our society these days.
Behavioral and Cognitive Approachin Psychology Behavioral and cognitive approaches are the basis of many psychological theories that have been developed by the scientists. The behavioral approach is based on the psychological theory claiming that individual behavior depends on the environment the person is in. In contrast, the cognitive approach focuses on the process of thinking as a determining factor that influences behavior.
Behavioral Approach 1. The behavioral approach claims that people, as well as their actions and problems, can be understood observing their behaviour. 2. The theory assumes that after birth all human beings are similar. Therefore, formation of personality is greatly related to the surrounding environment, which is to shape and bring up the future individual.
Behavioral Approach 3. The followers of the behavioral approach reject retrospective methods, and claim that behaviour is determined by purely external factors, such as stimuli of the outside world. 4. Consciousness, according to the behavioral approach, is an artificial analogue of religious ‘soul’ or ‘spirit’, and is absolutely rejected.
Cognitive Approach 1. The cognitive approach views the processes of thinking and cognition as a determinant of humans’ behavior. Cognition is the act or process of knowing. It refers to the mental processes of an individual and includes attention, perception, memory, reasoning, judgement, imaging, thinking, and speech. 2. The given theory is the dominant one in modern psychology.
Cognitive Approach 3. The proponents of the cognitive approach point out that the behavioral theories are not adequate enough, because they say nothing about how people process information. Cognitive psychologists have proposed the models of human thinking and problem solving. 4. The belief of cognitive psychologists is that humans are not merely passive renders to their environment.
Humanistic Approach Human Psychology developed in the 1950s in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis was focused on understanding the unconscious motivations that drove behavior Behaviorism studied the conditioning processes that produced behavior. Humanism focused on fundamentally and uniquely human issues, such as self-identity, death, aloneness, freedom, and meaning.
Humanistic Approach Humanistic psychology was instead focused on each individual’s potential and stressed the importance of growth and self- actualization. Major Thinkers in Humanistic Psychology: Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers.
Humanistic Approach By using phenomenology, intersubjectivity and first-person categories, the humanistic approach sought to glimpse the whole person—not just the fragmented parts of the personality or cognitive functioning. The humanistic approach was distinguished by its emphasis on subjective meaning, rejection of determinism, and concern for positive growth rather than pathology. Some of the founders of this school of thought were American psychologists Abraham Maslow, who formulated a hierarchy of human needs, and Carl Rogers, who created and developed client-centered therapy; and German-American psychiatrist Fritz Perls, who co-founded Gestalt therapy. It became so influential as to be called the "third force" within psychology, along with behaviorism and psychoanalysis. Later, positive psychology opened up humanistic themes to scientific modes of exploration.
Strong Points of Humanistic Psychology Emphasizes the role of the individual; humanistic psychology gives more credit to the individual in controlling and determining their state of mental health. Takes environmental influence into account; rather than focusing solely on our internal thoughts and desires, humanistic psychology also credits the environments influence on our experiences.
Strong Points of Humanistic Psychology 1. Humanistic psychology continues to influence therapy, education, healthcare, and other areas. 2. Humanistic psychology helped remove some of the stigma attached to therapy, and made it more acceptable for normal, healthy individuals to explore their abilities and potential through therapy.
Criticisms of Humanistic Psychology 3. Often seen as too subjective; the importance of individual experience makes it difficult to objectively study and measure humanistic phenomena. How can we objectively tell if someone is self-actualized? The answer, of course, is that we cannot. We can only rely upon the individuals own assessment of their experience. 4. Observations are unverifiable—there is no accurate way to measure or quantify these qualities.
Humanistic Theraphy Overlaps considered with existential approaches emphasizes the growth and fulfillment of the self(self- actualization)through self-mastery, self-examination and creative expression. The focus is on the self, which translates into “YOU”, and “your” perception of “your” experiences. This view argues that you are free to choose your own behavior, rather than reacting to environmental stimuli and reinforces. Issues dealing with self- esteem, self-fulfillment, and needs are paramount. The major focus is to facilitate personal development.
Humanistic Theraphy Holds a hopeful constructive view of human beings and the individual’s substantial capacity to be self- determining. The ideal description of humanistic therapists is genuine, non-judgmental, and emphatic, and uses open-ended responses, reflective listening and tentative interpretations to promote clients self- understanding, acceptance and actualization.
Humanistic ApproachCONCLUSION Humanistic Approach is a variety of approaches that emphasize personal growth, self-esteem, and the achievement of human potential more than the scientific understanding, prediction, and control of behavior. So when we say that humanistic psychology is concerned with the whole person, we really do mean it in a very particular way. We assume that people are whole, and we treat them as if they are whole, and we encourage them to act as if they are whole.
Existential Approach Existential psychotherapy is a method of therapy that operates on the belief that inner conflict within a person is due to that individuals confrontation with the givens of existence. These givens, as noted by Yalom are: the inevitability of death, freedom and its attendant responsibility, existential isolation (referring to phenomenology), and finally meaninglessness.
Existential Theraphy’s View of theHuman Mind Existential therapy starts with the belief that although humans are essentially alone in the world, we long to be connected to others. People want to have meaning in each other’s lives, but ultimately we must come to realize that we cannot depend on others for our validation, and with that realization we finally acknowledge and understand that we are fundamentally alone.
Existential Theraphy’s View of theHuman Mind Psychological Dysfunction In the existential view, there is no such thing as psychological dysfunction or being ill. Every way of being is merely an expression of how one chooses to live ones life. The Good Life Existentialism suggests that it is possible for people to face the anxieties of life head-on and embrace the human condition of aloneness, to revel in the freedom to choose and take full responsibility for their choices.
Existential Theraphy’s View of theHuman Mind The existential psychotherapist is generally not concerned with the clients past; instead, the emphasis is on the choices to be made in the present and future. Existential thinkers seek to avoid restrictive models that categorize or label people. Instead there is a description of the different levels of experience and existence with which people are inevitably confronted.
Four Dimensions Physical dimension. Individuals relate to their environment and to the givens of the natural world around them. This includes their attitude to the body they have, to the concrete surroundings they find themselves in, to the climate and the weather, to objects and material possessions, to the bodies of other people, their own bodily needs, to health and illness and to their own mortality. Social dimension. Individuals relate to others as they interact with the public world around them. This dimension includes their response to the culture they live in, as well as to the class and race they belong to (and also those they do not belong to).
Four Dimensions Psychological dimension. Individuals relate to themselves and in this way create a personal world. This dimension includes views about their own character, their past experience and their future possibilities. Spiritual dimension. Individuals relate to the unknown and thus create a sense of an ideal world, an ideology and a philosophical outlook. It is here that they find meaning by putting all the pieces of the puzzle together for themselves.