WILHELM WILLIAM WUNDT JAMES 1890 Published Principles of Psychology SIGMUND FREUD 1879Established the first 1900 psychological Published the laboratory Interpretation In Leipzig of Dreams
ALFRED BINET & JOHN B.THEODORE SIMON WATSON 1913 Wrote his book on behaviorism, promoting the importance of environmental1905 influencesDeveloped the 1ststandardized 1906intelligence test Published the results of his learning experiments with dogs IVAN PAVLOV
KAREN HORNEY CARL ROGERS1945Criticized Freud’s theory asmale biased and presents 1951her socio – cultural Published “Onapproach Becoming a Person; developed the client –BF SKINNER centered therapy 1938 Published “The ERIK ERIKSON Behavior of Organisms”, expanding 1950 the view of Published Childhood and behaviorism Society
ROGER WOLCOTT ABRAHAM MASLOWSPERRY 1954 Introduced the 1981 humanistic Won a Nobel Prize perspective for split – brain research ALBERT BANDURA 1961 Introduced the social learning theory
BEHAVIORAL APPROACH• Emphasizes the scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants
COGNITIVE APPROACH • Emphasizes the mental processes involved in knowing: directing our attention, perceiving, remembering, thinking and solving problems
PSYCHODYNAMIC /PSYCHOANALYTIC• Emphasizes unconscious thought, the conflict between biological instincts and society’s demands, as well as early family experience
HUMANISTIC • Emphasizes a person’s capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose a destiny and positive qualities
NEUROBIOLOGICAL• Emphasizes that the brain and the nervous system play central roles in understanding behavior, thought and emotion.
EVOLUTIONARY • Emphasizes the importance of adaptation, reproduction and the survival of the fittest • Conditions that allow individuals to thrive or fail
SOCIOCULTURAL / CROSSCULTURAL• Emphasizes that culture, ethnicity and gender, among other socio – cultural contexts, are essential to understanding behavior
CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY• Studies the diagnosis, causes and treatment of mental disorders
COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY • Assists individuals in dealing with many personal problems that do not involve psychological disorders
DEVELOPMENT PSYCHOLOGY• Studies how people change physically, cognitively and socially over the entire life span
EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY • Studies all aspects of the educational process from the techniques of instructions to learning disabilities
COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY• Investigates all aspects of cognition such as memory, thinking, language and decision making
INDUSTRIAL /ORGANIZATIONALPSYCHOLOGY • Studies all aspects of behavior in work settings – Recruitment and selection of employees – Evaluation of performance – Work motivation – Leadership
PSYCHOBIOLOGY• Investigates the biological bases of behavior
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY • Studies all aspects of social behavior and social thought
EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY • Studies all aspects of basic psychological processes such as learning, perception and motivation
APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY • Environmental Psychology - effect of physical environment • Health Psychology – behavior as a factor in physical health • Engineering Psychology – person – machine interface • Sports Psychology – role of sports in a healthy lifestyle; preparation of athletes for competition • Forensic Psychology – legal issues in court and correctional system; treating prison inmates.
RESEARCHMETHODS INPSYCHOLOGY Experimental Method Descriptive Research Correlational Research
GOALS OF THE RESEARCHMETHODS• Experimental Method – Pursues the goals of control and explanation• Descriptive Research – Pursues the goal of description• Correlational Research – Pursues the goal of prediction
EXPERIMENTAL METHOD• Research that manipulates one or more variables, while controlling other factors, to determine the effects of one or more other variables.• Purpose: to determine whether there is a casual relationship.• A theory can be defined as a "general principle proposed to explain how a number of separate facts are related.”• A theory is an "idea about a relationship." In order to test whether a theory is correct or not, we need to do research.
Concepts:• Independent Variable – Variable manipulated by the experimenter to determine its effect on another, dependent variable (INPUT VARIABLE)• Dependent Variable – Variable showing the effect of the independent variable. (RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENT)• Experimental Group – Participants who are exposed to the experimental condition of interest.• Control Group – Participants who are not exposed to the experimental condition of interest.
EXERCISES:• People who drive sports cars are more aggressive in interaction with others.• Does watching television violence affect aggression.• Does exposure to subliminal messages have an effect on product sales.• Does forming images of words to be remembered enhance memory for those words.
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH• Research that involves the recording of behaviors that have been observed systematically• The researcher simply records what he or she has systematically observed. – Naturalistic Observation – Case Studies – Surveys – Psychological testing – Archival research
NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION• Observing behavior in their natural environment• Often involves counting behaviors, such as number of aggressive acts, number of smiles, etc.• Advantages: Behavior is naturally occurring and is not manipulated by a researcher and it can provide more qualitative data as opposed to merely quantitative information.• Limitations: Even the presence of someone observing can cause those being observed to alter their behavior. Researcher’s beliefs can also alter their observations. And, it is very difficult to coordinate multiple observers since observed behaviors must be operationally defined (e.g. what constitutes an aggressive act)
CASE STUDIES• An in – depth study of an individual• Following a single case, typically over an extended period of time• Can involve naturalistic observations, and include psychological testing, interviews, interviews with others, and the application of a treatment or observation• Advantages: Can gather extensive information, both qualitative and quantitative and it can be helpful in better understanding rare cases or very specific interventions• Limitations: Only one case is involved, severely limiting the generalization to the rest of the population. Can be very time consuming and can involve other problems specific to the techniques used, including researcher bias.
SURVEYS• A set of questions related to a particular topic of interest administered to a sample of people through an interview or questionnaire.• Advantages: Can gather large amounts of information in a relatively short time, especially now with many surveys being conducted on the internet.• Limitations: Survey data is based solely on subjects’ responses which can be inaccurate due to outright lying, misunderstanding of the question, placebo effect, and even the manner in which the question is asked
PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING• A formal sample of a person’s behavior, whether written or performed.• Advantages: Most tests are normed and standardized, which means they have very reliable and valid results. Popular with businesses looking for data on employees and with difficult or specific therapy cases• Limitations: Tests which are not rigorously normed and standardized can easily result in inaccurate results.
ARCHIVAL RESEARCH• The systematic examination of collections of letters, manuscripts, tape recordings, video recordings or other records.• Valuable sources of historical information.
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH• Research that studies the degree of relationship between two or more variables.• Variables – an event, behavior or condition or characteristic – E.g. age, height, temperature and intelligence• Correlation – degree of relationship between two or more variables.• E.g. Relationship between obesity and exercise
PRINCIPLE OF INFORMED CONSENT• The principle that before consenting to participate in research, people should be fully informed about any significant factors that could affect their willingness to participate.
PRINCIPLE OF DEBRIEFING• At the conclusion of an experimental session, informing the participants about the general purpose of the experiment, including any deception that was involved.
PRINCIPLE OF CONFIDENTIALITY• The principle that all personal information obtained from a participant in research or therapy should not be revealed without the individual’s permission.