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WILHELM                         WILLIAM
 WUNDT                           JAMES
                                 1890
                                 Published
                                 Principles of
                                 Psychology

                        SIGMUND FREUD
        1879
Established the first                     1900
   psychological                  Published the
     laboratory                  Interpretation
     In Leipzig                      of Dreams
ALFRED BINET &                          JOHN B.
THEODORE SIMON                          WATSON


                                                     1913
                                       Wrote his book on
                                  behaviorism, promoting
                                       the importance of
                                           environmental
1905                                           influences
Developed the 1st
standardized                  1906
intelligence test             Published the results
                              of his learning
                              experiments with dogs

                    IVAN PAVLOV
KAREN HORNEY
                                      CARL ROGERS
1945
Criticized Freud’s theory as
male biased and presents                         1951
her socio – cultural                             Published “On
approach                                         Becoming a
                                                 Person;
                                                 developed the
                                                 client –
BF SKINNER                                       centered
                                                 therapy

                   1938
                   Published “The        ERIK ERIKSON
                   Behavior of
                   Organisms”, expanding 1950
                   the view of           Published Childhood and
                   behaviorism           Society
ROGER WOLCOTT               ABRAHAM MASLOW
SPERRY
                           1954
                           Introduced the
      1981                 humanistic
      Won a Nobel Prize    perspective
      for split – brain
      research


       ALBERT BANDURA

         1961
         Introduced the social
         learning theory
APPROACHES/ PERSPECTIVES
  IN MODERN PSYCHOLOGY
BEHAVIORAL APPROACH

• Emphasizes the
  scientific study of
  observable
  behavioral
  responses and their
  environmental
  determinants
COGNITIVE APPROACH
             • Emphasizes the
               mental processes
               involved in knowing:
               directing our
               attention,
               perceiving,
               remembering,
               thinking and solving
               problems
PSYCHODYNAMIC /
PSYCHOANALYTIC

• Emphasizes
  unconscious
  thought, the conflict
  between biological
  instincts and
  society’s demands,
  as well as early
  family experience
HUMANISTIC
             • Emphasizes a
               person’s capacity
               for personal
               growth, freedom
               to choose a
               destiny and
               positive qualities
NEUROBIOLOGICAL
• Emphasizes that the
  brain and the
  nervous system
  play central roles in
  understanding
  behavior, thought
  and emotion.
EVOLUTIONARY
               • Emphasizes the
                 importance of
                 adaptation,
                 reproduction and the
                 survival of the fittest
               • Conditions that
                 allow individuals to
                 thrive or fail
SOCIOCULTURAL / CROSS
CULTURAL
• Emphasizes that
  culture, ethnicity and
  gender, among
  other socio – cultural
  contexts, are
  essential to
  understanding
  behavior
CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY


• Studies the diagnosis,
  causes and treatment
  of mental disorders
COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY

           • Assists individuals in
             dealing with many
             personal problems
             that do not involve
             psychological
             disorders
DEVELOPMENT PSYCHOLOGY

• Studies how people change physically,
  cognitively and socially over the entire life span
EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

           • Studies all aspects of
             the educational
             process from the
             techniques of
             instructions to
             learning disabilities
COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
• Investigates all
  aspects of
  cognition such as
  memory, thinking,
  language and
  decision making
INDUSTRIAL /
ORGANIZATIONAL
PSYCHOLOGY
            • Studies all aspects of
              behavior in work
              settings
              – Recruitment and
                selection of employees
              – Evaluation of
                performance
              – Work motivation
              – Leadership
PSYCHOBIOLOGY
• Investigates the
  biological bases of
  behavior
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
            • Studies all
              aspects of
              social behavior
              and social
              thought
EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
           • Studies all aspects
             of basic
             psychological
             processes such as
             learning,
             perception and
             motivation
APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY
 • Environmental Psychology - effect of physical
   environment
 • Health Psychology – behavior as a factor in
   physical health
 • Engineering Psychology – person – machine
   interface
 • Sports Psychology – role of sports in a healthy
   lifestyle; preparation of athletes for competition
 • Forensic Psychology – legal issues in court
   and correctional system; treating prison
   inmates.
RESEARCH
METHODS IN
PSYCHOLOGY

 Experimental Method
 Descriptive Research
 Correlational Research
GOALS OF THE RESEARCH
METHODS

• Experimental Method
  – Pursues the goals of control and explanation
• Descriptive Research
  – Pursues the goal of description
• Correlational Research
  – Pursues the goal of prediction
EXPERIMENTAL METHOD

• Research that manipulates one or more variables, while
  controlling other factors, to determine the effects of one
  or more other variables.
• Purpose: to determine whether there is a casual
  relationship.
• A theory can be defined as a "general principle proposed
  to explain how a number of separate facts are related.”
• A theory is an "idea about a relationship." In order to test
  whether a theory is correct or not, we need to do
  research.
Concepts:
• Independent Variable
   – Variable manipulated by the experimenter to determine its effect
     on another, dependent variable (INPUT VARIABLE)
• Dependent Variable
   – Variable showing the effect of the independent variable.
     (RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENT)
• Experimental Group
   – Participants who are exposed to the experimental condition of
     interest.
• Control Group
   – Participants who are not exposed to the experimental condition
     of interest.
EXERCISES:
• People who drive sports cars are more
  aggressive in interaction with others.
• Does watching television violence affect
  aggression.
• Does exposure to subliminal messages have an
  effect on product sales.
• Does forming images of words to be
  remembered enhance memory for those words.
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
• Research that involves the recording of
  behaviors that have been observed
  systematically
• The researcher simply records what he or she
  has systematically observed.
  –   Naturalistic Observation
  –   Case Studies
  –   Surveys
  –   Psychological testing
  –   Archival research
NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION
•   Observing behavior in their natural environment
•   Often involves counting behaviors, such as number of aggressive
    acts, number of smiles, etc.
•   Advantages: Behavior is naturally occurring and is not manipulated
    by a researcher and it can provide more qualitative data as opposed
    to merely quantitative information.
•   Limitations: Even the presence of someone observing can cause
    those being observed to alter their behavior. Researcher’s beliefs
    can also alter their observations. And, it is very difficult to coordinate
    multiple observers since observed behaviors must be operationally
    defined (e.g. what constitutes an aggressive act)
CASE STUDIES
•   An in – depth study of an individual
•   Following a single case, typically over an extended period of time
•   Can involve naturalistic observations, and include psychological
    testing, interviews, interviews with others, and the application of a
    treatment or observation
•   Advantages: Can gather extensive information, both qualitative and
    quantitative and it can be helpful in better understanding rare cases
    or very specific interventions
•   Limitations: Only one case is involved, severely limiting the
    generalization to the rest of the population. Can be very time
    consuming and can involve other problems specific to the
    techniques used, including researcher bias.
SURVEYS
• A set of questions related to a particular topic of interest
  administered to a sample of people through an interview
  or questionnaire.
• Advantages: Can gather large amounts of information in
  a relatively short time, especially now with many surveys
  being conducted on the internet.
• Limitations: Survey data is based solely on subjects’
  responses which can be inaccurate due to outright lying,
  misunderstanding of the question, placebo effect, and
  even the manner in which the question is asked
PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING

• A formal sample of a person’s behavior, whether written
  or performed.
• Advantages: Most tests are normed and standardized,
  which means they have very reliable and valid results.
  Popular with businesses looking for data on employees
  and with difficult or specific therapy cases
• Limitations: Tests which are not rigorously normed and
  standardized can easily result in inaccurate results.
ARCHIVAL RESEARCH


• The systematic examination of collections
  of letters, manuscripts, tape recordings,
  video recordings or other records.
• Valuable sources of historical information.
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
• Research that studies the degree of relationship
  between two or more variables.
• Variables – an event, behavior or condition or
  characteristic
  – E.g. age, height, temperature and intelligence
• Correlation – degree of relationship between two
  or more variables.
• E.g. Relationship between obesity and exercise
THE ETHICS OF
RESEARCH
PRINCIPLE OF INFORMED CONSENT

• The principle that before consenting to
  participate in research, people should be
  fully informed about any significant factors
  that could affect their willingness to
  participate.
PRINCIPLE OF DEBRIEFING
• At the conclusion of an experimental
  session, informing the participants about
  the general purpose of the experiment,
  including any deception that was involved.
PRINCIPLE OF CONFIDENTIALITY

• The principle that all personal information
  obtained from a participant in research or
  therapy should not be revealed without the
  individual’s permission.

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Approaches to Psychology

  • 1.
  • 2. WILHELM WILLIAM WUNDT JAMES 1890 Published Principles of Psychology SIGMUND FREUD 1879 Established the first 1900 psychological Published the laboratory Interpretation In Leipzig of Dreams
  • 3. ALFRED BINET & JOHN B. THEODORE SIMON WATSON 1913 Wrote his book on behaviorism, promoting the importance of environmental 1905 influences Developed the 1st standardized 1906 intelligence test Published the results of his learning experiments with dogs IVAN PAVLOV
  • 4. KAREN HORNEY CARL ROGERS 1945 Criticized Freud’s theory as male biased and presents 1951 her socio – cultural Published “On approach Becoming a Person; developed the client – BF SKINNER centered therapy 1938 Published “The ERIK ERIKSON Behavior of Organisms”, expanding 1950 the view of Published Childhood and behaviorism Society
  • 5. ROGER WOLCOTT ABRAHAM MASLOW SPERRY 1954 Introduced the 1981 humanistic Won a Nobel Prize perspective for split – brain research ALBERT BANDURA 1961 Introduced the social learning theory
  • 6. APPROACHES/ PERSPECTIVES IN MODERN PSYCHOLOGY
  • 7. BEHAVIORAL APPROACH • Emphasizes the scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants
  • 8. COGNITIVE APPROACH • Emphasizes the mental processes involved in knowing: directing our attention, perceiving, remembering, thinking and solving problems
  • 9. PSYCHODYNAMIC / PSYCHOANALYTIC • Emphasizes unconscious thought, the conflict between biological instincts and society’s demands, as well as early family experience
  • 10. HUMANISTIC • Emphasizes a person’s capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose a destiny and positive qualities
  • 11. NEUROBIOLOGICAL • Emphasizes that the brain and the nervous system play central roles in understanding behavior, thought and emotion.
  • 12. EVOLUTIONARY • Emphasizes the importance of adaptation, reproduction and the survival of the fittest • Conditions that allow individuals to thrive or fail
  • 13. SOCIOCULTURAL / CROSS CULTURAL • Emphasizes that culture, ethnicity and gender, among other socio – cultural contexts, are essential to understanding behavior
  • 14.
  • 15. CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY • Studies the diagnosis, causes and treatment of mental disorders
  • 16. COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY • Assists individuals in dealing with many personal problems that do not involve psychological disorders
  • 17. DEVELOPMENT PSYCHOLOGY • Studies how people change physically, cognitively and socially over the entire life span
  • 18. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY • Studies all aspects of the educational process from the techniques of instructions to learning disabilities
  • 19. COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY • Investigates all aspects of cognition such as memory, thinking, language and decision making
  • 20. INDUSTRIAL / ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY • Studies all aspects of behavior in work settings – Recruitment and selection of employees – Evaluation of performance – Work motivation – Leadership
  • 21. PSYCHOBIOLOGY • Investigates the biological bases of behavior
  • 22. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY • Studies all aspects of social behavior and social thought
  • 23. EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY • Studies all aspects of basic psychological processes such as learning, perception and motivation
  • 24. APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY • Environmental Psychology - effect of physical environment • Health Psychology – behavior as a factor in physical health • Engineering Psychology – person – machine interface • Sports Psychology – role of sports in a healthy lifestyle; preparation of athletes for competition • Forensic Psychology – legal issues in court and correctional system; treating prison inmates.
  • 25. RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY Experimental Method Descriptive Research Correlational Research
  • 26. GOALS OF THE RESEARCH METHODS • Experimental Method – Pursues the goals of control and explanation • Descriptive Research – Pursues the goal of description • Correlational Research – Pursues the goal of prediction
  • 27. EXPERIMENTAL METHOD • Research that manipulates one or more variables, while controlling other factors, to determine the effects of one or more other variables. • Purpose: to determine whether there is a casual relationship. • A theory can be defined as a "general principle proposed to explain how a number of separate facts are related.” • A theory is an "idea about a relationship." In order to test whether a theory is correct or not, we need to do research.
  • 28. Concepts: • Independent Variable – Variable manipulated by the experimenter to determine its effect on another, dependent variable (INPUT VARIABLE) • Dependent Variable – Variable showing the effect of the independent variable. (RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENT) • Experimental Group – Participants who are exposed to the experimental condition of interest. • Control Group – Participants who are not exposed to the experimental condition of interest.
  • 29. EXERCISES: • People who drive sports cars are more aggressive in interaction with others. • Does watching television violence affect aggression. • Does exposure to subliminal messages have an effect on product sales. • Does forming images of words to be remembered enhance memory for those words.
  • 30. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH • Research that involves the recording of behaviors that have been observed systematically • The researcher simply records what he or she has systematically observed. – Naturalistic Observation – Case Studies – Surveys – Psychological testing – Archival research
  • 31. NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION • Observing behavior in their natural environment • Often involves counting behaviors, such as number of aggressive acts, number of smiles, etc. • Advantages: Behavior is naturally occurring and is not manipulated by a researcher and it can provide more qualitative data as opposed to merely quantitative information. • Limitations: Even the presence of someone observing can cause those being observed to alter their behavior. Researcher’s beliefs can also alter their observations. And, it is very difficult to coordinate multiple observers since observed behaviors must be operationally defined (e.g. what constitutes an aggressive act)
  • 32. CASE STUDIES • An in – depth study of an individual • Following a single case, typically over an extended period of time • Can involve naturalistic observations, and include psychological testing, interviews, interviews with others, and the application of a treatment or observation • Advantages: Can gather extensive information, both qualitative and quantitative and it can be helpful in better understanding rare cases or very specific interventions • Limitations: Only one case is involved, severely limiting the generalization to the rest of the population. Can be very time consuming and can involve other problems specific to the techniques used, including researcher bias.
  • 33. SURVEYS • A set of questions related to a particular topic of interest administered to a sample of people through an interview or questionnaire. • Advantages: Can gather large amounts of information in a relatively short time, especially now with many surveys being conducted on the internet. • Limitations: Survey data is based solely on subjects’ responses which can be inaccurate due to outright lying, misunderstanding of the question, placebo effect, and even the manner in which the question is asked
  • 34. PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING • A formal sample of a person’s behavior, whether written or performed. • Advantages: Most tests are normed and standardized, which means they have very reliable and valid results. Popular with businesses looking for data on employees and with difficult or specific therapy cases • Limitations: Tests which are not rigorously normed and standardized can easily result in inaccurate results.
  • 35. ARCHIVAL RESEARCH • The systematic examination of collections of letters, manuscripts, tape recordings, video recordings or other records. • Valuable sources of historical information.
  • 36. CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH • Research that studies the degree of relationship between two or more variables. • Variables – an event, behavior or condition or characteristic – E.g. age, height, temperature and intelligence • Correlation – degree of relationship between two or more variables. • E.g. Relationship between obesity and exercise
  • 38. PRINCIPLE OF INFORMED CONSENT • The principle that before consenting to participate in research, people should be fully informed about any significant factors that could affect their willingness to participate.
  • 39. PRINCIPLE OF DEBRIEFING • At the conclusion of an experimental session, informing the participants about the general purpose of the experiment, including any deception that was involved.
  • 40. PRINCIPLE OF CONFIDENTIALITY • The principle that all personal information obtained from a participant in research or therapy should not be revealed without the individual’s permission.