Universidade de Aveiro Seminário de Investigação em Didática III “Making wishes come true: a methodologicaldesign in a case study with non traditional adult students” Construindo o artigo… 10/02/21 Susana Ambrósio Orientadoras Maria Helena Araújo e Sá Ana Raquel Simões
Índice• Seleção da revista • Enquadramento na investigação – Algumas possibilidades • A revista selecionada em traços gerais• Construindo o artigo… • Seguindo as orientações de “A Systematic Guide to Reviewing a Manuscript” (Provenzale, J. & Stanley, R., 2006) e as orientações específicas da revista • Na demanda de uma estrutura coerente e lógica
Aprendizagem ao Longo da Vida/ Educação de Adultos Revista Selecionada International Journal of Lifelong Education A construção Studies in dos Higher repertórios Education plurilingues Publicada por: Routledge Indexada em: Scope:Ensino: 30 6 issues per year •Volume Superior •Frequência: •Australian Education Index Plurilinguismo (AEI); Australian Research •provides an international forum for debate on the Revistas Selecionadas •Editores: Peter Jarvis (U. Council (ARC) Ranked Journal principles and practice of Surrey) e John Holford (U. List; National Database for lifelong, continuing, recurrent , Nottigham), UK Research into International adult and initial education and •Impact Factor: 0.556 Education (NDRI); British Education Index; Contents International learning, whether in formal, institutional or informal Pages in Education; Educational settings. Journal of Research Abstracts online (ERA); Education Index; ERIC; Lifelong •Política de Peer Review: Todos ERIH (European Reference Index os artigos são submetidos a um for the Humanities, Pedagogical Education rigoroso “peer review”, baseado and Educational Research); “on initial editor screening and Language and Linguistics anonymized refereeing by at Behavior Abstracts; SCOPUS®. least two anonymous referees” •Tamanho do artigo: 5000 a 8000 palavras The Journal of Continuing Higher Education
Construindo o artigo - 0 This article is a result of the methodological design that was undertaken during the data collection Objective phase within a PhD research which intends to section understand how the plurilingual repertoires of non- traditional adult students’ (NTAS) were built through life. By adopting a biographical approach, the starting point was the NTAS’ questionnaire answers inAbstract Methods order to design a methodological process of Section selection of a small sample of NTAS to be interviewed. This selection process emphasises the importance of the interconnection between all the Results methods used in the research. section Biographical methods allow researchers to have a deeper access to NTAS plurilingual experiences across their life course and, at the same time, they Conclusions* contribute to improve the subjects’ awareness regarding their plurilingual identity, by promoting the reflection on their plurilingual lives and language learning. * Provenzale, J. & Stanley, R.(2006). A Systematic Guide to Reviewing a Manuscript. Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology, 34(2),92-99.
Construindo o artigo - 1 This article is based on a study which is being carried out at theIntroduction University of Aveiro (UA), within a PhD research project entitled “The Study’s plurilingual repertoires in a lifelong learning process: a multi-case context study with the non-traditional adult students”. This study intends to present the NTAS’ perspective in what lifelong learning is concerned, namely, lifelong language learning, focusing in the Higher Education (HE) context. It takes into account NTAS’ motivations, expectations and representations, in a biographical approach (Josso, 2002; West & Merrill, 2009) which reveals the process of construction of NTAS plurilingual repertoires during their life course (Molinié, 2006). Within this theoretical perspective, this study intends to understand how the plurilingual repertoires are built through life, namely NTAS’ lives. The methodological approach used in order to achieve this Study’s main goal is based on documental analysis (UA institutional goals* documents), questionnaires and interviews, the last two referring the NTAS’ language biographies. In this article, the main focus is the methodological design used in the selection process of a small group of NTAS to be interviewed, taking into account their answers to the previous questionnaire. * Provenzale, J. & Stanley, R.(2006). A Systematic Guide to Reviewing a Manuscript. Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology, 34(2),92-99.
Construindo o artigo - 2Introduction “The plurilingual repertoires in a lifelong learning process: a case study with the non-traditional adult students at the University of Aveiro” Theoretical Question Theorectical Framework How are the Plurilingual Repertoires constructed in a Lifelong Learning perspective, focusing in a Higher Education context? What is a Plurilingual Repertoire? •It is constituted by different languages which are acquired through diverse modalities (learned in childhood, in school or autonomously) and in different learning contexts where different skills (speaking, reading, listening ...) exist. These languages could have more or less different specialised functions as they are used to communicate with the family, to socialise, to work, to learn, etc. (Beacco, 2005). •Formed as a dynamic lifelong process of (re)construction which is shaped by each subject’s life experience and pathways (Andrade & Araújo e Sá, 2003, Beacco & Byram, 2003, Coste, Moore & Zarate, 1997, Mackiewiczv, 1998) .
Construindo o artigo - 2 Language learning – a process of and for aIntroduction life time “a lifelong process extending across the entire span of institutional education and training and including learning outside institutional education settings. The emphasis on lifelong language earning reflects the facts that it is Theorectical Framework impossible to predict the practical and personal communicative needs people may have after leaving education and training.” (Mackiewiczv, 1998) Each one is able to learn languages according to the emerging needs throughout life, either due to personal, professional or cultural matters, or simply because it is the person’s wish (Beacco, 2008, Semal- Lebleu, 2006). The plurilingual repertoire is not stable, gaining new elements which transform or complete preexisting components obtained in various life contexts, considering the necessary adaptation to professional, geographical or family displacements but also to the personal evolution of interests (Lüdi, 2004).
Construindo o artigo - 2Introduction Language Biography consists of a set of "traces" of different sources: memories of linguistic and cultural contacts, evidences from the evolution of formal and informal learning, evidence of any certifications. It allows the researcher to understand, from the particular linguistic narrative, how and why develops and changes the relationship with languages throughout life from childhood to adolescence and into adulthood. To the subjects that produce them, by this “returning to experience”, it allows a Theorectical Framework biographical reflexivity and also the awareness raising of what already constitutes their repertoire and therefore it contributes to the lifelong language repertoire development. (Alheit et al., 1995, Castellotti & Moore, 2006, Josso, 2002, Perregaux , 2006, Thamin & Simon, 2009) Instrument Process Returning to experience Awareness Valued by the learner Plurilingual Repertoire Development
Construindo o artigo - 2Introduction Non-Traditional Adult Students (NTAS) Adult students are named non-traditional due to several factors Theorectical Framework influencing their participation in the educational process. Since they play multiple roles and have several responsibilities, the student role is very often cast aside. Age Attending formal education Adult Students Professional experience Attitude as students Life circumstances Multiples roles Past experiences Practical Application (Schlossberg, Lynch, and Chickering ,1989; Correia & Mesquita, 2006; Johnson & Merril, 2004)
Construindo o artigo - 3Introduction “The plurilingual repertoires in a lifelong learning process: a multicase study with the non-traditional adult students at the University of Aveiro” Theoretical Question How are the Plurilingual Repertoires constructed Theorectical Framework in a Lifelong Learning perspective, focusing in a Higher Education Context? 4 – Comprehend how 2 – Comprehend how 3 - Identify the 1- Characterise the HE attendance the NTAS plurilingual construction contributes or could Non-Traditional repertoires are contribute to the Adult Students constructed during the dynamics of NTAS development of NTAS life course plurilingual identity plurilingual repertories Methodological design i.representations, expectations and motivations concerning Lifelong Learning, namely within the development of plurilingual repertoires, ii. representations and expectations concerning the university’s role and its contribution to Lifelong Learning, particularly regarding the development of plurilingual repertoires, iii.language biography, its characteristics, processes and constitution conditions.
Construindo o artigo - 3 Methodology/ Instruments Goals NTAS Research Goals Instruments involvedIntroduction - Understand how many NTAS were Analysis of the UA attending UA, who they were, in which 485 institutional data courses they were. NTAS i. Characterise the UA - Characterise general NTAS data, Fhase 1 NTAS; linguistic profile, linguistic 195 Theorectical Framework representations and representations Questionnaire about the university’s contributions to NTAS the development of their linguistic (40,2% profile. N=485) ii. Understand how -Understand how the plurilingual the plurilingual repertoires are built through life. repertoires are built through NTAS’ lives; -Understand how NTAS perceive From themselves as plurilingual subjects 115 iii. Identify dynamics (under construction / “en devenir”) and NTAS of NTAS plurilingual their own plurilingual repertoire. (58,9% Fhase 2 Methodological design identity construction Biographical interview N=195) - Understand how the attendance of to 12 iv. Understand how Higher Education contributes or could NTAS the HE attendance contribute to the development of NTAS contributes or could plurilingual repertoires. (10% N=115) contribute to the development of NTAS plurilingual repertoires.
Construindo o artigo - 3 Questionnaire Questions Plurilingual Experience Indicators Contexts Q.9.2 – Either of your parents is a 1 - Foreign ParentsIntroduction foreigner? Q.9.3 – If you have a partner he / she 2 - Foreign Partner is a foreigner? Q.9.4 – If you have children, what 3 - Languages spoken with the children (in language(s) you talk with them? addition to Portuguese) Q.9.5 – Do you talk with someone of Personal Context your family and/or friends in another 4 - Languages spoken with family/ friends Theorectical Framework language than your mother tongue? (apart from Portuguese) Q.9.8 – Did you learn languages outside your formal 5 - Language learning in a non-formal/ informal educational path? context Q.9.6 – Do you use language in a Professional professional context? 6 - Languages in professional context Context Q.9.7 – Did you learn languages in your formal educational path? 7 - Language Learning in formal context (pre- Methodological design Q.16 – Does the UA degree that you HE) are attending has languages courses? School Context Q.9.9 – Are you learning languages at /Language 8 - Language Learning in formal context (HE) this moment? Projects Q.9.10– Do you want to learn 9 - Learning languages presently languages in the future? 10 - Intention to learn languages in the future
Construindo o artigo - 3Introduction • NTAS with less (Group A) and more (Group B) diversity of plurilingual experience indicators Theorectical Framework Total number of indicators identified 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A B Groups (-) (+) Number of NTAS 6 17 20 23 27 17 3 2 Total 115 NTAS Methodological design 23 70 22 Total per Group 20% 60,9% 19,1% Total per Group % Total - 6 0 6 Sample Sample 12 NTAS
Construindo o artigo - 3 Total NTAS/ Main Indicator Group A CriteriaIntroduction Selected NTAS A1 Total=6 NTAS/ Ind7 - Language Learning in Age ( the older ones) (with 1 Selected=2 NTAS formal context (pré HE) Gender Indicator) Ind7 + Ind10 - Language A2 Learning in formal context Different combination of Total=17 NTAS/ ( with 2 (pré HE) and Intention to learn indicators Selected=4 NTAS Indicators) languages in the future Age (the older ones) (n=10) Theorectical Framework Group A – NTAS with less diversity concerning the plurilingual experiences indicators Methodological design 26 64 69 71 80 95 97 102 104 119 121 130 131 134 152 162 163 164 171 181 182 191 193
Group B Construindo o artigo - 3 Total NTAS/ Selected NTAS Main Indicators Criteria B6 Ind10 - Intention to learnIntroduction Total=16 NTAS/ (with 6 languages in the future (n=22) Selected= 0 NTAS indicators) Ind9 - Learning languages B7 presently (n=21) Total=4 NTAS/ Larger number of (with 7 Ind7 - Language Learning in Selected=4 NTAS indicators Indicators) formal context (pré HE) (n=20) A8 Ind6 - Languages in Total=2 NTAS/ ( with 8 professional context (n=20) Selected=2 NTAS Indicators) Theorectical Framework Group B – NTAS with more diversity concerning the plurilingual experiences indicators Methodological design 17 19 30 35 37 42 57 59 105 107 112 115 141 142 146 149 159 161 165 178 184 187
Construindo o artigo - 4 the importance of the connection between all the methods in the Introduction research Theorectical Framework Institutional data – 485 NTAS Taking into account the subjects’ experience to design the Questionnaire – 195 NTAS research (115 NTAS) methodological Methodological design plan Biographical interviews – 12 NTAS (6 men, 6 women; [25-48] years old)Remarks Final
“Get over the idea that only children shouldspend their time in study. Be a student so longas you still have something to learn, and thiswill mean all your life.“ Henry Doherty (1870-1939)