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Particle behavior, solid, liquid gas (Teach)

by Moira Whitehouse, Teacher retired at home on Oct 10, 2011

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Introduction to particle behavior in solids, liquids and gases appropriate for elementary science students, 4th, 5th, and 6th grades.

Introduction to particle behavior in solids, liquids and gases appropriate for elementary science students, 4th, 5th, and 6th grades.

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Particle behavior, solid, liquid gas (Teach)Presentation Transcript

• PARTICLE BEHAVIOR IN
SOLIDS, LIQUIDS AND GASES
• MUST BE DOWNLOADED TO GET THE CUSTOM ANIMATIONS
• States of matter
•Something you already know a lot about:
•Solids
•Liquids
•Gases
by Moira Whitehouse PhD
• Gases, liquids and solids are all made up of particles so small that they can be seen only with a powerful microscope.
These particles behave differently in the three states
of matter, solid, liquid and gas.
• For example this drawing of a solid cube shows that
of small particles.
To see how these particles behave, lets look at the sample shown in the circle.
• Particles in a solid
•vibrate (jiggle)
but don’t move about.
•are tightly packed in a regular pattern.
• This drawing of a liquid in a beaker shows that the liquid
of particles.
To see how these particles behave, lets look at the small sample shown in the circle.
• •are fairly close together with no regular arrangement.
•vibrate, move about, and slide past each other.
Particles in a liquid
• This drawing of a gas in a beaker shows that the gas is made
of particles and that it escapes through the opening at the top of the beaker.
In the red circle we will see a model of how these particles act.
• •are very far apart with no regular arrangement.
•vibrate and move freely at high speeds.
Particles in a gas
• Particles in a solid
Particles in a liquid
Particles in a gas
• Particles in a solid
Particles in a liquid
Particles in a gas
• Particles of a substance called bromine in a jar might look like this under a microscope:
As a gas
As a liquid.
• This internet site shows movement of particles in solids, liquids and gases:
http://www.hbschool.com/activity/states_of_matter/index.html
• THE PARTICLE DANCE
Hey, hey it’s the particle dance
Hey, hey it’s the particle dance (Snap fingers)
I am solid
I quiver and shake
Quiver and shake, quiver and shake (put arms straight down by side and wiggle, a bit)
Hey, hey it’s the particle dance Hey, hey it’s the particle dance (snap)
I am liquid
I pour and flow
Pour and flow, pour and flow (use hands and arm to make a flowing motion)
Hey, hey it’s the particle dance
Hey, hey it’s the particle dance (snap)
I am gas
I pop and fly Pop and fly, pop and fly (tap shoulder and “fly” hands into the air)
Hey, hey it’s the particle dance
Hey, hey it’s the particle dance (snap)
• This diagram shows how particles in a solid, liquid and gas might look.
Label one picture solid, one gas and one liquid.
• Use these pictures to explain how particles in a solid, liquid and gas are arranged and move.
•particles far apart
gas
•particles move very fast
•particles hit top, bottom and all sides of container.
•particles closer together
liquid
than in a gas
•particles glide over one
another
•particles packed close
solid
together
•particles stay in one place
and vibrate
• Matter can change from one state to another when ________________ is added or subtracted (taken away).
heat energy
Liquids can be changed to solids by taking away heat energy.
The process of changing a liquid to a solid is calledfreezing .
• When liquid water is poured into an ice tray or popsicle mold and placed in a freezer where it loses heat energy, the liquid changes to a solid (ice).
• The liquid water takes the shape of its container and the frozen water is also in that shape.
• When ice is left out of the freezer, it absorbs heat energy from the air. As a result, it changes from a solid to a liquid.
This process of changing from a solid to a liquid is called melting.
• But water is not the only substance that melts (changes from a solid to a liquid) and freezes (changes from a liquid to a solid).
• Many many things that we use are made from metals such as iron, steel (iron mixed with other substances), aluminum, copper, silver, gold, etc.
Iron and steel are used to make
bridges:
boats
• motors
tools
pans for cooking
• Aluminum is another useful metal. It is used to make
aluminum foil
soda cans
• wheels
bicycle frames
airplanes
window frames
• Copper is another useful metal that can be made into
electrical wire
pipes for plumbing
saucepans
• Silver is another a metal that is made into:
jewelry
knives, forks, spoons
coffee and tea pots
• We know these metals mostly as solids, but by adding heat energy, these solids can be changed to liquids (melted).
In turn by subtracting heat energy, these liquid metals change back into solids (they freeze).
• This piece of iron is a solid
When solid iron is heated to a very high temperature, it changes from a solid into a liquid—it melts.
• A furnace full of molten (melted) iron.
• The liquid (molten) iron is then poured into a mold.
In the next two pictures you can see molten iron being poured into molds.
• When the liquid iron in the mold loses heat energy, it changes back into a solid; in other words the liquid iron freezes.
When it freezes, (becomes a solid), it is in the shape of the mold.
• Liquid iron has been poured in the mold and cooled.
The solid iron peg
The mold
Melted (molten) iron was poured into the mold that was the shape of a peg.
When the hot liquid iron cooled, it became a peg the same shape as the mold.
• Liquid silver that has been melted.
Silver as a solid before being heated.
The liquid silver is then poured into a mold
And freezes in the shape of a silver spoon.
• And that is the way many metal objects we see around us are made.
Heat energy is added causing the metal to change into a liquid which is poured into a mold the shape of the object.
When the liquid metal loses heat energy, it solidifies and becomes the same shape as the mold.
• Now let’s look at another way matter changes from one state to another when it absorbs heat energy.
evaporation
• Liquid water that absorbs heat energy seems to disappear.
A puddle on a sidewalk after a rain goes away. We say it dried up.
• Really what has happened is that the liquid water has changed to a invisible gas called water vapor.
This process of changing a liquid to a gas is called evaporation.
The air around us always has particles of water vapor in it but we cannot see them.
• When evaporation occurs, some of the particles of liquid water gain enough heat energy from the surrounding air to break through the surface of the liquid and become particles of water vapor (water in the from of a gas).
• In these diagrams we see some particles in the liquid water absorbing heat energy from the air and becoming particles of water vapor.
• When liquid water is heated, the particles absorb a lot of energy and the water boils.
Boiling is
fast evaporation.
• The bubbles in boiling water hold water vapor (water as a gas), not air.
The bubbles of water vapor rise, break through the surface of the liquid water and water vapor escapes into the air.
• The next diagram shows particles of liquid water changing into water vapor as the water boils. Water vapor, you remember, is an invisible gas.
• Does this invisible water vapor always stay as gas in the air?
No, when this invisible water vapor loses enough heat energy it changes from a gas to a liquid; it
condenses.
This often occurs when particles of water vapor hit a cold surface such as a glass of ice water.
• This process of changing from a gas to a liquid is called
condensation.
• Condensation is tiny droplets of liquid water that form when water vapor in the air loses heat energy.
• Water changing from water vapor in the air (a gas) to liquid water when hitting a cold surface (condensing).
• Fog is tiny droplets of liquid water that form when water vapor in the air at night loses heat energy and condenses (changes from a gas to a liquid).
• Let’s review
• Match and explain your choices
particles in a liquid
particles in a solid
particles in a gas
• heat
When particles of a solid absorb heat energy, they move faster and further apart and the solid changes to a liquid. The solid melts.
• heat
When particles of a liquid lose heat energy they move slower and closer together and the liquid changes to a solid. The liquid freezes.
• heat
When particles of a liquid absorb heat energy from the air, they move faster and further apart and the liquid changes to a gas. The liquid evaporates.
• When particles of water vapor (a gas) hit a cold surface and lose heat energy, they move slower and closer together and the invisible water vapor changes to visible droplets of liquid water. The water vapor condenses.
• Fill in the boxes with evaporation, freezing, melting, condensation
Remove heat
Remove heat