Copy of common origin

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Copy of common origin

  1. 1. COMMON ORIGIN <ul><li>All things have a common origin </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic models and the behavior of the atom </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic structure and the correlation of element’s physical and chemical properties . </li></ul>
  2. 2. WHY STUDY CHEMISTRY? Chemistry is how the world works! ? What are some ways chemistry effects our lives ? 1- Health Care 2- Conservation of natural resources 3- environmental protection 5- everyday needs
  3. 3. ALL THINGS HAVE A COMMON ORIGIN <ul><li>The atom is the building block of all matter. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic structure of an element. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms in all different forms make up elements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Element s make up all matter in </li></ul><ul><li>the universe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most matter is composed of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>different combinations of only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>about 100 different elements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Molecules : 2 or more atoms </li></ul>
  4. 4. COMMON ORIGIN CONT. <ul><li>A quick run down of Atoms , Elements and Molecules . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fND0ps4EtBg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sub atomic particles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proton, neutron, electron </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What 5 Elements make up 97% of life? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorus, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. STATES OF MATTER <ul><li>Gas </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Solid </li></ul>
  6. 7. MORE CLASSIFICATIONS OF MATTER <ul><li>Elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t be broken down any smaller </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of 2 or more elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of Constant Composition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>2 or more substances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retain own chemical identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homogeneous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pure Substance </li></ul><ul><li>Mixture </li></ul>
  7. 8. PROPERTIES OF MATTER <ul><li>Can measure it without changing the identity and composition </li></ul><ul><li>Change in physical appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Changes of State </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The way a substance may change, or react, to form another substance. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Properties </li></ul>
  8. 9. HOW TO MEASURE IN CHEMISTRY <ul><li>Units of Measurement </li></ul>
  9. 10. LENGTH AND MASS <ul><li>Length </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SI Unit: meter (m) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slightly longer than a yard, which is 3 feet. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SI Unit: Kilogram (kg) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal to ~ 2.2 pounds (lb) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not the same as weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass = volume (cm 3 ) x density (g/cm 3 ) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. METRIC SYSTEM PREFIXES …
  11. 12. TEMPERATURE … FAHRENHEIT , CELSIUS , KELVIN <ul><li>Measures the hotness or coldness of an object. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical property: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>heat flow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For scientific use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freezing point 0˙C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boiling point 100˙C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SI Unit Kelvin: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0˙K = -273.15˙C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute zero </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>K = ˚C + 273.15 </li></ul>
  12. 13. DERIVED SI UNITS <ul><li>Volume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cubic Centimeters (cm 3 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(length cubed) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Calculate the volume of 65.0 g of the liquid methanol (wood alcohol) if its density is 0.791 g/mL </li></ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Density = mass/volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>g/cm 3 or g/mL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 mL = 1 cm 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Calculate the density of mercury if 1.00 X 10 2 g occupies a volume of 7.36 cm 3 </li></ul><ul><li>What is the mass in grams of cube of goal (density = 19.32 g/cm 3 ) if the length of the cube is 2.00 cm? </li></ul>
  13. 14. UNCERTAINTY IN MEASUREMENT <ul><li>A measure of how closely individual measurements agree with one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to how closely individual measurements agree with the correct or “true,” value. </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good accuracy/good precision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor accuracy/good precision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor accuracy/poor precision </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PRECISION </li></ul><ul><li>ACCURACY </li></ul>
  14. 15. SIGNIFICANT FIGURES <ul><li>Definition: all digits of a measured quantity, including the uncertain one (± 0.0001 g) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How many Significant Figures …? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.2 g ??? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.2405 g ??? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the difference…? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4.0 g ??? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4.00 g </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>To read significant figures you read the number from left to right, counting the digits starting with the first digit that is not zero! </li></ul>
  15. 16. ZER000000’S IN SIGNIFICANT FIGURES <ul><li>Zer0s between nonzero digits are always significant </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1005 kg </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.03 kg </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Zer0s at the beginning of a number are never significant; they merely indicate the position of a decimal point </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.02 g </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.0026 g </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Zer0s at the end of a number are significant if the number contains a decimal point </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.0200 g </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3.0 cm </li></ul></ul></ul>

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