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# Subnetting class

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### Subnetting class

1. 1. Subnetting and Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSMs)
2. 2. Understanding Subnetting• Reduction of network traffic• Optimization of network performance• Easy management• Easy spanning in large geographical distances
3. 3. Understanding SubnettingClass Format Default Subnet MaskA network.node.node.node 255.0.0.0B network.network.node.node 255.255.0.0C network.network.network.node 255.255.255.0 IP Address : 32 Bits From 00000000.00000000.00000000.00000000 To 11111111.11111111.11111111.11111111 In Hexadecimal: From 00.00.00.00 To FF.FF.FF.FF (broadcasting)
4. 4. Understanding SubnettingClass Network Host Number of Addresses per Start End Bits Bits Networks Network Address AddressA 8 24 128 (27) 16,777,216 (224) 0.0.0.0 127.255. 255.255B 16 16 16,384 (214) 65,536 (216) 128.0.0.0 191.255. 255.255C 24 8 2,097,152 (221) 256 (28) 192.0.0.0 223.255. 255.255
5. 5. Easy way to subnetA. Remember the Classless Inter-Domain Routing table values, orB. Apply the following system: 1. Observe the Example 192.168.1.23/26 (CIDR) 1. 255 is 8 bits 2. 255.255 is 16 bits 3. 255.255.255 is 24 bits 4. Then 255.255.255.? 5. We need 2 more bits !
6. 6. Easy way to subnet We need 2 bits to make /26Octets Bit Needed128 192 224240248252254255 Subnet mask is 255.255.255.192
7. 7. So, how many networks then?128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1  Since 192.168.1.23 is a Class C network, we can only have 256 addresses If we want to have 64 subnets, we need to use increments of 64 or:
8. 8. So, how many networks then?Subnet First Host Last Host Broadcasting192.168.1.0 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.62 192.68.1.63192.168.1.64 192.168.1.65 192.168.1.126 192.168.1.127192.168.1.128 192.168.1.129 192.168.1.190 192.168.1.191192.168.1.192 192.168.1.193 192.168.1.254 192.168.1.255
9. 9. Variable Length Subnet Mask VLSM• VLSM designs use different subnet mask. Example: – Subnet 1: 192.168.10.64/29 (6 hosts) – Subnet 2: 192.168.10.48/28 (10 hosts) – Subnet 3: 192.168.10.72/30 (2 hosts)• Makes the usage of IP addresses even more efficient than standard Subnetting.
10. 10. Variable Length Subnet Mask VLSM Block sizesCIDR MASK HOSTS Block Size/25 128 126 128/26 192 62 64/27 224 30 32/28 240 14 16/29 248 6 8/30 252 2 4
11. 11. VLSM Design