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Organizational Learning Moderate Overqualification
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Organizational Learning Moderate Overqualification

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  • 2 tell the differences between over- or under-qualification
    4-3 tell the reason why choose the third definition
  • Transcript

    • 1. Incorporating Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance Overqualification and it’s outcomes: the moderating role of organizational learning by ZHENG, Boyang www.sinauonline.com
    • 2. Incorporating Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance Outline 1 Literature review 2 Hypothesis and Method 3 Result 4 Discussion 5 Conclusion Incorporating Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance
    • 3. Incorporating Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance • Overqualification (or underemployment) is the state of being skilled or educated beyond what is necessary for a job • A special issue of Demands-Abilities Fit • A common phenomenon in industrialized countries • Operational definition – Through Job analysis and assessment(Green & McIntosh, 2007) – Overeducation(Hung, 2008) – Perceived Overqualification(Johnson & Johnson, 1996, 2002) Overqualification
    • 4. Incorporating Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance • General concerns of the company – More cost on staff salaries – a stepping stone for overqualified candidates (turnover) – Can not maximize the potential of employees – …… • Literatures showed – Negative effect on Job Satisfaction(Johnson & Johnson, 2 000, 2002; Erdogan & Bauer, 2009; Fine & Nevo, 2008) – Positively related to turnover intention( Erdogan & Bauer, 2009) – Low affective commitment(Johnson & Johnson, 2002) Outcomes of overqualification
    • 5. Incorporating Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance • With different measures of performance, a variety results were found: – Negative related(Bolino & Feldman, 2000) – No significant relationship(Fine & Nevo, 2008) – Positive related (Fine & Nevo, 2008; Erdogan & Bauer, 2009) • Task performance (Objective performance) is positive related to OQ Outcomes of overqualification
    • 6. Incorporating Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance THE QUESTION IS: How to avoid negative consequence of OQ while maintain or strengthen performance- facilitate effect? * Note: a managerial practice
    • 7. Incorporating Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance • A way of organizational development • Sense changes in signals from its environment and adapt accordingly • Building learning organization: competency upgrading Experimenta tion Information Collection Analysis Education & Training Information Transfer Components and Process of OL(Garvin et al, 2008) Organizational Learning
    • 8. Incorporating Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance • OL can promote Organizational Performance – Reduce resistance in organizational change(Alas et al, 2009) – Employee’s mastery to performance(Garcia- Morales et al, 2007) – Positively related to Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Task performance(Rose et al, 2009) Why use OL as moderator?
    • 9. Incorporating Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance Organizational Learning Job Satisfaction Affective Commitment Performance (-) (-) (+) Perceived Overqualification (-)H1 (-)H2 (+)H3 Hypothesis
    • 10. Incorporating Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance • 3 firms (N=199) – 1)a subsidy of a communication corepation (N=26) – 2)a foreign trade company (N=100) – 3)a branch of ICBC (N=73) • Description – Valid: 176; – Male: 29.5%; age from 21 to 50 (ave. 29.7±5.8); – mainly junior college students and undergraduates; – Work experience: 0 to 30 (ave. 7.1±6.1) Sampling
    • 11. Incorporating Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance • Perceived Overqualification : 10 items, 2 factors (Johnson & Johnson, 1996) • Concrete Learning Process and Practice: 29 items, 5 factors (Garvin et al., 2008) • Job satisfaction: 3 items (Cammann et al., 1979) • Affective Commitment: 8 items (Allen & Meyer, 1990) • Performance (Self-rated): 15 items, 5 factors (Suliman,2001) • Note 1: Cronbach α varies from 0.733 to 0.926 Note 2: Construct Validity was verified (construct maintained) Measure
    • 12. Incorporating Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance • Age, gender, work experience • Dummy variables: – Education(4 levels, 3 variables) – Position(2 levels, 1 variables) – Sample Source(3 levels, 2 variables) Controlled Variables
    • 13. Incorporating Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance Result: Correlation
    • 14. Incorporating Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance • Follow a 3-step procedure – 1 add controlled variables – 2 add Organizational Learning and Overqualification – 3 add OL*OQ (the interact variable) • If interaction occurs, the moderate effect occurs Result: Regression
    • 15. Incorporating Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance • Interaction is significant, need further step to prove H1 Result: Regression – Job Satisfaction
    • 16. Incorporating Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance • Interaction is not significant, H2 is not supported Result: Regression – Affective Commitment
    • 17. Incorporating Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance • Interaction is significant, need further step to prove H3 Result: Regression – Performance
    • 18. Incorporating Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance • Further analysis of interaction: Here use a regression coefficients comparison procedure instead of simple slope analysis • Procedure: – 1. Dichotomize cases into 2 groups according to the average of OL score – 2. Conduct regression analysis for each group – 3. Compare coefficients Result: Comparative Regression
    • 19. Incorporating Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance • Job Satisfaction: OL reduce the negative effect of OQ on JS, H1 is supported • Performance: OL also reduce the positive effect of OQ on performance, the opposite of H3, H3 is not supported. Result: Comparative Regression
    • 20. Incorporating Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance Result Organizational Learning Job Satisfaction Affective Commitment Performance (-) (-) (NS) Perceived Overqualification (-) (NS) (-)
    • 21. Incorporating Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance • Why only H1 supported? – OL practices give employees opportunities to learn more to alleviate the perception of OQ – OL practices directly effect on employees’ skills, which is not directly related with psychological attachments – OL practices mean changes, changes need adaption – D-A fit: a dynamic process • Consequences of Overqualification Discussion
    • 22. Incorporating Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance • How to apply? - A managerial practice need to be weighed – a more satisfied employee may less considers turnover, thus save costs of recruitment and training – The extra performance of overqualified employee disappeared. May not be good to overall performance. Discussion
    • 23. Incorporating Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance • Limitations – Did not distinguish fit and under-qualification individuals – Sampling: multi-source, not focus on industry – Measurement of performance – Common Method Bias • Further Research – Other managerial practices to tackle negative consequences of OQ – Formation of OQ (esp. psychological mechanism) Limitations and Further Research
    • 24. Incorporating Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance • Organizational Learning will weaken the negative effect of overqualification on Job satisfaction, while it shows no effect on weakening the negative effect on affective commitment and weaken the positive effect on performance. • Organizational Learning can solve part of the problems caused by Overqualification, but it need to be weighed when applied. Conclusion
    • 25. Incorporating Knowledge and Learning for a Better Performance Thank you!

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