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Transfer of Training

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  1. 1. Transfer of Training Presented by Gajaba Perera-Gunawardena Management Consultant 1
  2. 2. Introduction  For training to be beneficiary, individuals participating in this training need to take new knowledge back to the workplace and apply what they have learned (Hatala & Fleming, 2007; Wang & Wilcox, 2006).  This effective and continuing application of the knowledge and skills gained by trainees to their jobs is known as transfer of training (Broad & Newstrom, 1992; Kirwan & Birchall,2006). 8/16/2013 2
  3. 3. Definition  Positive transfer of training is the degree to which trainees effectively apply the knowledge, skills and attitudes gained in a training context to the job (Newstrom 1984, Wexley and Latham 1981).  Transfer of training, therefore, is more than a function of original learning in a training program (Atkinson 1972, Fleishman 1953). For transfer to have occurred, learned behavior must be generalized to the job context and maintained over a period of time on the job.” 8/16/2013 3
  4. 4. Two Levels of Training Outcome  It is useful to think about evaluation of training with two levels of outcome, training outcomes and transfer outcomes.  Baldwin and Ford (1988) define training outcomes as the amount of original learning that occurs during a training program, and the retention of that material after the training is competed. Training outcomes are generally gathered during or immediately after training.  Transfer outcomes however, are typically assessed by measuring how trained skills have been maintained and generalized by the trainee after being on the job for some time (Baldwin and Ford 1988). 8/16/2013 4
  5. 5. Conditions of Transfer of training Refers to application of knowledge and skills learned in training on the job and maintenance of acquired knowledge and skills over time  Two conditions: • Generalization  The use or application of learned material to the job • Maintenance  The use or application of learned material to the job over a period of time 8/16/2013 5
  6. 6. Factors affecting Transfer of training  During the past 20 years, many researchers have tried finding an answer to the challenges transfer of training poses. Pivotal review studies are the following: Baldwin and Ford (1988), (three groups of variables influencing transfer of training: trainee characteristics, training design and work environment.)  Cheng and Ho (2001), (focus on motivation as an influential variable, beside trainee characteristics and work environment.)  Holton et al . (2000), (added ability as a separate variable beside these three variables.) 8/16/2013 6
  7. 7. Factors affecting Training Baldwin and Ford (1988) three groups of variables influencing transfer of training Cheng and Ho (2001) Holton et al . (2000) Trainee characteristics Training design Work Environment focus on motivation as an influential variable, beside trainee characteristics and work environment added ability as a separate variable beside these three variables 8/16/2013 7
  8. 8. 8/16/2013 8
  9. 9. Three Major Factors Affecting Training  1. Training Design: They also identified three types of training inputs factors that can impact training outcomes and training transfer. These design factors are the incorporation of learning principles, the sequencing of training material, and the job relevance of training content.  2. Trainee Characteristics include ability, skill, motivation, and personality factors of the trainee.  3. Work environment factors include transfer climate, social support from supervisors and peers as well as the constraints and opportunity to perform learned behavior on the job  (The numbers correspond to those in figure 1 above) 8/16/2013 9
  10. 10. Training Transfer Model 8/16/2013 10 Based in part on Salas, Cannon-Bowers, Rhodenizer, & Bowers, 1999 & Baldwin & Ford, 1988. Learner Characteristics Intervention Design Work Environment -Cognitive Ability -Self-efficacy -Motivation (personality, job/career) Development of Learning Goals Adult Learning Principles Instructional Methods & Media Self-Management Strategies Strategic Link of Training Org Climate & Accountability Opportunity to Perform Technological Support Learning Transfer Individual & Organizational Performance
  11. 11. TRANSFER OF TRAINING Types of Transfer of Training  Near: Applying new learning to situations that are very similar to those in which training occurred  Far: Applying new learning to situations that are novel or different from those in which training occurred  Horizontal: Transfer across different setting or contexts at the same level  Vertical: Transfer from trainee level to organizational level or impact on organizational outcomes 8/16/2013 11
  12. 12. TRANSFER OF TRAINING Extent of Transfer of Training  Positive: Trainees effectively apply new learning on the job  Zero: Trainees do not apply new learning on the job  Negative: Trainees perform worse on the job after training 8/16/2013 12
  13. 13. TRAINING INPUTS Training Design  Active practice and conditions of practice  Learning principles: • Identical Elements – Experiences and conditions that closely resemble those in the work environment – Similar to physical and psychological fidelity 13
  14. 14. TRAINING INPUTS  General Principles • General rules and theoretical principles that underlie the use and application of a skill  Stimulus Variability • Providing a variety of stimuli or experiences; multiple examples of a concept; practise experiences in varied settings 8/16/2013 14
  15. 15. TRAINING INPUTS Trainee Characteristics  Most likely to transfer:  High cognitive abilities, motivation to learn, self-efficacy  Internal focus of control and high need for achievement  High job involvement, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment 8/16/2013 15
  16. 16. TRAINING INPUTS Work Environment  Pre-Training  Management actions send messages/signals regarding importance and organizational support of training  Organizational constraints: lack of time, equipment, and/or resources 8/16/2013 16
  17. 17. TRAINING INPUTS Work Environment (cont'd)  Post-Training  Support provided by trainees’ supervisor and peers  Training transfer climate  Continuous learning culture What are the important considerations learned in earlier chapters on learning culture? 17
  18. 18. TRAINING INPUTS  To recap: Baldwin and Ford’s model of transfer of training process indicates:  Transfer generalization and maintenance are a function of trainee characteristics, the work environment, and learning & retention  Learning and retention are a function of trainee characteristics, training design, and the work environment  Thus, transfer of training is influenced as far back as the design stage 8/16/2013 18
  19. 19. STRATEGIES FOR TRANSFER Activities before Training Management  Decide who should attend • Readiness to learn/trainability • Trainability tests  Increase motivation to learn • Meet with employees to discuss training needs • “WIIFM”  Provide employees with support for learning and training8/16/2013 19
  20. 20. STRATEGIES FOR TRANSFER Activities before Training (cont'd) Trainer  Ensure application of ISD model (Instructional Systems Design)  Ensure both trainees’ supervisor and trainees are prepared in terms of knowing objectives and benefits  Find out supervisor and trainee needs and expectations  Ensure that trainees are prepared for training in terms of prerequisite courses/readings etc.8/16/2013 20
  21. 21. STRATEGIES FOR TRANSFER Activities during Training Management Participate in training programs Attend training programs before trainees Reassign employee’s work while they are attending training 8/16/2013 21
  22. 22. STRATEGIES FOR TRANSFER Activities during Training (cont'd) Trainer  Incorporate conditions of practice, adult learning principles, and other learning principles in design  Include content and examples that are relevant and meaningful  Provide interventions at end of content portion8/16/2013 22
  23. 23. STRATEGIES FOR TRANSFER Activities during Training (cont'd) Trainees  Enter training program with positive attitude and motivation to learn  Engage themselves by actively participating  Develop an action plan for application of training on-the-job 23
  24. 24. STRATEGIES FOR TRANSFER Activities after Training Management  Ensure trainees have immediate and frequent opportunities to practise and apply what they learned  Encourage and reinforce trainees’ application of new skills  Develop action plan with trainees, reduce job pressures and workload, arrange practice sessions, give promotional preference to employees who have received training, and8/16/2013 24
  25. 25. STRATEGIES FOR TRANSFER Activities after Training (cont'd) Trainer  Stay involved  Conduct field visits  Observe trainees, provide feedback and support 8/16/2013 25
  26. 26. STRATEGIES FOR TRANSFER Activities after Training (cont'd) Trainees  Begin using new knowledge and skills on-the- job ASAP  Meet with supervisor to discuss opportunities for transfer  Form a “buddy system”  Consider high-risk situations that might cause a relapse and develop strategies for overcoming them and avoiding a relapse  Set goals for transfer 8/16/2013 26
  27. 27. TRANSFER INTERVENTIONS Take place in the learning environment before the trainee returns to work  Relapse Prevention (RP) • Anticipate transfer obstacles, develop coping skills  Self-Management • Perform a series of steps to manage transfer behaviour  Goal-Setting • Set specific, challenging goals to enhance transfer – Goal-setting interventions Teach trainees about the goal-setting process 8/16/2013 27