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Complete guide to Effective Training - Nick Blanchard and James W Thacker


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Chapter 1

Training in Organizations

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Complete guide to Effective Training - Nick Blanchard and James W Thacker

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Training in Organizations
  2. 2. Training provides employees with the knowledge and skills to perform more effectively. This allows them to meet current job requirement or prepares them to meet the inevitable changes that occur in their jobs. However, training is only an opportunity for learning. What is learned depends on many factors, such as the design and implementation of training, the motivation and learning style of the trainees, and the learning climate of the organization. Training goals and roles
  3. 3. Training is also part of an integrated system in which performance is measured against criteria (best practices benchmarks) that are tied to strategic objectives. Training is used extensively to help employee understand how they can assist in meeting cooperative objectives. Training goals and roles
  4. 4. A business must interact with its environment and thus it is an open system. Open systems have dynamic relationship with their environment, but closed system do not interact with their environment. Inputs from the environment keeps the system active. The environmental inputs are transformed into outputs by the system’s processes. Training as an open system
  5. 5. Input Process Output Open System System’s External Environment Training as an open system
  6. 6. Training is a subsystem within the larger Human Resource Unit, which is itself a subsystem of the company. Input Process Output Training’s Organizational Environment Mission Strategy Structure Policies Procedures Finance Resources People Products Technology Training Subsystem Org Needs Employee Needs Budget Equipment Staff Analysis Design Development Implementation Evaluation Knowledge Skill Attitude Motivation Job Performance
  7. 7. A training process model Training should be viewed as a set of integrated processes in which organizational and employee needs are analyzed and responded to in a rational, logical and strategic manner. When training is conducted in this manner, the organization will improve, the value of training will increase and further investment in training is likely to occur.
  8. 8. A training process model The training process begins with some type of triggering event. A triggering event occurs when a person with authority to take action recognizes that Actual Organizational Performance (AOP) is less than the Expected Organizational Performance (EOP). Triggering Event = AOP<EOP
  9. 9. Analysis Phase In a TNA, both training and non training needs are identified. An effective training system begins with the identification of the organization’s training needs. These need will create a performance gap (AOP is less than EOP). Performance gap can be current or future oriented. Things such as profitability shortfalls, low level of customer satisfaction or excessive scrap are all examples of current performance gap. Another type of performance gap is future oriented. Here, the company is seen as likely to perform poorly in the future unless changes are made. Once a performance gap exists, the cause must then be determined.
  10. 10. Analysis Phase Inadequate KSA results in training needs. Other reasons for performance gaps such as motivational issues etc are non training needs and requires a different solution. In the analysis phase, the cause of performance gap is identified , seperating KSA from non KSA causes. Those performance gaps caused by KSA deficiencies are identified as “Training needs” because training is the solution. Analysis phase attaches priorities to the training needs that are identified. Not all needs will have same level of importance for the company. This process of data gathering and causal analysis to determine which performance problems should be addressed by training is the analysis phase of the training phases.
  11. 11. Design Phase Training needs identified in the analysis phase in addition to areas of constraints and support is inputs to design phase. An important output from the design phase is the development of training objectives that provide specific direction for what will be trained and how. These objectives specify the employee and organizational outcomes that should be achieved as a result of training and become inputs to the evaluation phase. Another part in the design process is identifying the factors needed in the training program to facilitate learning and its transfer back to the job, including identifying alternative methods of instruction.
  12. 12. Development Phase Program development is the process of formulating an instructional strategy to meet a set of training objectives. The instructional strategy consists of the order, timing, and combination of methods and elements used in the training program. Inputs to this phase are provided by design phase and outputs are specific content, instructional methods, materials, equipment's and media, manuals, and facilities integrated into a training plan designed to achieve the training objectives. These outputs of the development phase serve as inputs to the implementation phase.
  13. 13. Implementation Phase All aspects of the training program come together during the implementation phase. However, it is a mistake to assume that everything will happen as planned. Therefore, it is useful to conduct a dry run and even a pilot of the program.
  14. 14. Evaluation Phase Evaluation objectives are the outcomes of design phase and become inputs to the evaluation phase. Another input is organizational constraints. Time, money and staff all affect how training is evaluated. Two types of evaluation are useful. Process evaluation – How well a particular process achieved its objectives. Outcome evaluation – Evaluation conducted at the end of training to determine the effects of training on the trainee, job and organization. This kind of evaluation uses the training objectives as standard.
  15. 15. Challenges and opportunities for training • Aligning training with business strategy. • Changing demographics. • Knowledge workers. • Training as continuous improvement. • Quality. • Legal Issues.
  16. 16. Teaching the act of imparting knowledge. Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour in response to a particular stimulus or set of stimuli. Training is the systematic process of providing an opportunity to learn KSAs for current or future jobs. Development refers to the learning of KSAs. Education focuses on general KSAs related to a person’s career or job.
  17. 17. Training is only an opportunity to learn. What is learned depends on many factors such as • Design and implementation of training. • The motivation of trainee. • Learning style of trainee. • Learning climate of the organization.
  18. 18. Teaching is mostly theoretically oriented where as training is practical oriented. Teaching provides new knowledge to the people while training helps the already knowledgeable people to learn the tools and techniques to apply the same. Training is subset of teaching. Teacher provides information, knowledge, experience where as trainer facilitates learning. Teaching usually refers to classroom learning. On the contrary, training refers workshops, seminars involving various games, role-plays, simulation methods etc. Teaching Vs Training
  19. 19. Classification of learning outcomes Learning Skill based learning •Compilation •Automaticity Cognitive Knowledge • Declarative • Procedural • Strategic Attitudinal Learning • Affect / feeling.
  20. 20. Knowledge is an organized body of facts, principles, procedures and information acquired over time. 1. Declarative knowledge is a person’s store of factual information about a subject. 2. Procedural knowledge is a person’s understanding about how and when to apply the facts that have been learned. 3. Strategic knowledge is used for planning, monitoring and revising goal – directed behavior. Knowledge
  21. 21. Knowledge is a prerequisite for learning skills. Skills are the capacities needed to perform a set of tasks that are developed as a result of training and experience. There are two levels of skill acquisition. 1. Compilation (Lower level) – He needs to think about what he is doing while he is performing the skill. 2. Automaticity (Higher level) - He is able to perform the skill without really thinking about what he is doing. Skills
  22. 22. Attitudes are employee belief and opinions that support or inhibit behavior. Attitudes are important to training because they affect motivation. Attitudes A competency is a set of knowledge, skills and attitudes that enable a person to be successful at a number of similar task. A competency is more than just KSAs: It is the ability to integrate and use the KSAs to perform a task successfully. Competencies
  23. 23. Prepared by Manu Melwin Joy Research Scholar SMS, CUSAT, Kerala Phone – 9744551114 Mail –