Module 1UNDERSTANDING THE K to 12 BASIC EDUCATION REFORM By: Llilian B. Salan Teacher IIReference: Discussion Paper As of 05 October 2010 Balingasag Central School
HISTORICAL BACKGROUNDAs early as 1925, studieshave observed the As one of the mostinadequacy of the basic well studied reforms,education curriculum. recommendations of either adding or restoring 7th grade or adding an extra year to basic education have been put forward.
a) Monroe Survey (1925): Secondaryeducation did not prepare for life andrecommended training inagriculture, commerce, and industry.
b) Prosser Survey (1930): Recommended toimprove phases of vocationaleducation such as 7th grade shopwork, provincial schools, practical artstraining in the regular high schools, homeeconomics, placement work,gardening, and agricultural education.
c) UNESCO MissionSurvey (1949):Recommended therestoration of Grade 7.
d) Education Act of1953: Under Section3, mandates that “the primary courseshall be composed offour grades (Grades Ito IV) and theintermediate courseof three grades(Grade V to VII).”
e) Swanson Survey (1960):Recommended the restoration of Grade 7.
f) Presidential Commission to SurveyPhilippine Education (PCSPE)(1970): High priority be given to theimplementation of an 11-year program;Recommended program consists of 6 yearsof compulsory elementaryeducation and 5 years of secondary..education
g) Congressional Commissionon Education (EDCOM) Report(1991): If one year is to beadded in the educationprogram, it recommends oneof twoalternatives: Seven years ofelementary education or Fiveyears of secondaryeducation
h) PresidentialCommission onEducational Reforms(2000): Reformproposals include theestablishment of aone-year pre-baccalaureate systemthat would also bringthe Philippines at parwith other countries.
i) Presidential Task Force on Education(2008): In discussions on a 12-yearpre-university program, it is important “tospecify the content of the 11th and 12th yearsand benchmark these with programsabroad.”
Every graduate of the EnhancedK+12 Basic Education Program isan empowered individual who haslearned, through a program that isrooted on sound educationalprinciples and geared towardsexcellence,
the foundations for learningthroughout life, the competence toengage in work and be productive, theability to coexist in fruitful harmonywith local and global communities, thecapability to engage in autonomouscritical thinking, and the capacity totransform others and one’s self.
A Vision Grounded on Human Development:The complete humandevelopment of every graduate isat the core of the Enhanced K+12Basic Education Program.
Every graduate holds anunderstanding of the world aroundand a zest for life-longlearning, which addresses everychild’s basic learningneeds, including learning tolearn, the acquisition ofnumeracy, literacy, and scientificand technological knowledge asapplied to daily life.
The graduate also has thecourage, the drive, and the relevantskills to engage in work and have aproductive life. Every graduate will beable to embark in the modern worldprepared to meet challenges.
Every graduate will be able to thinkfor himself/herself and make sounddecisions on the best courses ofaction to take in the differentcircumstances of his or her life.
Every graduate is inculcated with the respect for human rights and values,notably, MakaDiyos, Makatao, Makaba nsa, and Makakalikasan. This makes every graduate empowered to effectpositive changes in his/her life and that of others.
A Vision Achieved through an Enhanced Curriculum:Every graduate of the Enhanced K+12 Basic Education Program will benefit from a reformed and updatedcurriculum that is focused on enablingevery child to achieve mastery of core competencies and skills.
A Vision that has Socio-Economic Relevance: Every graduate of theEnhanced K+12 Basic Education Program is ready to take his or her place as a productive member of society. They areequipped to take on every opportunity in life he or she chooses to find work, to engage in higher studies, or to start an entrepreneurial endeavor.
This vision is consistent with thedefinition of an educated Filipinoas conceived in the PhilippineConstitution and the WorldDeclaration on Education for All.
GOALSThe goal of the Enhanced K+12 BasicEducation Program is to create afunctional basic education system thatwill produce productive and responsiblecitizens equipped with the essentialcompetencies and skills for both life-long learning and employment.
a) To give every student an opportunity to receive quality education based on an enhancedand decongested curriculum that is internationally recognized and comparable.
b) To change public perception that high school education is just a preparation for college; rather, itshould allow one to take advantage of opportunities for gainful career oremployment and/or self-employmentin a rapidly changing and increasingly globalized environment.
The Enhanced K+12 Basic EducationProgram will be instrumental inachieving the nation’s vision of a highschool graduate. The benefits of theK+12 proposal far outweigh theadditional costs that will be incurred byboth government and families.
To Individuals and FamiliesAn enhanced curriculum willdecongest academic workload, givingstudents more time to mastercompetencies and skills as well as timefor other learning opportunitiesbeyond the classroom, thus allowingfor a more holistic development.
After considering various proposals and studies, the model that iscurrently being proposed by DepEd is the K-6-4-2 Model. This model involves Kindergarten, six years of elementary education, four years of junior high school (Grades 7 to 10) and two years of senior high school (Grades 11 to 12).
Kindergarten and 12years of quality basiceducation is a right ofeveryFilipino, thereforethese should beprovided bygovernment for freein public schools.
Figure 1 K-6-4-2 Model Senior High SchoolGrade 11 to 12 (16-17 years old) Junior High SchoolGrade 7 to 10 (12-15 years old) Elementary School Grade 1 to 6 ( 6-11 years old) Kindergarten ( 5 years old)
The implementation of the K+12program will be phased. Universalkindergarten will be offered starting SY2011-2012. By SY 2012-2013, the newcurriculum will be offered to incomingGrade 1 as well as to incoming juniorhigh school students.
The SHS curriculum (which assumesalready an unclogged basic educationcurriculum) will offer areas ofspecialization or electives such asscience and technology, music andarts, agriculture andfisheries, sports, business andentrepreneurship, etc., and subjectsfor advanced placement.
In implementing the K-6-4-2proposal, DepEd will take into accountthe issuesand concerns of allstakeholders, including the high schoolgraduates before 2016. The mechanicsand other details of the transition planwill be threshed out with HEIs incoordination with CHED, TESDA andother critical stakeholders.
GUIDING PRINCIPLES The enhancement of the curriculum is the central focus of the Enhanced K+12 Basic Education Program.
The development of tracks based ondifferent competencies and/or student interest will be an integral component of the program.
As part of the biggerbasic educationreform, theenhancement of thebasic educationcurriculum is beingundertaken hand inhand with the vigorousefforts to ensureadequacy of inputs.
Change is two-fold:curriculumenhancement andtransitionmanagement.
An open andconsultativeprocess will beadopted in thepromotion of theEnhanced K+12Basic EducationProgram.