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South Africa
South Africa
South Africa
South Africa
South Africa
South Africa
South Africa
South Africa
South Africa
South Africa
South Africa
South Africa
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South Africa

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culture, history of south africa

culture, history of south africa

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  • 1.    Adopted: 27 April 1994 Designed by: Frederick Brownell, former State Herald of South Africa Design :Rectangular flag in the proportion of two in the width to three in the length: per pall from the hoist, the upper band red (chilli) and the lower band blue, with a black triangle at the hoist; over the partition lines a green pall one fifth the width of the flag, fimbriated white against the red (chilli) and blue, and gold against the black triangle at the hoist; the width of the pall and its fimbriations is one third the width of the flag.
  • 2. The Republic of South Africa (also referred to as South Africa, SA or RSA) is a state in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with 2,798 kilometers (1,739 mi) of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans. To the north of the country lie the neighboring territories of Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe; to the east are Mozambique and Swaziland; while Lesotho is an enclave surrounded by South African territory.  Total Area: 1,221,037 km2 or 471,443 sq mi  South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world and is comparable in size to Colombia.  Mafadi in the Drakensberg at 3,450 m (11,320 ft) is the highest peak in South Africa. 
  • 3.      Capital: Pretoria (executive),Bloemfontein (judicial),Cape Town (legislative) Ethnic groups: 79.5% Black, 9.0% White 9.0% Coloured, 2.5% Asian Government: Constitutional parliamentary republic Population: 2011 estimate-50,586,757 Currency: Rand
  • 4. In 1487, the Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias became the first European known to have reached southern Africa. On 4 December, he landed at Walfisch Bay (now known as Walvis Bay in present-day Namibia). This was south of the furthest point reached in 1485 by his predecessor, the Portuguese navigator Diogo Cão (Cape Cross, north of the bay). Dias continued down the western cost of southern Africa. After 8 January 1488, prevented by storms from proceeding along the coast, he sailed out of sight of land and passed the southernmost point of Africa without seeing it. After he had reached as far up the eastern coast of Africa as what he called Rio do Infante, probably the present-day Groot River, in May 1488 on his return he saw the Cape, which he first named Cabo das Tormentas(Cape of Storms). His King, John II, renamed the point Cabo da Boa Esperança or Cape of Good Hope, as it led to the riches of the East Indies.Dias' feat of navigation was later memorialised in Luís de Camões' epic Portuguese poem, The Lusiads (1572).
  • 5. South Africa is a parliamentary republic, although unlike most such republics the President is both head of state and head of government, and depends for his tenure on the confidence of Parliament. The executive, legislature and judiciary are all subject to the supremacy of the Constitution, and the superior courts have the power to strike down executive actions and acts of Parliament if they are unconstitutional. The National Assembly, the lower house of Parliament, consists of 400 members and is elected every five years by a system of party-list proportional representation. In the most recent election, held on 22 April 2009.
  • 6. The National Council of Provinces, the upper house, consists of ninety members, with each of the nine provincial legislatures electing ten members. After each parliamentary election, the National Assembly elects one of its members as President; hence the President serves a term of office the same as that of the Assembly, normally five years. No President may serve more than two terms in office. The President appoints a Deputy President and Ministers, who form the Cabinet. The President and the Cabinet may be removed by the National Assembly by a motion of no confidence.
  • 7. South Africa has three capital cities: Cape Town, as the seat of Parliament, is the legislative capital;Pretoria, as the seat of the President and Cabinet, is the administrative capital; and Bloemfontein, as the seat of the Supreme Court of Appeal, is the judicial capital.
  • 8. Since 2004, the country has had many thousands of popular protests, some violent, making it, according to one academic, the "most protest-rich country in the world". Many of these protests have been organized from the growing shanty towns that surround South African cities. In 2008, South Africa placed 5th out of 48 sub-Saharan African countries on the Ibrahim Index of African Governance. South Africa scored well in the categories of Rule of Law, Transparency & Corruption and Participation & Human Rights, but was let down by its relatively poor performance in Safety & Security. The Ibrahim Index is a comprehensive measure of African governance, based on a number of different variables which reflect the success with which governments deliver essential political goods to its citizens.
  • 9. Provinces          Eastern Cape Free State Gauteng KwaZulu-Natal Limpopo Mpumalanga North West Northern Cape Western Cape Capital Bhisho Bloemfontein Johannesburg Pietermaritzburg Polokwane Nelspruit Mafikeng Kimberley Cape town
  • 10. The provinces are in turn divided into 52 districts: 8 metropolitan and 44 district municipalities. The district municipalities are further subdivided into 226 local municipalities. The metropolitan municipalities, which govern the largest urban agglomerations, perform the functions of both district and local municipalities.
  • 11. South Africa has a generally temperate climate, due in part to being surrounded by the Atlantic and Indian Oceans on three sides, by its location in the climatically milder southern hemisphere and due to the average elevation rising steadily towards the north (towards the equator) and further inland. Due to this varied topography and oceanic influence, a great variety of climatic zones exist. Winters in South Africa occur between June and August.
  • 12.    Real Yellowwood (Podocarpus latifolius), stinkwood (Ocotea bullata), and South African Black Ironwood (Olea laurifolia)
  • 13.          lions, leopards, white rhinos, blue wildebeest, kudus, impalas, hyenas, hippopotamus and giraffes
  • 14.  South Africa has a mixed economy with high rate of poverty and low GDP per capita. By UN classification South Africa is a middle-income country with an abundant supply of resources, well-developed financial, legal, communications, energy, and transport sectors, a stock exchange that ranks among the top twenty in the world,and a modern infrastructure supporting an efficient distribution of goods to major urban centers throughout the entire region. South Africa is ranked 25th in the world in terms of GDP (PPP) as of 2008, and is considered a newly industrialized country.
  • 15. Unemployment is extremely high and South Africa is ranked in the top 10 countries in the world for income inequality  South Africa is the largest energy producer and consumer on the continent. South Africa is a popular tourist destination, and a substantial amount of revenue comes from tourism. Among the main attractions are the diverse and picturesque culture, the game reserves and the highly regarded local wines.  The South African rand (ZAR), is the most actively traded emerging market currency in the world. It has joined an elite club of fifteen currencies, the Continuous linked settlement (CLS), where forex transactions are settled immediately, lowering the risks of transacting across time zones. The rand was the best-performing currency against the United States dollar (USD) between 2002 and 2005, according to the Bloomberg Currency Scorecard. 
  • 16.  Principal international trading partners of South Africa—besides other African countries—include Germany, the United States, China, Japan, the United Kingdom and Spain. Chief exports include corn, diamonds, fruits, gold, metals and minerals, sugar, and wool. Machinery and transportation equipment make up more than one-third of the value of the country’s imports. Other imports include chemicals, manufactured goods, and petroleum.
  • 17.  Same-sex Marriage has been legal in South Africa since 2006. It is the first republic and the first African Nation to allow same-sex marriage. Couples have a choice of a civil union or a marriage.
  • 18. According to the 2001 national census, Christians accounted for 79.7% of the population. This includes Zion Christian (11.1%), Pentecostal (Charismatic) (8.2%), Roman Catholic (7.1%), Methodist (6.8%), Dutch Reformed (6.7%),Anglican (3.8%); members of other Christian churches accounted for another 36% of the population. Muslims accounted for 1.5% of the population, Hindus about 1.3%, and Judaism 0.2%. 15.1% had no religious affiliation, 2.3% were other and 1.4% were unspecified.  African Indigenous Churches were the largest of the Christian groups. It was believed that many of these persons who claimed no affiliation with any organized religion adhered to traditional indigenous religions. Many peoples have syncretic religious practices combining Christian and indigenous influences. 
  • 19.  South Africa has eleven official languages: Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Sotho, Swazi, Tswana, Tsonga, Venda, Xhosa, and Zulu
  • 20. The spread of AIDS (acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome) is an alarming problem in South Africa with up to 31% of pregnant women found to be HIV infected in 2005 and the infection rate among adults estimated at 20%. The link between HIV, a virus spread primarily by sexual contact, and AIDS was long denied by prior president Thabo Mbeki and then health minister Manto Tshabalala-Msimang, who insisted that the many deaths in the country are due to malnutrition, and hence poverty, and not HIV.  AIDS affects mainly those who are sexually active and is far more prevalent in the black population. Most deaths are people who are also economically active, resulting in many families losing their primary wage earners. This has resulted in many 'AIDS orphans' who in many cases depend on the state for care and financial support. It is estimated that there are 1,200,000 orphans in South Africa. Many elderly people also lose the support from lost younger members of their family. Roughly 5 million people are infected with the disease. 
  • 21.  The oldest art objects in the world were discovered in a South African cave. Dating from 75,000 years ago, these small drilled snail shells could have no other function than to have been strung on a string as a necklace. South Africa was one of the cradles of the human species.
  • 22. Learners have twelve years of formal schooling, from grade 1 to 12. Grade R is a pre-primary foundation year. Primary schools span the first seven years of schooling. High School education spans a further five years. The Senior Certificate examination takes place at the end of grade 12 and is necessary for tertiary studies at a South African university.  Public universities in South Africa are divided into three types: traditional universities, which offer theoretically oriented university degrees; universities of technology ("Technikons"), which offer vocational oriented diplomas and degrees; and comprehensive universities, which offer both types of qualification. Public institutions are usually English medium, although instruction may take place in Afrikaans as well. 
  • 23. There are also a large number of other educational institutions in South Africa – some are local campuses of foreign universities, some conduct classes for students who write their exams at the distance-education University of South Africa and some offer unaccredited or nonaccredited diplomas. See: List of universities in South Africa; List of post secondary institutions in South Africa; Category:Higher education in South Africa.  Public expenditure on education was at 5.4 % of the 2002– 05 GDP.  Under apartheid, schools for blacks were subject to discrimination through inadequate funding and a separate syllabus called Bantu Education which was only designed to give them sufficient skills to work as laborers. Redressing these imbalances has been a focus of recent education policy; see Education in South Africa: Restructuring.
  • 24.  South Africa's most popular sports are soccer, rugby and cricket. Other sports with significant support are swimming, athletics, golf, boxing, tennis and netball. Although soccer commands the greatest following among the youth, other sports like basketball, surfing and skateboarding are increasingly popular
  • 25.  Cape Town's beautiful beaches The beautiful beaches in Cape Town contribute to the Mother City’s worldwide acclaim. From the trendy shores of Clifton and Camps Bay to the warmer swimming waters of False Bay – if you love surf and sand, Cape Town will have a beach that’s just right for you.
  • 26.  Grape escapes in the winelands Ever wondered how that precious 'Cab Sav you’ve laid down so carefully was made, or sipped wine so heavenly you’d like to bathe in it? Now you can! From grape stomping contests, to wine baths, and end of harvest festivals - uncork the best of the winelands on these grape escapes.
  • 27.  The Garden Route The Garden Route is a mix of modern golf courses, ancient forests, secluded artist communities, retirement estates, modern malls, craft centres, mountain hideaways and beach holidays. A large number of interesting and creative people have come to live down here, drawn to this magnificent stretch of coastline.
  • 28. City of gold and glamour  Johannesburg Johannesburg is a city with so much on the go. There are wonderful restaurants, relaxed sidewalk cafes, laughter-filled shebeens, gargantuan shopping malls, tranquil parks, emotive museums, thrilling casinos, busy townships, stunning galleries, funky nightclubs… and that’s just a teaser.
  • 29. Visit Pafuri, one of Kruger Park's great wilderness areas  The Northern Kruger National Park The Kruger National Park is not just about big game. There are wilderness areas of great natural beauty where you can discover unique forests, brilliant birding, traces of early humankind, and a once-notorious area between South Africa, Mozambique and Zimbabwe, where old-time baddies hung out, criss-crossing the Limpopo River on foot.
  • 30. East meets West  Durban Durban offers excellent urban vibes, including a mix of design, art, music and food – peppered with fascinating cultural influences. Even in winter there’s lots to experience, especially with snow-capped mountains, top game reserves, country meanders and loads of other top attractions nearby.
  • 31. A worldwide beacon for human rights  Robben Island Prison Museum Robben Island’s place in South Africa’s conflicted past begins with the very start of colonialism as the first Dutch settler, Jan van Riebeeck, clashed with local Khoekhoe leader, Autshumato. Today its lessons are a heritage that belongs to all mankind. They can be learned at the Robben Island Prison Museum.
  • 32. The Deep Green Canyon  The Blyde River Canyon Nature Reserve The Blyde River Canyon Nature Reserve is situated in Mpumalanga and, with legendary viewing points such as God’s Window, offers some of the most spectacular views in South Africa. Activities range from hiking and swimming to scenic drives. Seek out the watereroded Bourke’s Luck Potholes where prospectors searched for gold.
  • 33. The heart of the struggle  A Soweto township tour Soweto township tours are the best way for the first time visitor to immerse themselves in the urban vibe of the place that was at the heart of the freedom struggle. A tour of Soweto not only includes national heritage sites, but vibrant restaurants and clubs.
  • 34. An unspoiled wilderness  The Wild Coast The Wild Coast is an unspoiled natural treasure. Visitors can explore its renowned beauty on foot, by 4x4 or horseback before embarking on fishing expeditions or snorkelling and diving outings.
  • 35.    Motto: "Unity, Freedom, Justice“ Anthem: High We Exalt Thee, Realm of the Free Coat of Arms       Capital: Freetown (Largest city) Official language(s): English, Krio language Government: Constitutional republic Area : Total 71,740 km2 (119th) 27,699 sq mi Population - July 2010 estimate 6.4 million Official Currency: Leone=100 cents
  • 36. Sierra Leone is situated on the west coast of Africa. It is bordered with Guinea to the north and east, Liberia to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the south and west. The country consists of three main geographical regions. The Sierra Leone Peninsula in the extreme west which is most mountainous, rising to about 2,900ft. This area was called Sierra Leone (the Lion Mountains) by the Portuguese explorer Pedro de Cintra in 1462. The western part of the country, excluding the Peninsula, consists of coastal mangrove swamps and a coastal plain that extends inland from 60 to 100 miles. Many rivers in this area are navigable for short distances. In the east and northeast is a plateau region ranging from 1,000 to 2,000 ft, with peaks of over 6,000 ft (Loma Mansa - Bintimani 6,390 ft) in the Loma Mountains and Tingi Hills
  • 37. The Republic of Sierra Leone is composed of four regions the Northern Province, Southern Province, the Eastern Province and the Western Area. The first three provinces are further divided into 12 districts, and the districts are further divided into 149 chiefdoms. The Local Government Act 2004 designated units of government called localities each of which would have a council to exercise authority and carry out functions at a local level.There are 13 district councils, one for each of the 12 districts and one for the Western Area Rural, and six municipalities each with a council, Freetown, Bo, Bonthe, Kenema , Koidu and Makeni.
  • 38.   Sierra Leone has a tropical climate, with a diverse environment ranging from savannah to rainforests.[6] Sierra Leone is divided into four geographical regions: the Northern Province, Eastern Province, Southern Province and the Western Area; which are further divided into fourteen districts. Freetown is the capital, largest city and economic and financial center. The other major cities are Bo, Kenema, Koidu Town and Makeni. Sierra Leone is now a constitutional republic, with a directly elected president and a unicameral legislature, known as the House of Parliament. The president is the head of state and the Head of government.
  • 39.  The country has relied on mining, especially diamonds, for its economic base; it is among the top 10 diamond producing nations in the world, and mineral exports remain the main foreign currency earner. Sierra Leone is also among the largest producers of titanium and bauxite, and a major producer of gold. The country has one of the world's largest deposits of rutile. Sierra Leone is also home to the third largest natural harbour in the world; where shipping from all over the globe berth at Freetown's famous Queen Elizabeth II Quay. Despite this natural wealth, over 70% of its people live in poverty
  • 40.    Sierra Leone is home to fifteen ethnic groups, each with its own language and customs. The two largest and most influential are the Mende and Temne. Sierra Leone is ranked as one of the most religiously tolerant nations in the world The climate is tropical, with two seasons determining the agricultural cycle: the rainy season from May to November, and a dry season from December to May, which includes harmattan, when cool, dry winds blow in off the Sahara Desert and the night-time temperature can be as low as 16 °C (60.8 °F).
  • 41.  Until 2002, Sierra Leone lacked a forest management system due to the civil war that caused tens of thousands of deaths. Deforestation rates have increased 7.3% since the end of the civil war. On paper, 55 protected areas covered 4.5% of Sierra Leone as of 2003. The country has 2,090 known species of higher plants, 147 mammals, 626 birds, 67 reptiles, 35 amphibians, and 99 fish species.
  • 42. Education in Sierra Leone is legally required for all children for six years at primary level (Class P1-P6) and three years in junior secondary education, but a shortage of schools and teachers has made implementation impossible.[36] Two thirds of the adult population of the country are illiterate.The Sierra Leone Civil War resulted in the destruction of 1,270 primary schools and in 2001 67 percent of all school-age children were out of school.The situation has improved considerably since then with primary school enrolment doubling between 2001 and 2005 and the reconstruction of many schools since the end of the war.Students at primary schools are usually 6 to 12 years old, and in secondary schools 13 to 18. Primary education is free and compulsory in government-sponsored public schools.  The country has two universities: Fourah Bay College, founded in 1827 (the oldest university in West Africa),and Njala University, primarily located in Bo District 
  • 43.  Health care is provided by the government and others. Since April 2010, the government has instituted the Free Health Care Initiative which commits to free services for pregnant and lactating women and children under 5. This policy has been supported by increased aid from the United Kingdom and is recognised as a progressive move that other African countries may follow.The country has a very high infant mortality and a very low life expectancy. The maternal death rates are also the highest in the world, at 2,000 deaths per 100,000 live births. The country suffers from epidemic outbreaks of diseases including yellow fever, cholera, lassa fever and meningitis.The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the population is 1.6 percent, higher than the world average of 1 percent but lower than the average of 6.1 percent in SubSaharan Africa.
  • 44. Official Currency: Zimbabwe Dollar=100 cents Motto: "Unity, Freedom, Work" Anthem: Simudzai Mureza WeZimbabwe (Shona) Kalibusiswe Ilizwe leZimbabwe (Sindebele) "Blessed be the land of Zimbabwe“  Capital: (and largest city) Harare  Official language(s):English, Shona, Ndebele Demonym Zimbabwean  Government: Semi presidential, parliamentary, consociationalist republic  Area : Total 390,757 km2 (60th) 150,871 sq mi  Population: 2009 estimate 12,521,000 (68th)   
  • 45. Further information: Great Zimbabwe and Rhodesia (name)  Zimbabwe was formerly known as Southern Rhodesia (1923), Rhodesia (1965), and Zimbabwe Rhodesia (1979). The name Zimbabwe was introduced from ca. 1960 in the context of the unilateral declaration of independence, and used by the African nationalist faction in the Rhodesian Bush War, the Zimbabwe African National Union of Robert Mugabe, and the Zimbabwe African People's Union of Joshua Nkomo.  The name is based on the Shona name for the ruined city now known as Great Zimbabwe, first recorded as Symbaoe in 1531 by Vicente Pegado, Captain of the Portuguese Garrison of Sofala. 
  • 46. Zimbabwe is a landlocked country in southern Africa, lying between latitudes 15° and 23°S, and longitudes 25° and 34°E. Most of the country is elevated in the central plateau (high veld) stretching from the southwest to the northwest at altitudes between 1200 and 1600m. The country's east is mountainous with Mt. Nyangani as the highest point at 2,592 m. About 20% of the country consists of the low veld under 900m. Victoria Falls, one of the world's biggest and most spectacular waterfalls, is located in the country's northwest as part of the Zambezi river. The country has a tropical climate with a rainy season usually from November to March. The climate is moderated by the altitude.  Zimbabwe has a centralised government and is divided into eight provinces and two cities with provincial status, for administrative purposes. Each province has a provincial capital from where official business is usually carried out 
  • 47.   Zimbabwe is a semi-presidential republic, which has a parliamentary system of government. Under the constitutional changes in 2005, an upper chamber, the Senate, was reinstated.The House of Assembly is the lower chamber of Parliament. President Robert Mugabe's Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (commonly abbreviated ZANU-PF) has been the dominant political party in Zimbabwe since independence.
  • 48. Mineral exports, agriculture, and tourism are the main foreign currency earners of Zimbabwe.The mining sector remains very lucrative, with some of the world's largest platinum reserves being mined by Anglo-American and Impala Platinum.The Marange diamond fields, discovered in 2006, are considered the biggest diamond find in over a century  Tourism was an important industry for the country, but has been failing in recent years. The Zimbabwe Conservation Task Force released a report in June 2007, estimating 60% of Zimbabwe's wildlife has died since 2000 due to poaching and deforestation. The report warns that the loss of life combined with widespread deforestation is potentially disastrous for the tourist industry.[101]  On November 2010, the IMF described the Zimbabwean economy as "completing its second year of buoyant economic growth". 
  • 49.  A map showing the spread of cholera in and around Zimbabwe put together from several sources.
  • 50. Zimbabwe was thus considered internationally to have an achieved a good record of health development.The country suffered occasional outbreaks of acute diseases (such as plague in 1994). The gains on the national health were eroded by structural adjustment in the 1990s,the impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and the economic crisis since the year 2000. Zimbabwe now has one of the lowest life expectancies on Earth – 44 for men and 43 for women, down from 60 in 1990. The rapid drop has been ascribed mainly to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Infant mortality has risen from 5.9% in the late 1990s to 12.3% by 2004.  The health system has more or less collapsed: By the end of November 2008, three of Zimbabwe's four major hospitals had shut down, along with the Zimbabwe Medical School, and the fourth major hospital had two wards and no operating theatres working. Due to hyperinflation, those hospitals still open are not able to obtain basic drugs and medicines.The ongoing political and economic crisis also contributed to the emigration of the doctors and people with medical knowledge. 
  • 51.  Zimbabwe's education system consists of 9 years of primary and 6 years of secondary schooling before students can enter university in the country or abroad. The academic year in Zimbabwe runs from January to December, with three month terms, broken up by one month holidays, with a total of 40 weeks of school per year. National examinations are written during the third term in November, with "O" level and "A" level subjects also offered in June.
  • 52.  LORNA E. REYES BEED 311

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