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The World Of The Continent Of Africa
There are millions of people who are known worldwide for several of reasons. Each and every day I hear about different people from the different
countries who have played a part in American history and also who have made a difference in the world. This semester I took on a different course.
Not only because I had too but because I wanted to learn more about my African culture. The continent of Africa is viewed by many was a poor and out
of control country. I have learned so much in this class about Africa as a whole that I love being able to talk to others about what I have learned and
talk about Africa I different way as other may think of it. I chose to do research on one of known and historic person,Kwame Nkrumah. Also known as
...show more content...
Dr Nkrumah continued his schooling in England, where he helped to organize the Fifth Pan–African Congress in 1945. In 1947 Nkrumah founded the
West African National Secretary to the United States Gold Coast Convention. In 1947 the United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC) was established
(Stanislaw, 1998). Nkrumah returned to the Gold Coast from London to become its secretary (Biography of Dr Kwame Nkrumah, 2009). After a few
years, Nkrumah broke from the organization, and formed the Convention People's Party (Biography of Dr Kwame Nkrumah, 2009). The CPP had a
slogan that made a statement, "Self–Government Now." Many people from the Gold Coast society supported the movement and slogan. They wanted
to see the end of British rule, which included all small traders, army veterans, and other nationalists (Stanislaw, 1998).
The protest by Nkrumah's after a time of struggle became successful. In 1950 Britain government jailed him for political agitation. After being jailed
Britain government allowed a new national constitution to be drafted, with elections to be held in early February of 1951 (Biography of Dr Kwame
Nkrumah, 2009). While still under arrest and in prison, Nkrumah became the continent's first African–born prime minister. After winning the 1951
election, Nkrumah's CPP went on to win subsequent
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Essay on West African Culture
Brief History
From the 1500s to the 1700s, African blacks, mainly from the area of West Africa (today's Senegal, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Gambia, Liberia, Ivory
Coast, Ghana, Dahomey, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, and Gabon) were shipped as slaves to North America, Brazil, and the West Indies. For them, local
and tribal differences, and even varying cultural backgrounds, soon melded into one common concern for the suffering they all endured. Music, songs,
and dances as well as remembered traditional food, helped not only to uplift them but also quite unintentionally added immeasurably to the culture
around them. In the approximately 300 years that blacks have made their homes in North America, the West Indies, and Brazil, their highly honed art
...show more content...
"Soul food" incorporates an economical and satisfying cuisine based on cereals, vegetables (greens and yams), pork and pork offal as well as chicken.
Meals and Customs
The majority of rural Africans customarily eat one main meal a day and this is usually the evening meal. Upon arising, coffee, tea or milk or curds
may form a small light meal while some people may be content to nibble on seeds. Throughout the day snacks of fruits, seeds, or nuts may be
accompanied with beverages. In some areas a midday meal of fufu/ugali and relishes may be traditionally larger than the evening meal, which in this
case would then be a cereal dish alone of gruel or fufu.
Infants are usually breast–fed on demand up to the age of two. Attempts to introduce bottle feedings have often met with sad results: sterilization of
bottles and formula were poorly understood, formulas were diluted to last longer, and with the abandonment of breast–feeding, intercourse was
resumed earlier than usual with a resultant increase in children who could be ill afforded. Bota is a thin gruel for babies, fed by pouring into the
mother's hand and gently easing into the infant's mouth. Some foods and medicinal herbs if deemed necessary are pre–chewed by the mother then
given to the infant.
Very young children are taught early that meat is a delicacy,
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Essay on South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is located on the southern tip of the continent of Africa. It is slightly less than twice the size of Texas, about 1,223,201
square kilometers. Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Swaziland run from west to east along South Africa's northern border. The
country of Lesotho lies entirely within the borders of South Africa and is completely landlocked. The South Atlantic Ocean and the Indian Ocean
surround the southern coast. South Africa is divided into nine provinces: the Northern Province, Kwazulu/Natal, Mpumalanga, Gauteng, the North West
Province, the Western Cape, the Northern Cape and the Eastern Cape. South Africa also has three capital cities: Pretoria serves as the...show more
content...
The government used aerial photography for the first time to count the population where government officials couldn't access. A count of 30,986,920
citizens was reported. In 1992, the United Stated Bureau of the Census estimated that the total population of South Africa at 40.6 million people. In
1994, the South African government estimated it at 40.4 million after all ten homelands were included. That same year the United Stated Bureau of the
Census estimated the total population at 43.9 million. In 1996 the population was estimated at 37,859,000, which is about 10 percent below the
projections from earlier censuses. The South African Institute of Race Relations had also estimated that the population was 75.2 percent black, 13.6
percent white, 8.6 percent colored and 2.6 percent Asian (Library of Congress, 48).
According to the Development Bank of South Africa, population growth declined from about 2.9 percent per year in the 1980's to 2.4 percent in
1995. Today the population growth rate is estimated at 1.32 percent. Population growth was about 2.6 percent for blacks, 2.2 percent for coloreds, 1.9
percent for Asians and 1.0 percent for whites. The government estimates that by the year 2025 the population will have doubled.
Life expectancy at birth was 62.7 years for males and 68.3 years for females in 1996. They both have lowered in 1999 to 52.68 years for males and
56.9 years for females. Life expectancy also varies by race. Life
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africa Essay example
African Cultures
Africa has more than 800 languages native to its continent. African cultures are so diverse that they are different from any other culture of the world.
African cultures contain many different languages. African languages range from common French to languages unheard of to most people such as
Swahili. African arts are much different than American arts. Their art involves much more creative pottery, masks, and paintings. Africa has a very
interesting culture. Reasons being the people are very creative and like to express their individuality. The most diverse cultures in the world belong to
Africa.
There are more than 800 languages spoken in the continent of Africa. Most Africans speak two or...show more content...
It is the national language of Tanzania and the official language of Kenya (African Languages). It is also the official in German East Africa (Reader
265). Approximately 50 million people speak this language (African Languages).
Art is very important to the Africans. In fact it is part of their everyday life (Fetzer 106). South African artists are active in many areas of art including
sculpture, pottery, mask making, and many more (African Arts Information).
Like African paintings, poetry, and woodcarvings, sculptures tell a tale and immortalize cultures and beliefs. Different artists have different styles
(African Arts Information). Materials and styles differ from village to village. Most sculptors use green wood, copper, tin, zinc alloys, bronze,
ivory, or terra cotta, a kind of earth ware. Most sculpture figures are believed to contain ancestor's spirits. Others represent sacred ideas or events
(Fetzer 106). Some objects are said to be magical and believed to have magical powers (African Arts). Africans carve figures, make masks, and
decorate articles for ceremonies (Fetzer 106).
Masks were created to be placed over the face, on the top of the head, or even over the head. Most masks represent spirits of ancestors (Fetzer 106).
Some villages make masks with full costumes and use them with music to dance in ritual performances. They used masks for social control,
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Visit To South Africa Essay
Visit Africa: Discover Southeast
There is something magical in cities like Paris, New York or Rome, and there's a reason why many of us dream to visit them at least once in our
lifetime. Charm, history and culture of these attractive destinations are inviting us to travel there and to explore them. On the other hand, be sure that
in these destinations you are going to meet a large number of tourists, full hotel capacities and overwhelming crowds in the city. So, maybe it is the
right time to choose something different, maybe it is time to discover Southeast Africa.
South African Republic
When we think about region of South Africa, this is the first destination that comes to our mind. South Africa is visually breathtaking. It is a land of
vast plains, mountains, golden beaches and barren deserts. Cities of South Africa are as diverse as its landscape is. Johannesburg is bustling heart of
the country; a cosmopolitan Cape Town is an enclave of European chic at the Atlantic coast....show more content...
African elephants, white and black rhinos, giraffes, hippos, different kinds of antelope, leopards are just some of many animal species that you will
find there.
Mozambique
Although neighboring South Africa has a much more developed tourism, Mozambique is home to beautiful long beaches, beautiful culture, and safaris.
In coastal areas, the water is turquoise with the rich underwater world, so it is a great place for divers and nature lovers.
In Tofo Beach you can find amazing beaches and many opportunities for diving. Vilanculos is another great option and one of the best places that you
can visit if you want to enjoy the numerous water sports. From here you can access the beautiful Bazaruto archipelago paradise that has remained intact
and has retained its original appearance.
Once you get tired of the beach, you can visit Gorongosa National Park to enjoy the true African
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Consequences Of Imperialism In Africa
The Industrial Revolution made many new inventions that had many sources of energy and materials needed to make them. For the nations with
this technology, Imperialism was a way for them to further Industrialize and generate economy. Imperialism is the act of one country expanding its
power to other territory in order to colonize and gain resources, economy, knowledge, and control. European countries with strong militaries used
Imperialism in order to achieve these goals but caused consequences in the long term. Africa, China, And India were imperialized by European
countries due to the cheap labor, raw resources, research opportunities, and consumers available but this was greeted with many rebellions, many
deaths, unfair treaties, and spreading of technology and knowledge from one country to the next. European powers wanted to colonize in Africa
due to cheap labor and raw resources available which led to many enslaved people brutally dieing and territory being dispersed between other
countries.The resources found in Africa were diamonds, jewels, and copper which were being mined out by the native enslaved people. Ivory and
hides of animals were popular for colonists to have. Normal citizens of tribes were dieing due to forced labor and native animals were dying due to
hunting. Colonists didn't even see imperialism as a bad thing to the native people of Africa, seen in the poem "A White Man's Burden." Scientists saw
Africa as an opportunity to expand knowledge in the
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Essay on Africa
Europe tried to take many countries, Africa being one of them. The European countries had an effect on Africa today throughout all the primes. Europe
had an effect on the African way of life, that in some ways were good, and in some ways bad.
Imperialism is defined as the extension or rule or influence by one government, nation, or society over the political, economic, or cultural life of
another. European nations decided they wanted land in the mostly unexplored continent, and they took it, without the consent of the African people.
Europe brought Christian ideas into Africa. Religion was changed from what it would have been to Christianity today. If you look at most of the
countries in Africa such as Angola, Congo, Ghana or Zimbabwe...show more content...
European Imperialist Policies made Africa lose history of their culture and brought racism to Africa. Europeans wanted to changeAfricans to be more
like them, changing their religion, changing their life style and making them slaves. Slavery led to the loss of culture because after a while Africans
began to think of themselves as lower class; since that's what they were treated like. The Westernized minority, influenced by European culture and
Christianity, first rejected African traditional culture. Slavery lead to people hating Africa, Africans and the African culture. Which leads to the Africa
culture and traditions being diminished. Why would anyone want to practice a certain religion or traditions if they were labeled as wrong, or unethical.
Traditionally, the majority of Africans have been farmers and herders who raised crops and livestock. When Europeans started colonizing they
demanded agricultural and mineral products. Safer technology and ways of farming were learned and brought to Africa. European technology and
crops were introduced and a modern exchange economy started. The technology was starting to grow, there were new machines and easier ways to do
things Africans never thought of.
Africa today has changed a lot from European countries and the imperialist policies. The Europeans tore into the African continent and succeeded in
destroying the African way of life. Thousands of people were
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The Main Reasons For The Colonization Of Africa
Colonization was something that affected many people, in a number of different ways. There was a lot of different reasons why other countries
decided to colonize other land, but most of them had to do with making more money. Colonies varied in success from one colony to another, but
most faced a number of problems, such as rebellion, or disease. There were many reasons why countries were colonized, but by far one of the
biggest reasons was the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution was a time of a change, markets were changing, and so were the needs of
the people. There was know a much larger demand for natural resources, a demand that couldn't be satisfied in most countries. So, other land was
needed because of it's abundance in natural resources, like Africa and it's supply of rubber, once it was collected, it was sent back to Europe. Africa
was one of the main targets, in this race for land, and by the early twentieth century, most of Africa had been colonized by Europe. "Britain, France,
Germany, Belgium, Italy, Portugal, and Spain were competing for power within European power politics". Thus, acquiring land, was one way for them
to show off how much power they really had. But all this colonization without problems, since the industrialization was such a large part of this change,
social problems such as unemployment, poverty, homelessness, etc. grew bigger because there wasn't a place for these people in the new
industrializing world. One way some
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Research Paper On African Diaspora
Lastly, I would like to note that the Jewish Diaspora in which I will later discuss the African Diaspora have one similar concept in common, which is
the lack of an active geographical center. Moreover, the Jewish diaspora sheds light on how they were exiled from their homeland and then established
during the Zionist movement. Introduction To Shofar Special Issue: Rethinking Exile, Center, and Diaspora in Modern Jewish Culture suggests, "Jews
and Jewish culture possess no geographical center. That is to say, while the Land ofIsrael constituted a present liturgical focus and a present hope for
messianic return, there was not a prominent sense of living "outside of" a geographical center that existed elsewhere in the world. From this perspective,
...show more content...
According to the book New Africa Diaspora, "Music has been one of the primary media of communication in Pan–African world, through which
cultural influences, ideas, images, instruments, institutions, and identities have continuously circulated, in the process of creating new modes of
cultural expressions both within Africa itself and in the diaspora (Okpewho & Nzwgwu, 2012). The music was rooted to express the displacement
of the African people and used as a creative way to connect with others in their culture. Through the use of music, cultures are able to express their
true emotions and feelings to current and past events that have happened within their lives. This was a creative way for this group of individuals to
relate to their homeland and also express their feelings of displacement. Another way in which African culture fits into the elements of a diaspora was
through education. For education allowed individuals to pursue a higher education to allowed them to learn historical facts and ideas Africa itself.
Thus demonstrating creating collective memories about their homeland. The book New Africa Diaspora suggest, "When Fourah Bay College in
Sierra Leone and Liberia College in Liberal opened in 1827 and 1862, respectively, they served as Pan–Africanist institutions that attracted students and
faculty from across West African especially, many of whom were themselves of
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South Africa Essay
South Africa is a nation with a wonderful and varied culture. This country has been called "The Rainbow Nation", a name that reflects the diversity of
such amazing place. The different ethnic and cultural groups of the South Africa do, however, appreciate their own beliefs and customs. Many of these
traditions, besides African culture, are influenced by European and Western heritage. The complex and diverse population of the country has made a
strong impact to the various cultures. There are forty–five million people; about thirty million are black, five million white, three million coloured and
one million Indians. The black population has a large number of rural people living in poverty. It is among these inhabitants that cultural...show more
content...
Many black musicians who sang in Afrikaans and English during the apartheid period began to sing in traditional African dialects developing a
singular style called Kwaito. This is a music genre that became the favorite way of representing social and economic issues. I believe that in certain
way, Kwaito is a political power that shows activism in its apolitical actions. In the other hand white and coloured South African singers were strongly
influenced by European music. African Indigenous Churches were the largest of the Christian groups during the apartheid period. It is argued that
many of the people who claimed no relation with any religion were part of indigenous religions. This is a religion that combines Christian and
indigenous influences. Many South African Muslims are described as Coloureds, especially those whose ancestors were slaves. Others are described
as Indians including those whose ancestors came as traders from South Asia. Religion plays such an important fact in South Africa giving an special
taste to the culture.
The culture during the apartheid time is still powerful in much of South Africa countryside. For example, across the many ethnic groups, marriage
traditions are different, but all the beliefs are based in a masculine deity, ancestral spirits and supernatural forces. Usually, plural marriages are
permitted and a lobolo (dowry) is usually paid. Cattles play an important part in many of
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Ancient Africa Research Paper
Africa is the world's oldest inhabited continent, filled with the richest recourses and perhaps the richest history. However, in order to truly understand
Africa's amazing culture and society, we must first start at the very beginning. We must first look at how Africa came about, why it looks the way it
does and why it's location makes it such a unique place.
Before the continent of Africa existed, the earth was comprised of just one single supercontinent called Pangaea. To understand how Pangaea was
formed we first look at how the earth was formed. Billions of years ago our solar system was made up of nothing more than dust particles. The
explosion of a nearby star caused these dust particles to form a solar nebula (a huge spinning disk).
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Africa Research Paper
Africa is a place thriving with adventure. Across the land no matter where you go there will be a new sight to see and a new thing to experience.
These wonderful opportunities are available due to the variety of intricate aspects that make up Africa. Africa's diversity can be seen by its help in
mankind's early life, physical regions, wildlife, and the inhabitants.
To begin with, Africa is the cradle of humanity. Unlike the other seven continents, it is theorized that Africa was the core of Pangea. During this time,
it is theorized that life originated in Africa. This theory has been backed up with evidence coming from Dart's Taung Child. This fossil discovered in
South Africa, was found to be a human ancestor. It appeared to be a young child...show more content...
Africa's 11.7 million square miles give home to eight major physical regions. These regions range from the world's largest desert, to the grassland
Savannas, and to the densely populated rainforest (National Geographic). In addition to the numerous climates in each region, Africa is also home to
volcanoes, great lakes, and the world's tallest mountain, Mt. Kilimanjaro.
Each major region supports a unique set of ecosystems. The deserts alone are filled with more than 300 species of wildlife, including the African
wild dog, ostrich and cheetahs (African Wildlife Foundation). One of Africa's hubs for life lie in the rivers. Hippos, crocodiles, and a plethora of fish
species all reside in the rivers of Africa. Lions, elephants and gazelles roam the grasslands of the Savannas. On the other hand, giraffes, leopards, and
buffalos wander the low–density forest, woodlands (African Wildlife Foundation).
Alongside these animals, humans have diversified themselves throughout Africa. Africa is home to over 1 billion people. Among this large amount of
people over 2000 different languages are spoken (Aderibigde). Africa is home to hundreds of indigionus groups, each with distinct langauges and
cultures. Groups like the Maasai, Tuareg and Bambuti blend traditional customs and beliefs with modern practices (National
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The Scramble for Africa Essay
The scramble for Africa represents the most thorough and systematic process of colonialism in world history. The European colonial powers managed
to conquer and control almost the entire continent of Africa in a short, twenty–five year period from about 1875 to 1900. Some of the European states
involved were already well–established global powers; the others were up and coming nations that desired to emulate and compete with the dominant
imperial states. Various factors allowed for and contributed to the conquering of the whole ofAfrica by European states. The slow, but ever–growing
European presence on the perimeter and the completion for dominance between the major European states acted as the platform for the inevitable quest
for...show more content...
The British colonies succeeded in winning independence as a sovereign nation and the French Bourgeoisie overthrew the monarchy, serving as the
universal model for revolution. The imperial powers of Europe were seeing their sources of raw goods disappearing as periodicals containing French
ideals of liberty, fraternity and property reached the corners of the colonized world. Naturally, the European colonial powers needed to actively seek
new untapped territories.
Only a small portion of the African coast had been colonized by the late 1870s, French Algeria and Senegal, Portuguese Angola and Mozambique,
and British and Dutch South Africa were the only significant settlement holdings. The interior had yet to be conquered, however some information
had been gathered by a handful of explorers. Dr. Livingstone had explored the interior in the interest of missionary work. Henry Stanley had
collected geographical information on his journalistic quest to find the at large Dr. Livingston. Burton and Speke were like the Lewis and Clark of
Africa on their quest to find the source of the Nile. With the colonial resistance all over the world, acquisition of new territory and the desire for new
territory would beget one another as components of a compulsive cycle.
The actual scramble began with King Leopold II and his desire to
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African Narrative
It was a hot morning in Sierra Leone. I was farming in the rice field while my wife took care of my three children. Being part of the Mendi people, I
was raised to work hard for my family. I had to take care of my father who was very ill. My real name was Singbe–Pieh, but people call me Cinque for
short. One day, African tribesmen approached me in the rice field. They ordered me to pay the debt. The African tribesmen warned me about the
creditor being too impatient about me paying my debt. I tried to make a consent with them but they claimed it was too late. I didn't know what to
do, I was clueless. The tribesmen were armed with a gun. I knew something was wrong. I tried to call for help but the tribesmen prevented me from
doing so. They surrounded me from every angle and started beating me with their guns. I tried desperately to escape. I was worried about my wife
and my children, wondering if they were safe. I was coughing up blood and I was...show more content...
I was in shock and horror. My people were brutally beaten and injured. They were all covered in chains. I was in Gallinas where I was sold to a
Spanish slave trader. History repeated itself. I was once again separated from my people. From afar, I saw a giant creature with huge expanding
wings. I assumed it was one of the things that brought me here. It was huge. I heard they were called slave ships. The word "slave" gave me a chill
on my back. I aboard the slave ship known as the Tecora. It was the same as the one before. However, I was sent to a different destination which
was Havana, Cuba. After several weeks, I finally reached Havana, Cuba. I was briefly held there for awhile and was resold to a Spanish captain
named Pedro Ruiz. The next slave ship that I was placed aboard on was the La Amistad which translated to "The Friendship". The name was really
ironic because the slave owners weren't friendly at all. I was planned to be taken to Port Au
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Scientists, economists, and policy makers all agree the world is facing threat from climate warming. Climate warming is caused by excess
greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide which are heat trapping gasses. Human use of fossil fuels is a significant source of these gasses. When we
drive our cars, heat our homes with oil or natural gas, or use electricity from coal fired power plants, we contribute to global warming. Including any
loss of trees or forests also contributes, considering trees convert carbon dioxide to oxygen. Global warming will have a worldwide effect but the
problem is expected to be most severe in Africa, where the people are poor, temperatures are high, precipitation is low, technological change is slow,
and where...show more content...
The changes occurring in the habitat of Africa will affect animals, plants, birds, marine life, and humans. There will be many efforts to adapt but only
the hardy will survive. Africa has about one fifth of all known species of plants, mammals and birds. We can begin to predict the impact of climate
changes on these species by looking at things that have happened in the past. For example, climate change is known to have caused massive bleaching
of the coral reefs in the Indian Ocean, killing 50% in some areas. Climate change can also affect animals on land by changing their range and
perhaps exposing them to new predators. Such as the number of animals who migrate seasonally. These changes in seasons and rainfall may change
migration patterns, which may also put stress on the land with increasing use by many species. Plant life may also be affected as climate changes are
causing plants to either die out or attempt to migrate to a new area. There are several thousand species of plants that could be involved (Desanker,
2003). It also has an effect on the human population. Migrations of people to areas of increased resources can lead to changes in the social structure,
and conflict among groups. Third, African farmers have adapted to a certain amount of climate variability, but climate change may well force large
regions of marginal agriculture out of production. Even
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Essay on Africa
Africa's Resistance to the Portuguese
The African history has been affected tremendously due to the influence of some European countries. Portugal, who probably had the greatest impact
on the continent, was not shy in invading what they thought to be profitable circumstances. One of these areas that they profited from was the
kingdom of Kongo. Kongo was a major Bantu–speaking kingdom astride the Congo River in west–central Africa, probably founded in the 14th century.
It was governed by a king, the manikongo, whose economic power was based upon trade in ivory, hides, slaves, and a shell currency of western Africa.
Within a few years after the Portuguese first encountered the kingdom in 1484, the sixth manikongo, Nzinga Mbemba, later...show more content...
By 1570 the power of the Kongo kingdom had begun to decline, and severe internal tensions had developed. Alfonso I knowing what was going on
wrote a series of papers to King Joao III of Portugal. In these papers, Alfonso I pleaded with the king to take away all the corrupt Portuguese from his
kingdom. With false assurance from the king of Portugal, he asked to have sent those people of religious and medical backgrounds to help modernize
his kingdom. With the corruptness still noticeable in the Kongo, Alfonso I was forced to pass a law stating that "...any white man living in our
Kingdoms and wanting to purchase goods in any way should first inform three of our noblemen and officials of our court whom we rely upon in this
matter..." (57). These futile attempts of writing letters to the king were not making any significance. The king of Portugal was money hungry along
with the majority of all his servants who worked for him down in Africa.
Some of the areas of Africa knew that letters to the king would not work alone. They were forced to use action against the Portuguese. People known
as Zimba did the military launches. Most of the attacks were economically motivated. They were being used for the trade circuit. Zimba attacks were
successful against the Portuguese but they did not succeed in reestablishing the traditional market for their ivory.
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African Cultures Essay
African Cultures
Africa has more than 800 languages native to its continent. African cultures are so diverse that they are different from any other culture of the world.
African cultures contain many different languages. African languages range from common French to languages unheard of to most people such as
Swahili. African arts are much different than American arts. Their art involves much more creative pottery, masks, and paintings.Africa has a very
interesting culture. Reasons being the people are very creative and like to express their individuality. The most diverse cultures in the world belong to
Africa.
There are more than 800 languages spoken in the continent of Africa. Most Africans speak two or three languages, their...show more content...
The most common languages in South Africa are Xhosa, Tswana, Zulu, and Swahili (African Languages).
Zulu is one of nine Bantu languages spoken in East Southern Africa. Approximately 8.8 million people speak this language (African Languages).
Swahili is spoken as a mother language vast along the coast of East Africa. It is the national language of Tanzania and the official language of Kenya
(African Languages). It is also the official in German East Africa (Reader 265). Approximately 50 million people speak this language (African
Languages).
Art is very important to the Africans. In fact it is part of their everyday life (Fetzer 106). South African artists are active in many areas of art
including sculpture, pottery, mask making, and many more (African Arts Information). Like African paintings, poetry, and woodcarvings, sculptures
tell a tale and immortalize cultures and beliefs. Different artists have different styles (African Arts Information). Materials and styles differ from
village to village. Most sculptors use green wood, copper, tin, zinc alloys, bronze, ivory, or terra cotta, a kind of earth ware. Most sculpture figures
are believed to contain ancestor's spirits. Others represent sacred ideas or events (Fetzer 106). Some objects are said to be magical and believed to have
magical powers (African Arts). Africans carve figures, make masks, and decorate articles for ceremonies (Fetzer 106).
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Colonialism in Africa Essay example
COLONIALISM IN AFRICA
How does the legacy of colonialism affect contemporary African international relations?
If questioned today about Africa in general the first reactions I would have are poor governance, poverty, conflict, economic instability and hunger.
These are the major characteristics that dominate most of the states within the continent as a whole. The question would be has it always been this
way? Different debates and differences have been focused on the colonial legacy for post–colonial Africa and the nature of colonialism. Various
characterizations and conceptions tend to differ considerably among the international relations and African scholars.
Between 1800 and 1900, majority of the European powers colonized...show more content...
Section one will focus on the colonial conquest in Africa. Section two will look at the operation of colonial legacy with emphasis on the political and
economic practice. Lastly, the third section will look at the impacts of the colonial legacy on the African continent.
COLONIAL CONQUEST IN AFRICA
The term colonialism developed a more precise meaning during the late nineteenth century. This in Europe was a period of industrialization. There
was a hunt for fresh market, raw materials and also new field for investment by the European factories in Africa. Politics and economic inspiration as a
result took a huge role in the colonization of Africa. After the Second World War, most of the developed European and American countries turned to
tropical African states in order to acquire industrial raw materials to rebuild their economies. The West defended in their capture of alien terrains for the
purpose of exploiting the natural resources for instance gold: a situation that left the exploited colonies with negative impacts[2]. Majority of the lives
of the African people and their societies were affected causing transformations and interruptions as a result of the policies implicated by these colonial
masters during.
Nationalism in the Western states during this period was identified with pride in one's nation bringing about stiff competition within the European
nations. In addition it brought about the formation of nation–states within the European
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Essay on African Civilization
Chapter 1
Physical Context of African History:
Geography and Environment
1.Although some may think of Africa as being of a single climate and terrain description, in reality a wide variety of land types can be found
throughout Africa. How does this wide variety of climates and physical terrains affecthuman life and settlement patterns on the African continent?
Different terrains and climates allowed for different lifestyles for Africans in different regions. Those close to the sea were susceptible to invasion, but
had the advantage of maritime trade. Those living more in land were isolated but protected by the diseases visitors would contract that did not affect
the locals. Due to the fact that Africa is so massive, it has many...show more content...
Page Ref: 12
8.Despite very similar climates, the histories of Africa and Australia and its surrounding islands have been very different. Consider the theory
presented in the text to explain this reality, and assess how it can be applied to North America. This can be applied to North America, due to the fact
that as climates and terrains change and diseases take a toll on population, one must adapt with the environment in which we live in.
Page Ref: 12–13
Topic: The African Environment in Global Perspective
9.Consider how Africa's geography has changed over time. What positive and negative effects would these changes have had on human populations on
the continent? As their new homes changed they were able to adapt due to their innovative mindset. This can be attributed to the new found
organization thanks to language. Allowing Africans to grow and expand throughout the entire continent. Other factors that can be attributed are the
change in geography for some parts such as the Sahara drying out and swamps and lakes disappeared.
Page Ref: 4–8
Topic: Physical Features of the Continent
10.Compare African geography to North American geography. Despite any similarities, significant differences exist in agricultural patterns and
population density. What are the reasons for these differences, and how do they reflect the uniqueness of Africa? Africa is an extremely big continent
and because of
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The World Of The Continent Of Africa

  • 1. The World Of The Continent Of Africa There are millions of people who are known worldwide for several of reasons. Each and every day I hear about different people from the different countries who have played a part in American history and also who have made a difference in the world. This semester I took on a different course. Not only because I had too but because I wanted to learn more about my African culture. The continent of Africa is viewed by many was a poor and out of control country. I have learned so much in this class about Africa as a whole that I love being able to talk to others about what I have learned and talk about Africa I different way as other may think of it. I chose to do research on one of known and historic person,Kwame Nkrumah. Also known as ...show more content... Dr Nkrumah continued his schooling in England, where he helped to organize the Fifth Pan–African Congress in 1945. In 1947 Nkrumah founded the West African National Secretary to the United States Gold Coast Convention. In 1947 the United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC) was established (Stanislaw, 1998). Nkrumah returned to the Gold Coast from London to become its secretary (Biography of Dr Kwame Nkrumah, 2009). After a few years, Nkrumah broke from the organization, and formed the Convention People's Party (Biography of Dr Kwame Nkrumah, 2009). The CPP had a slogan that made a statement, "Self–Government Now." Many people from the Gold Coast society supported the movement and slogan. They wanted to see the end of British rule, which included all small traders, army veterans, and other nationalists (Stanislaw, 1998). The protest by Nkrumah's after a time of struggle became successful. In 1950 Britain government jailed him for political agitation. After being jailed Britain government allowed a new national constitution to be drafted, with elections to be held in early February of 1951 (Biography of Dr Kwame Nkrumah, 2009). While still under arrest and in prison, Nkrumah became the continent's first African–born prime minister. After winning the 1951 election, Nkrumah's CPP went on to win subsequent Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 2. Essay on West African Culture Brief History From the 1500s to the 1700s, African blacks, mainly from the area of West Africa (today's Senegal, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Gambia, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Dahomey, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, and Gabon) were shipped as slaves to North America, Brazil, and the West Indies. For them, local and tribal differences, and even varying cultural backgrounds, soon melded into one common concern for the suffering they all endured. Music, songs, and dances as well as remembered traditional food, helped not only to uplift them but also quite unintentionally added immeasurably to the culture around them. In the approximately 300 years that blacks have made their homes in North America, the West Indies, and Brazil, their highly honed art ...show more content... "Soul food" incorporates an economical and satisfying cuisine based on cereals, vegetables (greens and yams), pork and pork offal as well as chicken. Meals and Customs The majority of rural Africans customarily eat one main meal a day and this is usually the evening meal. Upon arising, coffee, tea or milk or curds may form a small light meal while some people may be content to nibble on seeds. Throughout the day snacks of fruits, seeds, or nuts may be accompanied with beverages. In some areas a midday meal of fufu/ugali and relishes may be traditionally larger than the evening meal, which in this case would then be a cereal dish alone of gruel or fufu. Infants are usually breast–fed on demand up to the age of two. Attempts to introduce bottle feedings have often met with sad results: sterilization of bottles and formula were poorly understood, formulas were diluted to last longer, and with the abandonment of breast–feeding, intercourse was resumed earlier than usual with a resultant increase in children who could be ill afforded. Bota is a thin gruel for babies, fed by pouring into the mother's hand and gently easing into the infant's mouth. Some foods and medicinal herbs if deemed necessary are pre–chewed by the mother then given to the infant. Very young children are taught early that meat is a delicacy, Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 3. Essay on South Africa South Africa The Republic of South Africa is located on the southern tip of the continent of Africa. It is slightly less than twice the size of Texas, about 1,223,201 square kilometers. Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Swaziland run from west to east along South Africa's northern border. The country of Lesotho lies entirely within the borders of South Africa and is completely landlocked. The South Atlantic Ocean and the Indian Ocean surround the southern coast. South Africa is divided into nine provinces: the Northern Province, Kwazulu/Natal, Mpumalanga, Gauteng, the North West Province, the Western Cape, the Northern Cape and the Eastern Cape. South Africa also has three capital cities: Pretoria serves as the...show more content... The government used aerial photography for the first time to count the population where government officials couldn't access. A count of 30,986,920 citizens was reported. In 1992, the United Stated Bureau of the Census estimated that the total population of South Africa at 40.6 million people. In 1994, the South African government estimated it at 40.4 million after all ten homelands were included. That same year the United Stated Bureau of the Census estimated the total population at 43.9 million. In 1996 the population was estimated at 37,859,000, which is about 10 percent below the projections from earlier censuses. The South African Institute of Race Relations had also estimated that the population was 75.2 percent black, 13.6 percent white, 8.6 percent colored and 2.6 percent Asian (Library of Congress, 48). According to the Development Bank of South Africa, population growth declined from about 2.9 percent per year in the 1980's to 2.4 percent in 1995. Today the population growth rate is estimated at 1.32 percent. Population growth was about 2.6 percent for blacks, 2.2 percent for coloreds, 1.9 percent for Asians and 1.0 percent for whites. The government estimates that by the year 2025 the population will have doubled. Life expectancy at birth was 62.7 years for males and 68.3 years for females in 1996. They both have lowered in 1999 to 52.68 years for males and 56.9 years for females. Life expectancy also varies by race. Life Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 4. africa Essay example African Cultures Africa has more than 800 languages native to its continent. African cultures are so diverse that they are different from any other culture of the world. African cultures contain many different languages. African languages range from common French to languages unheard of to most people such as Swahili. African arts are much different than American arts. Their art involves much more creative pottery, masks, and paintings. Africa has a very interesting culture. Reasons being the people are very creative and like to express their individuality. The most diverse cultures in the world belong to Africa. There are more than 800 languages spoken in the continent of Africa. Most Africans speak two or...show more content... It is the national language of Tanzania and the official language of Kenya (African Languages). It is also the official in German East Africa (Reader 265). Approximately 50 million people speak this language (African Languages). Art is very important to the Africans. In fact it is part of their everyday life (Fetzer 106). South African artists are active in many areas of art including sculpture, pottery, mask making, and many more (African Arts Information). Like African paintings, poetry, and woodcarvings, sculptures tell a tale and immortalize cultures and beliefs. Different artists have different styles (African Arts Information). Materials and styles differ from village to village. Most sculptors use green wood, copper, tin, zinc alloys, bronze, ivory, or terra cotta, a kind of earth ware. Most sculpture figures are believed to contain ancestor's spirits. Others represent sacred ideas or events (Fetzer 106). Some objects are said to be magical and believed to have magical powers (African Arts). Africans carve figures, make masks, and decorate articles for ceremonies (Fetzer 106). Masks were created to be placed over the face, on the top of the head, or even over the head. Most masks represent spirits of ancestors (Fetzer 106). Some villages make masks with full costumes and use them with music to dance in ritual performances. They used masks for social control, Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 5. Visit To South Africa Essay Visit Africa: Discover Southeast There is something magical in cities like Paris, New York or Rome, and there's a reason why many of us dream to visit them at least once in our lifetime. Charm, history and culture of these attractive destinations are inviting us to travel there and to explore them. On the other hand, be sure that in these destinations you are going to meet a large number of tourists, full hotel capacities and overwhelming crowds in the city. So, maybe it is the right time to choose something different, maybe it is time to discover Southeast Africa. South African Republic When we think about region of South Africa, this is the first destination that comes to our mind. South Africa is visually breathtaking. It is a land of vast plains, mountains, golden beaches and barren deserts. Cities of South Africa are as diverse as its landscape is. Johannesburg is bustling heart of the country; a cosmopolitan Cape Town is an enclave of European chic at the Atlantic coast....show more content... African elephants, white and black rhinos, giraffes, hippos, different kinds of antelope, leopards are just some of many animal species that you will find there. Mozambique Although neighboring South Africa has a much more developed tourism, Mozambique is home to beautiful long beaches, beautiful culture, and safaris. In coastal areas, the water is turquoise with the rich underwater world, so it is a great place for divers and nature lovers. In Tofo Beach you can find amazing beaches and many opportunities for diving. Vilanculos is another great option and one of the best places that you can visit if you want to enjoy the numerous water sports. From here you can access the beautiful Bazaruto archipelago paradise that has remained intact and has retained its original appearance. Once you get tired of the beach, you can visit Gorongosa National Park to enjoy the true African Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 6. Consequences Of Imperialism In Africa The Industrial Revolution made many new inventions that had many sources of energy and materials needed to make them. For the nations with this technology, Imperialism was a way for them to further Industrialize and generate economy. Imperialism is the act of one country expanding its power to other territory in order to colonize and gain resources, economy, knowledge, and control. European countries with strong militaries used Imperialism in order to achieve these goals but caused consequences in the long term. Africa, China, And India were imperialized by European countries due to the cheap labor, raw resources, research opportunities, and consumers available but this was greeted with many rebellions, many deaths, unfair treaties, and spreading of technology and knowledge from one country to the next. European powers wanted to colonize in Africa due to cheap labor and raw resources available which led to many enslaved people brutally dieing and territory being dispersed between other countries.The resources found in Africa were diamonds, jewels, and copper which were being mined out by the native enslaved people. Ivory and hides of animals were popular for colonists to have. Normal citizens of tribes were dieing due to forced labor and native animals were dying due to hunting. Colonists didn't even see imperialism as a bad thing to the native people of Africa, seen in the poem "A White Man's Burden." Scientists saw Africa as an opportunity to expand knowledge in the Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 7. Essay on Africa Europe tried to take many countries, Africa being one of them. The European countries had an effect on Africa today throughout all the primes. Europe had an effect on the African way of life, that in some ways were good, and in some ways bad. Imperialism is defined as the extension or rule or influence by one government, nation, or society over the political, economic, or cultural life of another. European nations decided they wanted land in the mostly unexplored continent, and they took it, without the consent of the African people. Europe brought Christian ideas into Africa. Religion was changed from what it would have been to Christianity today. If you look at most of the countries in Africa such as Angola, Congo, Ghana or Zimbabwe...show more content... European Imperialist Policies made Africa lose history of their culture and brought racism to Africa. Europeans wanted to changeAfricans to be more like them, changing their religion, changing their life style and making them slaves. Slavery led to the loss of culture because after a while Africans began to think of themselves as lower class; since that's what they were treated like. The Westernized minority, influenced by European culture and Christianity, first rejected African traditional culture. Slavery lead to people hating Africa, Africans and the African culture. Which leads to the Africa culture and traditions being diminished. Why would anyone want to practice a certain religion or traditions if they were labeled as wrong, or unethical. Traditionally, the majority of Africans have been farmers and herders who raised crops and livestock. When Europeans started colonizing they demanded agricultural and mineral products. Safer technology and ways of farming were learned and brought to Africa. European technology and crops were introduced and a modern exchange economy started. The technology was starting to grow, there were new machines and easier ways to do things Africans never thought of. Africa today has changed a lot from European countries and the imperialist policies. The Europeans tore into the African continent and succeeded in destroying the African way of life. Thousands of people were Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 8. The Main Reasons For The Colonization Of Africa Colonization was something that affected many people, in a number of different ways. There was a lot of different reasons why other countries decided to colonize other land, but most of them had to do with making more money. Colonies varied in success from one colony to another, but most faced a number of problems, such as rebellion, or disease. There were many reasons why countries were colonized, but by far one of the biggest reasons was the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution was a time of a change, markets were changing, and so were the needs of the people. There was know a much larger demand for natural resources, a demand that couldn't be satisfied in most countries. So, other land was needed because of it's abundance in natural resources, like Africa and it's supply of rubber, once it was collected, it was sent back to Europe. Africa was one of the main targets, in this race for land, and by the early twentieth century, most of Africa had been colonized by Europe. "Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Portugal, and Spain were competing for power within European power politics". Thus, acquiring land, was one way for them to show off how much power they really had. But all this colonization without problems, since the industrialization was such a large part of this change, social problems such as unemployment, poverty, homelessness, etc. grew bigger because there wasn't a place for these people in the new industrializing world. One way some Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 9. Research Paper On African Diaspora Lastly, I would like to note that the Jewish Diaspora in which I will later discuss the African Diaspora have one similar concept in common, which is the lack of an active geographical center. Moreover, the Jewish diaspora sheds light on how they were exiled from their homeland and then established during the Zionist movement. Introduction To Shofar Special Issue: Rethinking Exile, Center, and Diaspora in Modern Jewish Culture suggests, "Jews and Jewish culture possess no geographical center. That is to say, while the Land ofIsrael constituted a present liturgical focus and a present hope for messianic return, there was not a prominent sense of living "outside of" a geographical center that existed elsewhere in the world. From this perspective, ...show more content... According to the book New Africa Diaspora, "Music has been one of the primary media of communication in Pan–African world, through which cultural influences, ideas, images, instruments, institutions, and identities have continuously circulated, in the process of creating new modes of cultural expressions both within Africa itself and in the diaspora (Okpewho & Nzwgwu, 2012). The music was rooted to express the displacement of the African people and used as a creative way to connect with others in their culture. Through the use of music, cultures are able to express their true emotions and feelings to current and past events that have happened within their lives. This was a creative way for this group of individuals to relate to their homeland and also express their feelings of displacement. Another way in which African culture fits into the elements of a diaspora was through education. For education allowed individuals to pursue a higher education to allowed them to learn historical facts and ideas Africa itself. Thus demonstrating creating collective memories about their homeland. The book New Africa Diaspora suggest, "When Fourah Bay College in Sierra Leone and Liberia College in Liberal opened in 1827 and 1862, respectively, they served as Pan–Africanist institutions that attracted students and faculty from across West African especially, many of whom were themselves of Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 10. South Africa Essay South Africa is a nation with a wonderful and varied culture. This country has been called "The Rainbow Nation", a name that reflects the diversity of such amazing place. The different ethnic and cultural groups of the South Africa do, however, appreciate their own beliefs and customs. Many of these traditions, besides African culture, are influenced by European and Western heritage. The complex and diverse population of the country has made a strong impact to the various cultures. There are forty–five million people; about thirty million are black, five million white, three million coloured and one million Indians. The black population has a large number of rural people living in poverty. It is among these inhabitants that cultural...show more content... Many black musicians who sang in Afrikaans and English during the apartheid period began to sing in traditional African dialects developing a singular style called Kwaito. This is a music genre that became the favorite way of representing social and economic issues. I believe that in certain way, Kwaito is a political power that shows activism in its apolitical actions. In the other hand white and coloured South African singers were strongly influenced by European music. African Indigenous Churches were the largest of the Christian groups during the apartheid period. It is argued that many of the people who claimed no relation with any religion were part of indigenous religions. This is a religion that combines Christian and indigenous influences. Many South African Muslims are described as Coloureds, especially those whose ancestors were slaves. Others are described as Indians including those whose ancestors came as traders from South Asia. Religion plays such an important fact in South Africa giving an special taste to the culture. The culture during the apartheid time is still powerful in much of South Africa countryside. For example, across the many ethnic groups, marriage traditions are different, but all the beliefs are based in a masculine deity, ancestral spirits and supernatural forces. Usually, plural marriages are permitted and a lobolo (dowry) is usually paid. Cattles play an important part in many of Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 11. Ancient Africa Research Paper Africa is the world's oldest inhabited continent, filled with the richest recourses and perhaps the richest history. However, in order to truly understand Africa's amazing culture and society, we must first start at the very beginning. We must first look at how Africa came about, why it looks the way it does and why it's location makes it such a unique place. Before the continent of Africa existed, the earth was comprised of just one single supercontinent called Pangaea. To understand how Pangaea was formed we first look at how the earth was formed. Billions of years ago our solar system was made up of nothing more than dust particles. The explosion of a nearby star caused these dust particles to form a solar nebula (a huge spinning disk). Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 12. Africa Research Paper Africa is a place thriving with adventure. Across the land no matter where you go there will be a new sight to see and a new thing to experience. These wonderful opportunities are available due to the variety of intricate aspects that make up Africa. Africa's diversity can be seen by its help in mankind's early life, physical regions, wildlife, and the inhabitants. To begin with, Africa is the cradle of humanity. Unlike the other seven continents, it is theorized that Africa was the core of Pangea. During this time, it is theorized that life originated in Africa. This theory has been backed up with evidence coming from Dart's Taung Child. This fossil discovered in South Africa, was found to be a human ancestor. It appeared to be a young child...show more content... Africa's 11.7 million square miles give home to eight major physical regions. These regions range from the world's largest desert, to the grassland Savannas, and to the densely populated rainforest (National Geographic). In addition to the numerous climates in each region, Africa is also home to volcanoes, great lakes, and the world's tallest mountain, Mt. Kilimanjaro. Each major region supports a unique set of ecosystems. The deserts alone are filled with more than 300 species of wildlife, including the African wild dog, ostrich and cheetahs (African Wildlife Foundation). One of Africa's hubs for life lie in the rivers. Hippos, crocodiles, and a plethora of fish species all reside in the rivers of Africa. Lions, elephants and gazelles roam the grasslands of the Savannas. On the other hand, giraffes, leopards, and buffalos wander the low–density forest, woodlands (African Wildlife Foundation). Alongside these animals, humans have diversified themselves throughout Africa. Africa is home to over 1 billion people. Among this large amount of people over 2000 different languages are spoken (Aderibigde). Africa is home to hundreds of indigionus groups, each with distinct langauges and cultures. Groups like the Maasai, Tuareg and Bambuti blend traditional customs and beliefs with modern practices (National Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 13. The Scramble for Africa Essay The scramble for Africa represents the most thorough and systematic process of colonialism in world history. The European colonial powers managed to conquer and control almost the entire continent of Africa in a short, twenty–five year period from about 1875 to 1900. Some of the European states involved were already well–established global powers; the others were up and coming nations that desired to emulate and compete with the dominant imperial states. Various factors allowed for and contributed to the conquering of the whole ofAfrica by European states. The slow, but ever–growing European presence on the perimeter and the completion for dominance between the major European states acted as the platform for the inevitable quest for...show more content... The British colonies succeeded in winning independence as a sovereign nation and the French Bourgeoisie overthrew the monarchy, serving as the universal model for revolution. The imperial powers of Europe were seeing their sources of raw goods disappearing as periodicals containing French ideals of liberty, fraternity and property reached the corners of the colonized world. Naturally, the European colonial powers needed to actively seek new untapped territories. Only a small portion of the African coast had been colonized by the late 1870s, French Algeria and Senegal, Portuguese Angola and Mozambique, and British and Dutch South Africa were the only significant settlement holdings. The interior had yet to be conquered, however some information had been gathered by a handful of explorers. Dr. Livingstone had explored the interior in the interest of missionary work. Henry Stanley had collected geographical information on his journalistic quest to find the at large Dr. Livingston. Burton and Speke were like the Lewis and Clark of Africa on their quest to find the source of the Nile. With the colonial resistance all over the world, acquisition of new territory and the desire for new territory would beget one another as components of a compulsive cycle. The actual scramble began with King Leopold II and his desire to Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 14. African Narrative It was a hot morning in Sierra Leone. I was farming in the rice field while my wife took care of my three children. Being part of the Mendi people, I was raised to work hard for my family. I had to take care of my father who was very ill. My real name was Singbe–Pieh, but people call me Cinque for short. One day, African tribesmen approached me in the rice field. They ordered me to pay the debt. The African tribesmen warned me about the creditor being too impatient about me paying my debt. I tried to make a consent with them but they claimed it was too late. I didn't know what to do, I was clueless. The tribesmen were armed with a gun. I knew something was wrong. I tried to call for help but the tribesmen prevented me from doing so. They surrounded me from every angle and started beating me with their guns. I tried desperately to escape. I was worried about my wife and my children, wondering if they were safe. I was coughing up blood and I was...show more content... I was in shock and horror. My people were brutally beaten and injured. They were all covered in chains. I was in Gallinas where I was sold to a Spanish slave trader. History repeated itself. I was once again separated from my people. From afar, I saw a giant creature with huge expanding wings. I assumed it was one of the things that brought me here. It was huge. I heard they were called slave ships. The word "slave" gave me a chill on my back. I aboard the slave ship known as the Tecora. It was the same as the one before. However, I was sent to a different destination which was Havana, Cuba. After several weeks, I finally reached Havana, Cuba. I was briefly held there for awhile and was resold to a Spanish captain named Pedro Ruiz. The next slave ship that I was placed aboard on was the La Amistad which translated to "The Friendship". The name was really ironic because the slave owners weren't friendly at all. I was planned to be taken to Port Au Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 15. Scientists, economists, and policy makers all agree the world is facing threat from climate warming. Climate warming is caused by excess greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide which are heat trapping gasses. Human use of fossil fuels is a significant source of these gasses. When we drive our cars, heat our homes with oil or natural gas, or use electricity from coal fired power plants, we contribute to global warming. Including any loss of trees or forests also contributes, considering trees convert carbon dioxide to oxygen. Global warming will have a worldwide effect but the problem is expected to be most severe in Africa, where the people are poor, temperatures are high, precipitation is low, technological change is slow, and where...show more content... The changes occurring in the habitat of Africa will affect animals, plants, birds, marine life, and humans. There will be many efforts to adapt but only the hardy will survive. Africa has about one fifth of all known species of plants, mammals and birds. We can begin to predict the impact of climate changes on these species by looking at things that have happened in the past. For example, climate change is known to have caused massive bleaching of the coral reefs in the Indian Ocean, killing 50% in some areas. Climate change can also affect animals on land by changing their range and perhaps exposing them to new predators. Such as the number of animals who migrate seasonally. These changes in seasons and rainfall may change migration patterns, which may also put stress on the land with increasing use by many species. Plant life may also be affected as climate changes are causing plants to either die out or attempt to migrate to a new area. There are several thousand species of plants that could be involved (Desanker, 2003). It also has an effect on the human population. Migrations of people to areas of increased resources can lead to changes in the social structure, and conflict among groups. Third, African farmers have adapted to a certain amount of climate variability, but climate change may well force large regions of marginal agriculture out of production. Even Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 16. Essay on Africa Africa's Resistance to the Portuguese The African history has been affected tremendously due to the influence of some European countries. Portugal, who probably had the greatest impact on the continent, was not shy in invading what they thought to be profitable circumstances. One of these areas that they profited from was the kingdom of Kongo. Kongo was a major Bantu–speaking kingdom astride the Congo River in west–central Africa, probably founded in the 14th century. It was governed by a king, the manikongo, whose economic power was based upon trade in ivory, hides, slaves, and a shell currency of western Africa. Within a few years after the Portuguese first encountered the kingdom in 1484, the sixth manikongo, Nzinga Mbemba, later...show more content... By 1570 the power of the Kongo kingdom had begun to decline, and severe internal tensions had developed. Alfonso I knowing what was going on wrote a series of papers to King Joao III of Portugal. In these papers, Alfonso I pleaded with the king to take away all the corrupt Portuguese from his kingdom. With false assurance from the king of Portugal, he asked to have sent those people of religious and medical backgrounds to help modernize his kingdom. With the corruptness still noticeable in the Kongo, Alfonso I was forced to pass a law stating that "...any white man living in our Kingdoms and wanting to purchase goods in any way should first inform three of our noblemen and officials of our court whom we rely upon in this matter..." (57). These futile attempts of writing letters to the king were not making any significance. The king of Portugal was money hungry along with the majority of all his servants who worked for him down in Africa. Some of the areas of Africa knew that letters to the king would not work alone. They were forced to use action against the Portuguese. People known as Zimba did the military launches. Most of the attacks were economically motivated. They were being used for the trade circuit. Zimba attacks were successful against the Portuguese but they did not succeed in reestablishing the traditional market for their ivory. Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 17. African Cultures Essay African Cultures Africa has more than 800 languages native to its continent. African cultures are so diverse that they are different from any other culture of the world. African cultures contain many different languages. African languages range from common French to languages unheard of to most people such as Swahili. African arts are much different than American arts. Their art involves much more creative pottery, masks, and paintings.Africa has a very interesting culture. Reasons being the people are very creative and like to express their individuality. The most diverse cultures in the world belong to Africa. There are more than 800 languages spoken in the continent of Africa. Most Africans speak two or three languages, their...show more content... The most common languages in South Africa are Xhosa, Tswana, Zulu, and Swahili (African Languages). Zulu is one of nine Bantu languages spoken in East Southern Africa. Approximately 8.8 million people speak this language (African Languages). Swahili is spoken as a mother language vast along the coast of East Africa. It is the national language of Tanzania and the official language of Kenya (African Languages). It is also the official in German East Africa (Reader 265). Approximately 50 million people speak this language (African Languages). Art is very important to the Africans. In fact it is part of their everyday life (Fetzer 106). South African artists are active in many areas of art including sculpture, pottery, mask making, and many more (African Arts Information). Like African paintings, poetry, and woodcarvings, sculptures tell a tale and immortalize cultures and beliefs. Different artists have different styles (African Arts Information). Materials and styles differ from village to village. Most sculptors use green wood, copper, tin, zinc alloys, bronze, ivory, or terra cotta, a kind of earth ware. Most sculpture figures are believed to contain ancestor's spirits. Others represent sacred ideas or events (Fetzer 106). Some objects are said to be magical and believed to have magical powers (African Arts). Africans carve figures, make masks, and decorate articles for ceremonies (Fetzer 106). Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 18. Colonialism in Africa Essay example COLONIALISM IN AFRICA How does the legacy of colonialism affect contemporary African international relations? If questioned today about Africa in general the first reactions I would have are poor governance, poverty, conflict, economic instability and hunger. These are the major characteristics that dominate most of the states within the continent as a whole. The question would be has it always been this way? Different debates and differences have been focused on the colonial legacy for post–colonial Africa and the nature of colonialism. Various characterizations and conceptions tend to differ considerably among the international relations and African scholars. Between 1800 and 1900, majority of the European powers colonized...show more content... Section one will focus on the colonial conquest in Africa. Section two will look at the operation of colonial legacy with emphasis on the political and economic practice. Lastly, the third section will look at the impacts of the colonial legacy on the African continent. COLONIAL CONQUEST IN AFRICA The term colonialism developed a more precise meaning during the late nineteenth century. This in Europe was a period of industrialization. There was a hunt for fresh market, raw materials and also new field for investment by the European factories in Africa. Politics and economic inspiration as a result took a huge role in the colonization of Africa. After the Second World War, most of the developed European and American countries turned to tropical African states in order to acquire industrial raw materials to rebuild their economies. The West defended in their capture of alien terrains for the purpose of exploiting the natural resources for instance gold: a situation that left the exploited colonies with negative impacts[2]. Majority of the lives of the African people and their societies were affected causing transformations and interruptions as a result of the policies implicated by these colonial masters during. Nationalism in the Western states during this period was identified with pride in one's nation bringing about stiff competition within the European nations. In addition it brought about the formation of nation–states within the European
  • 19. Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 20. Essay on African Civilization Chapter 1 Physical Context of African History: Geography and Environment 1.Although some may think of Africa as being of a single climate and terrain description, in reality a wide variety of land types can be found throughout Africa. How does this wide variety of climates and physical terrains affecthuman life and settlement patterns on the African continent? Different terrains and climates allowed for different lifestyles for Africans in different regions. Those close to the sea were susceptible to invasion, but had the advantage of maritime trade. Those living more in land were isolated but protected by the diseases visitors would contract that did not affect the locals. Due to the fact that Africa is so massive, it has many...show more content... Page Ref: 12 8.Despite very similar climates, the histories of Africa and Australia and its surrounding islands have been very different. Consider the theory presented in the text to explain this reality, and assess how it can be applied to North America. This can be applied to North America, due to the fact that as climates and terrains change and diseases take a toll on population, one must adapt with the environment in which we live in. Page Ref: 12–13 Topic: The African Environment in Global Perspective 9.Consider how Africa's geography has changed over time. What positive and negative effects would these changes have had on human populations on the continent? As their new homes changed they were able to adapt due to their innovative mindset. This can be attributed to the new found organization thanks to language. Allowing Africans to grow and expand throughout the entire continent. Other factors that can be attributed are the change in geography for some parts such as the Sahara drying out and swamps and lakes disappeared. Page Ref: 4–8 Topic: Physical Features of the Continent
  • 21. 10.Compare African geography to North American geography. Despite any similarities, significant differences exist in agricultural patterns and population density. What are the reasons for these differences, and how do they reflect the uniqueness of Africa? Africa is an extremely big continent and because of Get more content on HelpWriting.net