• The Inca referred to their empire as Tawantinsuyu, "four parts together." In THE INCAS Quechua the term Tawantin is a group of four things (tawa "four" with the suffix -ntin which names a group). Suyu means "region" or "province". The empire was divided into four suyus, whose corners met at the capital, Cusco (Qosqo). The name Tawantinsuyu was, therefore, a descriptive term indicating a union of provinces. The Spanish transliterated the name as Tahuatinsuyo or Tahuatinsuyu which is often still used today.• The term Inka means ruler, or lord, in Quechua, and was used to refer to the ruling class or the ruling family in the empire. The Spanish adopted the term (transliterated as Inca in Spanish) as an ethnic term referring to all subjects of the empire rather than simply the ruling class. As such the name Imperio inca (Inca Empire) referred to the nation that they encountered, and subsequently conquered.
Population• There is some debate about the number of people inhabiting Tawantinsuyu at its peak, with estimates ranging from as few as 4 million people, to more than 37 million. The reason for these various estimates is that in spite of the fact that the Inca kept excellent census records using their quipu, knowledge of how to read them has been lost, and almost all of them had been destroyed by the Spaniards in the course of their conquest
LanguageMain article: Quechua languagesSince the Inca Empire lacked a written language, the empires main form ofcommunication and recording came from quipus, ceramics and spokenQuechua, the language the Incas imposed upon the peoples within the empire.
Organization of the empire• The four suyus of the empire.• The most powerful figure in the empire was the Sapa Inca (the unique Inca). Only descendants of the original Inca tribe ascended to the level of Inca. Most young members of the Incas family attended Yachay Wasis (houses of knowledge) to obtain their education.• The Inca Empire was a federalist system which consisted of a central government with the Inca at its head and four provinces: Chinchay Suyu (NW), Anti Suyu (NE), Kunti Suyu (SW), and Qulla Suyu (SE). The four corners of these provinces met at the center, Cusco.
The architecture• The Incas developed a highly functional style of public architecture that was remarkable for its advanced engineering techniques and fine stone work. The cities plan was based on a system of main avenues intersected by smaller streets converging on an open square surrounded by municipal buildings and temples. The structure was one story with a perfect assembly of cut stones, also used mud bricks and straw in the coastal regions. For the construction of great monuments such as the great fortress of Sacsayhuaman near Cuzco, massive polygona l blocks were put together with extraordinary precision. In mountainous regions such as the spectacular Andean city located in Machu Picchu, the Inca architecture reflected often ingenious adaptations of natural relief.
The religionThe state religion was based on Sun worship Incaemperors were regarded as descendants of the •Sun God and were worshiped as gods. Gold, symbol ofthe Sun God, was exploited for the use of leaders andmembers of the elite, not as currency but fordecoration and rituals. Religion dominated the entirepolitical structure. From the Temple of the Sun at thecenter of Cuzco, we could draw an imaginary linetowards the places of worship of different social classesin the city.Religious practice consisted on oracleconsultations, as offering sacrifices, religious trancesand public confessions. The annual cycle of religiousfestivals was regulated by the Inca calendar, extremelyprecise, and the agricultural year. Because of these andother aspects, the Inca culture was much like somecultures of Meso-America as the Aztecs and Mayans.
The agriculture• By being a predominantly agricultural society Andes, the Incas were able to make the most of the ground, overcoming adversity that offered the rugged Andean terrain and inclement weather. The adaptation of agricultural techniques already used before in different parts, enabled the Incas to organize the production of various products, both on the coast, highlands and jungle, to redistribute to people without access to other regions. Technological achievements made at the farm level, not have been possible without the workforce that was available to the Inca and the road network that allowed properly store and distribute resources and harvested throughout its territory.