How did people first get to theAmericas? Theory #1 = Bering land bridge Humans migrated into North America from Asia by crossing over a land bridge between Alaska and Siberia…
How did people first get to theAmericas? Theory #2 = Coastal migration Humans migrated to the Americas by crossing the seas, most likely the Pacific Ocean, and settling along the western coasts of the Americas…
Mesoamerica Mesoamerica = Mexico & Central America Some of the earliest civilizations in the Americas developed in Mesoamerica The Maya and Aztec lived in the Mesoamerican region
Where did the ancient Maya live? The Maya were concentrated on and around the Yucatan Peninsula in central America.
Maya Political Structure The Maya were NOT AN EMPIRE and NOT UNITED politically… Maya civilization was made up of city-states. City-states were controlled by their own ruler. In your opinion, do you think that the Mayan political structure helped or harmed the people?
Maya Religion The Maya were polytheistic (believed in many gods) The Maya practiced human sacrifice
Maya Architecture The Maya built towering temples and elaborate palaces Atop the temples, priests performed religious ceremonies and sacrifices while people watched from the plazas below Ceremonial platforms, temples, pyramids, observatories and ball courts were all built by the Maya
Advances in learning The Maya created a writing system of hieroglyphics Hieroglyphics are a system of writing using pictures. Most of the pictures were representative of phonetic sounds. This means that pictures could be combined to form words.
Advances in learning The Maya created a set of numerals-base 20 system (20 individual digits instead of 10) Also developed a 365-day calendar Bar=5 Dot=1 Shell=0
What happened to the Maya? The Maya abandoned many of their cities around 900 A.D. Archaeologists DO NOT KNOW WHY Maya civilization declined BUT…
Maya today…more than 2 million Maya people live in Guatemala and southern Mexico today.
Maya Video Cliphttp://www.watchknow.org/Video.aspx?VideoID=12 203 This National Geographic video shows the Mayan Pyramids. It is part of the series Lost Temples and it tries to give an answer to the question "Why did the Maya abandon their magnificent city of Chichen Itza?" There is reference to Maya culture.
Where did the Aztecs live? The Aztecs lived in what is known as the Valley of Mexico in central Mexico.
Tenochtitlan Tenochtitlan was the capital city of the Aztec Empire. The Legend of Tenochtitlan
Legend of Tenochtitlan The gods told the Aztecs to search for an eagle holding a snake in its beak perched atop a cactus. This is where they were to build their capital city. The Aztecs saw this sign on a swampy island in lake Texcoco.
Tenochtitlan Today, Tenochtitlan is Mexico City
How did the Aztecs build a city in thecenter of a lake? Tenochtitlan was built on an island It was connected to the mainland by causeways (raised roads across low or wet ground) leading north, south, and west of the city. The city was interlaced with a series of canals, so that all sections of the city could be visited either on foot or by canoe.
Government The Aztecs created an empire through conquest Conquered people and local rulers had to pay tribute to the Aztecs The Aztecs had an emperor The Aztec Emperor’s main job was to lead in war
Who was Montezuma? Montezuma (Montezuma II) was the 9th emperor of the Aztecs. He was the most famous Aztec emperors. He was the Aztec emperor who met Hernan Cortes. Cortes was a Spanish Conquistador. (Conquistador= military leader in the Spanish conquest of the New World) Headdress worn by Montezuma when he met Cortes
Montezuma Montezuma thought that the Spanish were descendants of the Aztec god Quetzalcoatl (ket- säl"kō-ätl). Therefore, he allowed them to enter Tenochtitlan unopposed. Montezuma was then captured by the Spanish and held hostage. He was later killed. Within a few years after his death the Spanish conquered the Aztecs and took control of Mexico.
Religion & Mythology Aztecs were polytheistic Huitzilopochtli was the main Aztec god. (weets se lo poch tlee) The Aztecs built massive temples and pyramids dedicated to their gods
Religion & MythologyPyramid of the Sun Pyramid of the Moon http://www.class.uh.edu/courses/engl3 396/jtchris2/gods.htm
Human Sacrifice Human sacrifice was a common practice of the Aztecs. For the dedication of Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in 1487, the Aztecs reported that they sacrificed 84,400 prisoners over the course of four days. To give the sun strength to rise each day, human sacrifices were offered.
What happened to the Aztecs? Spanish conquistadors led by Hernan Cortes conquered Tenochtitlan and defeated the Aztecs in 1521.
Aztec Video Clips“Engineering An Empire”http://www.watchknow.org/Video.aspx?VideoID=62 55“What the Ancients Did For Us”http://www.watchknow.org/Video.aspx?VideoID=10 964
Where did the Inca live? The Inca controlled an empire in the Andes Mountain region of South America. The empire was divided into four regions with the capital at Cuzco.
Inca Government: The Sapa Inca (emperor) had absolute power. He emperor claimed to be the son of the sun. The Sapa Inca was also the empire’s religious leader. He made all the laws. Everything was the responsibility of the Sapa Inca, and nothing could be done until the Sapa Inca approved it.
How the Government was Organized? The Sapa Inca organized his government into a pyramid: 1.) Sapa Inca 2.)Supreme Council (4 Men) 3.) Provincial Governors4.)Officials (armyofficers, priests, judges, andothers from the noble class) At the bottom of the pyramid were the 5.) Tax workers. Workers were organized into Collectors family units called ayllus. Most of the people in the Inca Empire were workers. 6.)Workers
Inca Construction and Architecture: The Inca constructed stone temples without using mortar yet the stones fit together so well that a knife would not fit between the stones.
Inca Construction and Architecture: The Inca Road was built connecting the empire. It was 5281.66 miles long and it crossed fifteen distinct ecosystems. Branching off of the Inca Road was another 18641.1miles of road, that included the Inca Trail, which was the part of the road that leads from Cusco (the capital) to Machu Picchu.
Machu Picchu Machu Picchu is one of the most important archaeological sites in the world. It is evidence of the Inca Empire at the peak of its power and achievement. Machu Picchu is complex of palaces and plazas, temples and homes. It may have been built as a ceremonial site, a military stronghold, or a retreat for ruling elites. Scholars are still trying to figure out the purpose of Machu Picchu. The Inca had no written language, so they left no record of why they built the site or how they used it before it was abandoned in the early 16th century.
Inca Religion The Inca were polytheistic. The primary god was Inti, the sun god. Inti was considered to be the highest god and omnipotent.
Inca Religion Inca believed in reincarnation. Reincarnation is the belief that the once someone dies their soul will return to earth in another form. Ceremonial burials and occasional mummifications saw that the dead were prepared for the next world with clothing, food, and other items.
Inca Culture Each family in a community was assigned a specific job. Government officials arranged marriages. The government organized mandatory public service building projects. The Inca had no written language. Instead they had cryptic system of knotted strings known as khipu to keep records. The Inca spoke Quechua. This was a language that originated in the Inca capital Cuzco in the 10th or 11th century. As the Inca empire grew, the Quechua language spread. Today, over two and half million people still speak Quechua in Peru.
What happened to the Inca? Civil war in the empire broke out and the Inca empire fell because of the following: Civil War Smallpox BUT ultimately, it was Spanish conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro that brought about the fall of the Inca Empire.
Inca Video Cliphttp://www.watchknow.org/Video.aspx?VideoID=23 01