• The Empire had an area of 1 700 000square kilometers. It covered a grandpart of South America since Colombiauntil Chile.• Their limits were: North: until the Ancasmayo River(Colombia), covering the coast andthe mountains of Ecuador and thesouthern point of Colombia. South: until the Maule River,covering the north and the centerof Chile. Southeast: cover Bolivia untilTucuman (Argentina). East: the Jungle.
A. MANCO CAPAC AND MAMA OCLLOLEGEND They emerged out of Lake Titicaca Their father – the Sun- gave them agreat golden staff to be used for aspecific task: Finding the mostappropriate location by sticking thestaff into the ground and found anew kingdom. They came upon the mostbeautiful place they had seen yet.They stuck the staff in the groundand it stuck. They founded the cityof Cusco, conquering the tribesalready living there and rulingthem under the Incan Empire.
B. AYAR BROTHERS LEGEND Four brothers: Ayar Uchu, Ayar Manco,Ayar Cachi and Ayar Auca, leftTamputoco cave and went in order tolook for a better land. Cachi was trapped for eternity in acave. Uchu and Auca were transformed intostone. Finally, Ayar Manco with his wife MamaOcllo reached the place where Cuscowas built.
• Pachacutec reorganized the kingdom ofCusco into an empire that has 4 regions: Chinchaysuyo (NW) Antisuyo (NE) Contisuyo (SW) Collasuyo (SE)• Each province had a governor whosupervised agriculturally-productive rivervalleys, cities and mines.
1. THE INCA.- He was considered “Sun’s son”. Hewas the most powerful figure in the empire.There were 14 incas.2. THE IMPERIAL COUNCIL.- Its members werethe Suyos’ chiefs. Each chief had the maximumauthority in their regions. They were calledSuyuyoc Apu o Apokuna.3. THE IMPERIAL GOVERNORS.- Their missionwere look for the observance of the laws.4. THE TUCUYRICUYS.- They were called “the eyesand the ears of the Inca”. They went aroundthe empire in order to get importantinformation that the Inca needs.5. THE CURACAS.- They managed the provinces.
SOCIAL CLASSES REPRESENTATIVEINCA Sapa IncaROYALTY•The Auqui: Son of the Sapa Inca.•The Coya: Wife of the Sapa Inca•Royal Panacas: First generations of each Panaca(royal relative).NOBILITY•Nobility of Blood: Other members of lasPanacas (royal relatives).•Nobility of Privilege: Those who had attaineddistinction through their services; Sacerdotesand Acllas; High chiefs.PEOPLE•Hatun Runa: The general public.•Mitimaes: Those belonging to newly conqueredraces.•Yanaconas: Servers of the Inca and Empire,many of which were prisoners.
• It was based in the “job” that was a universal law, alaw for all people. That’s why it was obligatory.• Its collective.• Three kind of work: The Ayni.- It was a reciprocity familiar job. It wasa system of mutual services.The Mita.- It was mandatory public service in thesociety of the Inca Empire. It was related with theconstruction of roads, bridges, palaces, fortresses,temples.The Minka.- It consisted in cultivate the lands ofthe sun and the Inca by the members of theayllus.
• Inca deities occupied the three realms: Hanan Paca, the celestial realm in thesky. Ukhu Paca, the inner earth. Cay Paca, the outer earth where humanslive.• The most important deities of Hanan Pachaare Apu Inti and Quilla (Sun and Moonrespectively). Inti Raymi was the festival ofthe Sun God, the largest and mostimportant Inca festival. The Lightning deityalso resided in Hanan Paca.
The incas had three principal laws:Ama Sua: do not steal.Ama Llulla: do not lie.Ama Quella: do not be lazy.
Inca education during the timeof the Inca Empire was dividedinto two principal spheres:education for the upperclasses and education for thegeneral population. In the empire the teacherscalled AMAUTAS.
• Incan architecture is the most significant pre-Columbian architecture in South America.• The Incas inherited an architectural legacyfrom Tiwanaku, founded in the secondcentury B.C. in present day Bolivia.•The capital of the Inca empire, Cuzco, stillcontains many fine examples of Incaarchitecture, although many walls of Incamasonry have been incorporated intoSpanish Colonial structures.
• The Incas also developed anextensive road systemspanning most of the westernlength of the continent.• The roads belonged to thegovernment. No one couldtravel the roads withoutspecial permission.
• The Incas took advantage of thesoil, overcoming the adversitiesof the Andejuian terrain and theweather.• These practices were soeffective that many expertsbelieve that if they werereadopted today, they wouldsolve the nutritional problemsof Andean people for manydecades.
The Inca Civil War, Inca Dynastic War, orInca War of Succession, sometimes theWar of the two brothers broke out afterthe death of Huayna Capac between1525 and 1527. The disagreementbetween the two brothers Huáscar andAtahualpa was — in a way — a war ofsuccession to the Inca throne. Huáscarinitiated the war because he sawhimself as the rightful heir of all Incas.