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INCA
CIVILIZATION
WHO WERE THE INCAS?
The Incas were a small tribe of South American
Indians who lived in the city of Cuzco, high in the
And...
বর্ত মান পেরুর কুজক া এলা ায়
সুপ্রাচীন ইন া সভ্যর্ার সূচনা হকয়ছিল
এ টি উেজাছর্ ছহসাকব। এ অঞ্চকলই
উে থার প্রথম সাো ইন া ...
ÔBbKvÕ kãUvi A_© g~jZkvmK hv ivRv wKsev †bZv‡K †evSv‡Z e¨eüZn‡q
_v‡K| GwU µgea©gvbKzR‡KvbM‡ii `je× BbKv †Mv·`i †evSv‡ZI e...
GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION
•The Incan Empire was located on the
western side of South America. Although
the Empire was huge, it c...
GEOGRAPHY
The Andes Mountains
The Amazon jungle The coastal desert
GEOGRAPHY
ANDES MOUNTAINS
* North to south were the Andes Mountains -
home of the Inca civilization.
* The mountains domin...
GEOGRAPHY
AMAZON JUNGLE
* On one side of the Andes was the
Amazon jungle.
• The Incas must have entered the
jungle occasio...
GEOGRAPHY COASTAL DESERT
* Between the mountains and the
Pacific Ocean is a coastal desert
2000 miles long and between 30-...
INCA GOVERNMENT
One thing that helped the Incas grow so rapidly was their
system of a strong central government. Everybody...
INCA GOVERNMENT
Sapa Inca
Supreme Council
(4 men)
Provincial Governors
Officials (army officers, priests,
judges, and othe...
MANCO CAPAC (1022-1107)
• founder of Inca dynasty
• declared himself Sapa Inca, divine s
of the Sun
• skilled warrior and ...
PACHACUTI (1438-1471)
• Usurped throne form brother Inca Urcon
• Considered the founder of the Inca Empire
• Skilled warri...
SERVICE TAX AND HARSH GOVERNMENT CONTROLS
Local officials kept an detailed census.
Each common person was listed in the ce...
POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY
• policy of forced resettlement ensured political stability
• officials collected taxes, enforced law...
COMMON PEOPLE HAD NO FREEDOM
The Incas were very class conscious and were divided into nobles and
common people. The noble...
Upper Class
• Kings, priests, and government
officials made up the Incan upper
class.
• Men worked for the government,
and...
ECONOMIC CONDITION:AGRICULTURE
• The Inca economy was based on agriculture. The Incas had great
farmers, they were the fir...
Andean peoples, like the Inca,
developed both cultural and
biological adaptations to the
high elevations of the Andes, suc...
ECONOMIC CONDITION:DOMESTICATED
ANIMALS
The Inca also raised animals
such as dogs, guinea pigs, Llama
and alpacas.
Incas u...
Llamas
INCA RELIGION
•Polytheistic religion. Pantheon headed by Inti-the sun god.
They believed their kings were related to the s...
Important Deities:
•Viracocha – Creator of all things
•Inti – Sun God, father of first emperor
•Chiqui Illapa – thunder Go...
IDEOLOGY
INCA UNDERSTANDING
OF THE UNIVERSE
View of the cosmos:
• World divided between earth and sky
- Things of space
- ...
INCAN ASTRONOMY
•The Inca used astronomy to plan their crops.
•The terraces were at different altitudes, or heights.
•They...
CULTURAL CONTRIBUTIONS
•When some Inca were not farming, they made pottery,
textiles, and even practiced surgery.
•Some In...
INCA METAL WORK
Inca textile fragment
Musical Instruments
* They invented many
wind and percussion
instruments.
* Drums and flutes were
ve...
INCA’S LEARNING
• The Inca made many discoveries in medicine.
• Surgical operation were performed on the skull,
broken bon...
LANGUAGE
• The Incas adopted Quechua as their
official language.
• Quechua is still spoken by many indigenous
populations ...
QUIPU
•The Inca had no writing. Instead they kept records using a
quipu.
•A array of small cords of various colors and len...
THE QUIPU
INCA ARCHITECTURE
• Of all the urbanized people of the Americas, the Incas were the
most brilliant engineers.
• The Incas ...
Inca wall in Cuzco
Cyclopean polygonal masonry
The Inca constructed stone temples without using
mortars yet the stones fit...
INCA CITY
 কুজক (Cuzco)
 ম চু তপচু (Machu Picchu)
 তিল ব ম্ব (Vilcabamba)
 তিট স (Vitcos),
 চত উকুইর ও (Choquequirao)...
‡FŠ‡MVWJKAE¯’VB
13031́ A¶vskI 710 58́ `ªvwNgvs‡k KzR‡Kv bMixi
Ae¯’vb| mgy`ªc„ô †_‡K cÖvq 11, 200 dzU Dc‡i GB
bMix Aew¯’Z| ...
KZR‡KV কুজক া পর্ ছিল অছর্ সুসাং ঠির্
এ প ন্দ্রীয় সর ার। ইন া
সম্রাটও কুজক াকর্ই থা কর্ন ।
ছর্ছনই পেষ্ট ইন া। সকবাচত
োস ...
CUZCO
Sacsahuaman, fort-like temple crowning the heights of the imperial capital;
made by a rotating force of 20,000 corvée labo...
ARCHITECTURE
THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN
• The most important structure in Cuzco was
The Temple of the Sun – dedicated to
Inti, ...
CUZCO
Which way to
Machu Pichu?
INCA ROAD SYSTEM
• The Incas had an incredible system of roads. They built a
massive road network through mountains and ac...
The Incas built bridges across the gorges so they could
reach all parts of their empire quickly and easily. If an
enemy ap...
30,000 to 40,000 km (18,600-24,800 miles)
of thoroughfares and trunk lines
Major Roads of
the Inca
Empire Inca tunnel
Inca
bridges
Machu Picchu
Inca road
Start Journey
From this Way
Keep Going
We Almost Reach
MACHU PICCHU WAS
REDISCOVERED IN 1911 BY
EXPLORER HIRAM BINGHAM. IT
SITS ONE AND A HALF MILES
HIGH ON A MOUNTAIN TOP IN
PE...
ম চু তপ চু (প চুয়া: Machu Pikchu মাচু ছেকচু অথতাৎ "েুরাকনা চূডা") বা ম চু তপচু
(পেনীয়: Machu Picchu মাচু ছেচু) লম্বাকসর ...
‡FŠ‡MVWJK AE¯’VB
মাচু ছেচু ইন াকির রাজধানী
কুজক া পথক ৭০ ছ কলাছমটার
উত্তর-েছিকম সমুদ্রেৃষ্ঠ পথক ২৩৫০
ছমটার (৭৭১০ ছিট) উচ্চ...
gvPz wcPzi †fŠ‡MvwjK Ae¯’vb
PANORAMIC VIEW OF MACHU PICCHU
TEMPLE OF THE SUN AT MACHU
PICCHU
ছর্ন জানালা ছবছেষ্ট মছের
ছর্ন জানালা ছবছেষ্ট মছের
সূযতমছের ইনছর্হুয়াটানা
বসর্
বাছড
A COMPLETE OVERVIEW OF THE SITE AS SEEN FROM
HUAYNA PICCHU
MACHU PICHU
Now how do we
get down from
here?
Machu Picchu
Inca road
• কুজক (Cuzco),The Former Capital of the Inca Empire
• ম চু তপচু (Machu Picchu), "The Secret Inca City“
• তিল ব ম্ব (Vilca...
িূ তম ম্প স মল কি যকি ক ৌশল
পেরু খুবই ভ্ূ ছম ম্পপ্রবণ অঞ্চল। ইন াকির রবাছডগুকলা পিখকলই পবাঝা যায় পয
ওরা ছিকলা এ এ জন ো া...
ভ্ূ ছম ম্প প্রছর্করাধী িােনা
প ির প হ কে উঠকল ত ি কব !
এর ম বকডা বকডা োথর োহাকডর চূডায় পর্ালার জনয েছক্তোলী আধুছন
কর্া যন্ত্রোছর্র ির ার হয় ! অথচ...
Fall of
the Inca
• The Inca emperor was decimated by a
smallpox pandemic in the 1520s,which
triggered a seven-year civil w...
EVENTS LEADING TO RISE AND FALL
• 1438: Manco Capac
established capital at Cuzco
(Peru)
• 1400-1500: Pachacuti gained
cont...
FOR MORE INFORMATION:
• http://www.expertperutravel.com/history.html
• http://www.cuscoplaces.com/sacsayhuaman-cusco.html
...
Hope you
Enjoy the
Journey!
Inca Civilization: It's Socio-Political and Cultural Aspects
Inca Civilization: It's Socio-Political and Cultural Aspects
Inca Civilization: It's Socio-Political and Cultural Aspects
Inca Civilization: It's Socio-Political and Cultural Aspects
Inca Civilization: It's Socio-Political and Cultural Aspects
Inca Civilization: It's Socio-Political and Cultural Aspects
Inca Civilization: It's Socio-Political and Cultural Aspects
Inca Civilization: It's Socio-Political and Cultural Aspects
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Inca Civilization: It's Socio-Political and Cultural Aspects

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Inca Civilization: It's Socio-Political and Cultural Aspects

  1. 1. INCA CIVILIZATION
  2. 2. WHO WERE THE INCAS? The Incas were a small tribe of South American Indians who lived in the city of Cuzco, high in the Andes Mountains of Peru. Around 1400 CE, a neighboring tribe attacked the Incas, but the Incas won. This was the beginning of the Inca Empire. In only 100 years, the Inca Empire grew so big that it expanded into what are now the modern countries of Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Bolivia and Argentina.
  3. 3. বর্ত মান পেরুর কুজক া এলা ায় সুপ্রাচীন ইন া সভ্যর্ার সূচনা হকয়ছিল এ টি উেজাছর্ ছহসাকব। এ অঞ্চকলই উে থার প্রথম সাো ইন া ম াংক প ১২০০ ছিস্টাকের ছিক কুজক া রাজয প্রছর্ষ্ঠা করন। েরবর্ীKv‡j মাাংক া াোক র উত্তরসূরীকির অধীকন আকেস েবতর্মালার অনযানয জাছর্ক াষ্ঠীগুকলাক ছনকজকির মকধয ছনকয় একস এ রাজযটি ছবস্তার লাভ্ কর। ১৪৪২ সাকলর মকধযই রাজা প চকুতিক র অধীকন ইন ারা র্াকির সাম্রাজয িূরিুরাকে ছবস্তৃর্ কর; োচকুছর্ নাকমর অথতই হকে: পৃতিবী াঁপ কন ম নুষ। ছর্ছনই ইন া সাম্রাজয প্রছর্ষ্ঠা করন, যা লম্বাকসর আকমছর া আছবস্কাকরর আক িুই আকমছর া মহাকিকের সবতবৃহৎ সাম্রাজয ছিল। পেরুর কুজক া েহর। এই অঞ্চকলই ইন া সভ্যর্ার সূচনা হকয়ছিল
  4. 4. ÔBbKvÕ kãUvi A_© g~jZkvmK hv ivRv wKsev †bZv‡K †evSv‡Z e¨eüZn‡q _v‡K| GwU µgea©gvbKzR‡KvbM‡ii `je× BbKv †Mv·`i †evSv‡ZI e¨evnvi KivnZ|mvgªv‡R¨i DÌv‡bi mv‡_ mv‡_ m‡e©v”PkvmK‡KÔmvcv BbKvÕ Avi AwfRvZ †kªYx‡`i ÔBbKvÕ ejvi cÖPjb N‡UwQj| avibv Kiv nqGfv‡eB cieZ©x‡Zcy‡iv mf¨Zvibvg n‡q hvq BbKv mf¨Zv| Avevi BbKviv wQj cÖavbZ m~h©‡`eZviDcvmK|m~h©‡`eZv‡K¯’vbxq fvlvq Zviv ejZ ÔBbwZÕ| GB BbwZ kãwU †_‡KBbKv k‡ãiDrcwË n‡q‡Q e‡jIavibv Kivn‡q _v‡K|
  5. 5. GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION •The Incan Empire was located on the western side of South America. Although the Empire was huge, it can be easily divided into three geographical regions – 1. The Andes Mountains 2. The Amazon jungle 3. The coastal desert The Geographical Map
  6. 6. GEOGRAPHY The Andes Mountains The Amazon jungle The coastal desert
  7. 7. GEOGRAPHY ANDES MOUNTAINS * North to south were the Andes Mountains - home of the Inca civilization. * The mountains dominated Incan society. • The mountain peaks were worshiped as gods. In November 1995 anthropologists announced the discovery of the 500-year- old remains of two Inca women and one Inca man frozen in the snow on a mountain peak in Peru. Scientists concluded that the trio were part of a human sacrifice ritual on Ampato, a sacred peak in the Andes mountain range. • The Andes created a natural barrier between the coastal desert on one side and the jungle on the other. * The snow-capped mountains were full of deep gorges.
  8. 8. GEOGRAPHY AMAZON JUNGLE * On one side of the Andes was the Amazon jungle. • The Incas must have entered the jungle occasionally, as they did know about the many valuable things that could be found in the Amazon, like wood and fruit and natural medicines. • But they never established settlements there. They had no desire to live in the jungle. * The Incas expanded north and south instead.
  9. 9. GEOGRAPHY COASTAL DESERT * Between the mountains and the Pacific Ocean is a coastal desert 2000 miles long and between 30- 100 miles wide. * The desert provided a wonderful natural barrier. * There are fertile strips where small rivers and streams run from the Andes mountaintops to the sea.
  10. 10. INCA GOVERNMENT One thing that helped the Incas grow so rapidly was their system of a strong central government. Everybody worked for the state, and in turn the state looked after everybody. Sapa Inca: The head of government was the Inca, sometimes called the “Sapa Inca” (“the Only Inca”). The Sapa Inca was all-powerful. Everything belonged to the Sapa Inca. He ruled his people by putting his relatives in positions of power. Since punishment was harsh and swift, almost no one broke the law.
  11. 11. INCA GOVERNMENT Sapa Inca Supreme Council (4 men) Provincial Governors Officials (army officers, priests, judges, and others from the noble class) Tax collectors Workers/Common People
  12. 12. MANCO CAPAC (1022-1107) • founder of Inca dynasty • declared himself Sapa Inca, divine s of the Sun • skilled warrior and leader • chief religious leader • exercised absolute power
  13. 13. PACHACUTI (1438-1471) • Usurped throne form brother Inca Urcon • Considered the founder of the Inca Empire • Skilled warrior and chief religious leader • Claimed he was divine, son of the sun • Exercised absolute power
  14. 14. SERVICE TAX AND HARSH GOVERNMENT CONTROLS Local officials kept an detailed census. Each common person was listed in the census. Each person listed had to pay a tax.The Incas loved gold and silver, but they had no use for money. The people paid their tax each year in physical labor—serving in the army, working in the mines, or building roads, temples, and palaces. Laws dictated who should work where, and when. Local officials had the power to make all decisions about the lives of the people they ruled. Inspectors visited frequently to check on things. Breaking the law usually meant the death penalty. Few people broke the law. Tight government controls kept the common people fed, clothed, and enslaved.
  15. 15. POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY • policy of forced resettlement ensured political stability • officials collected taxes, enforced laws, kept records on a quipu (collection of knotted colored strings) which noted dates, events, population, crops • use of road system strictly limited to government, military business • all land belonged to Inca, crops allotted to specific groups, government took possession of each harvest • private property forbidden, crime nonexistent, citizens never starved • no written records; oral tradition preserved through generations
  16. 16. COMMON PEOPLE HAD NO FREEDOM The Incas were very class conscious and were divided into nobles and common people. The nobles pretty much did what they wanted, while the common people were tightly controlled by the government. Commoners could not own or run businesses. They could only do their assigned jobs. The law did not allow them to be idle. Even the amount of time they had to sleep and bathe was controlled by a government official.
  17. 17. Upper Class • Kings, priests, and government officials made up the Incan upper class. • Men worked for the government, and women had household duties. • Sons went to school. • Upper-class families had many privileges, such as private schools, stone houses, and the best clothes. Lower Class • The lower class was made up of farmers, artisans, and servants. There were no slaves in Incan society. • They worked on government farms, served in the army, worked in mines, or built roads. • Most children did not go to school but instead learned to farm. SOCIETY AND DAILY LIFE
  18. 18. ECONOMIC CONDITION:AGRICULTURE • The Inca economy was based on agriculture. The Incas had great farmers, they were the first people to ever grow potatoes. • Incas practiced terrace agriculture. Agriculture was tough business in the Andes. The Incas actively set about carving up mountains into terraced farmlands—so successful were they in turning steep mountainsides into terraced farms, that in 1500 there was more land in cultivation in the Andean highlands then there is today. • Three main staples: corn, dehydrated potato, pigweed (seeds) . Besides tomatoes, quinoa, cotton, peanuts also grown by the Inca. • Coca – became a cash crop. Mostly used by the Royalty, nobles to dull pain and hunger. Heavily used by government messengers who suffered from altitude sickness. Also gave them the energy to travel the road systems by foot. • Sacred chicha beer derived from corn – used by priests for ceremonial purposes
  19. 19. Andean peoples, like the Inca, developed both cultural and biological adaptations to the high elevations of the Andes, such as terraced agriculture, irrigation, heightened lung capacity, greater amounts of red-blood cells, and chewing coca with quinoa, to deal with fatique Coca Leaves Medicinal Plant
  20. 20. ECONOMIC CONDITION:DOMESTICATED ANIMALS The Inca also raised animals such as dogs, guinea pigs, Llama and alpacas. Incas used Llamas and Alpacas to transport and travel ,for meat, wool, hides, and dung (used as fuel). Most Inca made clothing from llama wool and cotton. The ruler wore clothing Made from the wool of Vicunas. Coastal Incan populations relied on seafood – lots of fishing!
  21. 21. Llamas
  22. 22. INCA RELIGION •Polytheistic religion. Pantheon headed by Inti-the sun god. They believed their kings were related to the sun god. •Combined features of animism, fetishism, worship of nature gods. •The Inca believed that certain objects and locations were sacred.These sacred locations and objects were called huacas. A huaca could be a river, a rock, a great stone temple, or a small charm or amulet. Each Inca family kept a huaca in their home. They made offerings to the huacas to keep the gods happy. •The Inca also believed in reincarnation. Death was a passage to the next world that was full of difficulties. Most Incas imagined the after world to be very similar to the Euro- American notion of heaven, with flower covered fields and snow capped mountains. •Inca religion included a large number of priests. The priests
  23. 23. Important Deities: •Viracocha – Creator of all things •Inti – Sun God, father of first emperor •Chiqui Illapa – thunder God, worshipped for rain •Mama Quilla, Mother Moon •Pachamama, Mother Earth - worshipped by farmers
  24. 24. IDEOLOGY INCA UNDERSTANDING OF THE UNIVERSE View of the cosmos: • World divided between earth and sky - Things of space - Things of the earth • Humans as the mediating element between earth and the sky • Also, world divided between all things male and all things female. -Feminine aspects – moon, earth, sea, women - Male aspects – sun, lightning, thunder, men • Relations between men and women
  25. 25. INCAN ASTRONOMY •The Inca used astronomy to plan their crops. •The terraces were at different altitudes, or heights. •They planted crops at the correct time for the height of the terrace. •Pillars on the hills around Cuzco, the capital city, helped them time their planting. •When the sun rose or set between sets of pillars, it was time to plant crops at certain altitudes.
  26. 26. CULTURAL CONTRIBUTIONS •When some Inca were not farming, they made pottery, textiles, and even practiced surgery. •Some Inca also did metalwork and created tools and jewelry. •Music was also created, but was mostly used for religious ceremonies. •Developed important medical practices- surgery on human skull, anesthesia
  27. 27. INCA METAL WORK
  28. 28. Inca textile fragment Musical Instruments * They invented many wind and percussion instruments. * Drums and flutes were very popular. * The panpipe was the most popular.
  29. 29. INCA’S LEARNING • The Inca made many discoveries in medicine. • Surgical operation were performed on the skull, broken bones were set, and fillings were put in teeth. However, survival rates rose to 80–90% during the Inca era. • The sophistication of Inca administration, calendric, and engineering necessitated a certain facility with numbers. These numbers were stored in base-10 digits and used in administrative and Inca Medicine
  30. 30. LANGUAGE • The Incas adopted Quechua as their official language. • Quechua is still spoken by many indigenous populations all over South America. • There are many dialects. • Quechua is an oral language and there is a lack of written material.
  31. 31. QUIPU •The Inca had no writing. Instead they kept records using a quipu. •A array of small cords of various colors and lengths, all suspended from a thick cord. •By tying knots in the small cords, Inca could record statistical information. •Sometimes the knots were color coded to mean different things. •Though simple at first glance, the quipu could transmit intricate messages. •The quipu could record: Population including Birth/death rates Food supply: harvest/livestock
  32. 32. THE QUIPU
  33. 33. INCA ARCHITECTURE • Of all the urbanized people of the Americas, the Incas were the most brilliant engineers. • The Incas , like the Mayas , build massive CITIES , constructing both round and square buildings ,with cobblestone domical roof. • the Inca built massive forts with stone slabs so perfectly cut that they didn't require mortar—and they're still standing today in near-perfect condition. • Inca architecture was the rectangular building without any internal walls and roofed with wooden beams and thatch . • American archaeologist John H. Rowe classified Inca fine masonry in two types: coursed & polygonal. •
  34. 34. Inca wall in Cuzco Cyclopean polygonal masonry The Inca constructed stone temples without using mortars yet the stones fit together so well that a knife would not fit between the stones.
  35. 35. INCA CITY  কুজক (Cuzco)  ম চু তপচু (Machu Picchu)  তিল ব ম্ব (Vilcabamba)  তিট স (Vitcos),  চত উকুইর ও (Choquequirao)  প ইতিতি (Paititi)
  36. 36. ‡FŠ‡MVWJKAE¯’VB 13031́ A¶vskI 710 58́ `ªvwNgvs‡k KzR‡Kv bMixi Ae¯’vb| mgy`ªc„ô †_‡K cÖvq 11, 200 dzU Dc‡i GB bMix Aew¯’Z| cwð‡g cÖkvšÍ gnvmvMi I c~‡e© Avw›`R ce©Z gvjvi gv‡S †ciyiAe¯’vb| GB †ciyi c~‡e© KzR‡Kv bMix Aew¯’Z|
  37. 37. KZR‡KV কুজক া পর্ ছিল অছর্ সুসাং ঠির্ এ প ন্দ্রীয় সর ার। ইন া সম্রাটও কুজক াকর্ই থা কর্ন । ছর্ছনই পেষ্ট ইন া। সকবাচত োস । সম্রাকটর অধীকন ছিল অছভ্জার্ ন; এরা ছিকলন ছবচক্ষণ, ইন া সভ্যর্ার প্রাণ। পস াকল কুজক া ছিল এ অর্ু লনীয় ইন া োথরন র।এ ন কর বাস রর্ ধনীরা । এখ কনই সূত্রপ ি হকেতিল ইন সিযি র।
  38. 38. CUZCO
  39. 39. Sacsahuaman, fort-like temple crowning the heights of the imperial capital; made by a rotating force of 20,000 corvée laborers over several decades
  40. 40. ARCHITECTURE THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN • The most important structure in Cuzco was The Temple of the Sun – dedicated to Inti, the Sun God. • The exterior walls were covered with heavy gold plates. The inside was also coated with gold (thought to symbolize the sun). • Inside the temple, you could find idols of gold and silver as well as the mummified bodies of past rulers and their wives.
  41. 41. CUZCO Which way to Machu Pichu?
  42. 42. INCA ROAD SYSTEM • The Incas had an incredible system of roads. They built a massive road network through mountains and across rivers and gorges. • Since the Incas lived in the Andes Mountains, the roads took great engineering and architectural skill to build. Their roads show their ability as great builders. • The Inca built a paved road system that included more than 10,000 miles of paved roads. • They had long north-south roads that ran along the coast and inland • One road ran almost the entire length of the South American Pacific coast. • On the coast, the roads were not surfaced. • The Incas paved their highland roads with flat stones and built
  43. 43. The Incas built bridges across the gorges so they could reach all parts of their empire quickly and easily. If an enemy approached, the Incas could burn the bridges. They made suspension bridges from rope, pontoon bridges from reed boats, and pulley baskets from vines. The Incas did not discover the wheel, so all travel was done on foot. To help travelers on their way, rest houses were built every few kilometers. In these rest houses, they could spend a night, cook a meal and feed their llamas. Their bridges were the only way to cross rivers on foot. If only one of their hundreds of bridges was damaged, a major road could not fully function; every time one broke, the locals would repair it as quickly as possible. Uniting the Empire
  44. 44. 30,000 to 40,000 km (18,600-24,800 miles) of thoroughfares and trunk lines Major Roads of the Inca Empire Inca tunnel
  45. 45. Inca bridges
  46. 46. Machu Picchu Inca road
  47. 47. Start Journey From this Way
  48. 48. Keep Going
  49. 49. We Almost Reach
  50. 50. MACHU PICCHU WAS REDISCOVERED IN 1911 BY EXPLORER HIRAM BINGHAM. IT SITS ONE AND A HALF MILES HIGH ON A MOUNTAIN TOP IN PERU ONCE INHIBITED BY THE INCA CIVILIZATION. BINGHAM THOUGHT IT MUST HAVE BEEN A SPECIAL RELIGIOUS CITY BECAUSE OF THE FINE STONEWORK,. HOWEVER ARCHAEOLOGISTS BELIEVE IT WAS SOME TYPE OF VACATION RESORT FOR INCA NOBLES. OVER 3,000 STEPS CONNECT THE LEVELS OF THE CITY AND FARMING TERRACES. IT COULD ONLY BE REACHED BY A LOG BRIDGE ON A SHEER CLIFF. IF ENEMIES THREATENED THE CITIZENS THERE, THEY WOULD Machu Picchu, the Versailles-like rural palace and estate made by the emperor Pachacuti,
  51. 51. ম চু তপ চু (প চুয়া: Machu Pikchu মাচু ছেকচু অথতাৎ "েুরাকনা চূডা") বা ম চু তপচু (পেনীয়: Machu Picchu মাচু ছেচু) লম্বাকসর আকমছর া আছবষ্কাকরর আক র সময় ার এ টি ইন া েহর, সমুদ্রেৃষ্ঠ পথক যার উচ্চর্া ২৪০০ ছমটার (৭,৮৭৫ ছিট)। এটি পেরুর উরুবাম্বা উের্য ার (Valle de Urubamba) ওেকর এ টি েবতর্চূডায় অবছির্। ম চু তপচুই সম্ভবর্ ইন া সভ্যর্ার সবকচকয় েছরছচর্ ছনিেতণ, যাক প্রায়েঃ ইন াকির হারাকনা েহর বলা হয়। এটি ১৪৫০ সাকলর ছিক ছনছমতর্ হয়, ছ ন্তু এর এ ে বির ের ইন া সভ্যর্া যখন পেন দ্বারা আক্রাে হয় র্খন এটি েছরর্যাক্ত হকয় েকড। কয় ে বির অজ্ঞার্ থা ার ের ১৯১১ সাকল হাইরাম ছবঙাম (ইাংকরছজ: Hiram Bingham) নাকম এ মাছ ত ন ঐছর্হাছস এটিক আবার সমগ্র ছবকের নজকর ছনকয় আকসন। র্ারের পথক মাচু ছেচু েযতট কির াকি এ টি আ র্তণীয় িেতনীয় িান হকয় উকেকি। এটিক ১৯৮১ সাকল পেরুর সাংরছক্ষর্ ঐছর্হাছস এলা া ছহকসকব প ার্ণা রা হয়। ইউকনকস্কা ১৯৮৩ সাকল এটিক র্াকির ছবে ঐছর্হযবাহী িাকনর র্াছল ায় অেভ্ুত ক্ত কর।
  52. 52. ‡FŠ‡MVWJK AE¯’VB মাচু ছেচু ইন াকির রাজধানী কুজক া পথক ৭০ ছ কলাছমটার উত্তর-েছিকম সমুদ্রেৃষ্ঠ পথক ২৩৫০ ছমটার (৭৭১০ ছিট) উচ্চর্ায় ১৩.১৬৩১° িছক্ষন ও, ৭২.৫৪৫৬° েছিম দ্রাছ মাাংকে মাচু ছেচু েবকর্ত র চূডায় অবছির্। †h Di“ev¤^v b`x n‡Z400 wgUvi Dc‡igvPzwcPz Aew¯’Z †mwUgvPzwcPzcvnv‡oiKv‡Q †hLv‡b ûqvbv wcPzbv‡g Av‡iKwU cvnvo mshy³ n‡q‡Q†mLvb †_‡K ইs‡iwR ‘C’ AvK…wZ‡ZevuKwb‡q‡Q| cy‡iv kniwUi f~wgiƒc n‡jv cve©Z¨ A‡j †ewóZ, Lvov cvnvoGi gv‡SGKUzmgZjf~wg Zvici Avevi cvnvo|
  53. 53. gvPz wcPzi †fŠ‡MvwjK Ae¯’vb
  54. 54. PANORAMIC VIEW OF MACHU PICCHU
  55. 55. TEMPLE OF THE SUN AT MACHU PICCHU
  56. 56. ছর্ন জানালা ছবছেষ্ট মছের ছর্ন জানালা ছবছেষ্ট মছের
  57. 57. সূযতমছের ইনছর্হুয়াটানা
  58. 58. বসর্ বাছড
  59. 59. A COMPLETE OVERVIEW OF THE SITE AS SEEN FROM HUAYNA PICCHU
  60. 60. MACHU PICHU Now how do we get down from here?
  61. 61. Machu Picchu Inca road
  62. 62. • কুজক (Cuzco),The Former Capital of the Inca Empire • ম চু তপচু (Machu Picchu), "The Secret Inca City“ • তিল ব ম্ব (Vilcabamba), "The Last Stronghold of the Incas" • তিট স (Vitcos), "The Last Capital of the Incas" • চত উকুইর ও (Choquequirao), "The Sacred Sister of Machu Picchu“ • প ইতিতি (Paititi), the Hidden Inca City With Tremendous Treasures
  63. 63. িূ তম ম্প স মল কি যকি ক ৌশল পেরু খুবই ভ্ূ ছম ম্পপ্রবণ অঞ্চল। ইন াকির রবাছডগুকলা পিখকলই পবাঝা যায় পয ওরা ছিকলা এ এ জন ো া ইছিছনয়ার। মাচু ছেচু েহকরর বাছডগুকলাই র্ার বড প্রমাণ। • ছসকমন্টজার্ীয় ছমেকণর াাঁথুছনর চাইকর্ োথকর োথর বছসকয় তর্ছর াাঁথুছন অকন পবছে ভ্ূ ছম ম্প প্রছর্করাধী। • ইন াকির তর্ছর বাছডর সূক্ষ ন ো পিখা যায়। এই সূক্ষ ন োগুছলই ভ্ূ ছম কম্পর সময় পিয়াল ধ্বকস েডা অকন াাংকে পরাধ কর। • সবগুকলা পিয়াল এ িম পসাজা নয়। পিয়ালগুকলার এ টা সাছর অনয সাছর পথক এ টু পহলাকনা। এর িকল পিয়ালগুকলার ভ্ারসাময রক্ষা হকয়কি, িকল ভ্ূ ছম কম্প এগুকলা সহকজ ধ্বকস েডকব না।
  64. 64. ভ্ূ ছম ম্প প্রছর্করাধী িােনা
  65. 65. প ির প হ কে উঠকল ত ি কব ! এর ম বকডা বকডা োথর োহাকডর চূডায় পর্ালার জনয েছক্তোলী আধুছন কর্া যন্ত্রোছর্র ির ার হয় ! অথচ পমছেন পর্া িূকর থা , ইন ারা খনও র্াকির াকজ কমত চা াই বযবহার করছন ! র্াহকল ছ ভ্াকব ওরা একর্া বকডা বকডা আ ৃ ছর্র একর্াগুকলা োথরখণ্ড োহাকডর একত্তা উাঁচুকর্ উোকলা ? পসটি আসকলই এ টা রহসয। ছবজ্ঞানীরা এর প ান সুরাহা-ই রকর্ োকরন ছন। পের্কমে র্ারা ধারণা করকিন, ের্ ের্ েছম ক াকজ লাছ কয় োহাকডর ঢাল পবকয় পবকয় োথরগুকলাক উেকর পর্ালা হকয়ছিকলা।
  66. 66. Fall of the Inca • The Inca emperor was decimated by a smallpox pandemic in the 1520s,which triggered a seven-year civil war between the two sons of the king, Atahualpa and Huáscar. Atahualpa eventually won the war but the infighting had weakened the empire. • During this time a group of Spanish conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro arrived in the empire. • As Atahualpa marched south to claim Cuzco, he was intercepted, kidnapped and ransomed by Francisco Pizarro’s forces. • The Incas tried to free Atahualpa by offering the Spanish a roomful of gold and silver, but the Spanish killed Atahualpa anyway. • The Spanish defeated the last of the Incas, and the empire fell in 1537.
  67. 67. EVENTS LEADING TO RISE AND FALL • 1438: Manco Capac established capital at Cuzco (Peru) • 1400-1500: Pachacuti gained control of Andean population about 12 million people • 1525: Emperor Huayna Capac died of plague; civil war broke out between two sons because no successor named • 1532: Spanish arrived in Peru 1527: Pizarro wanted to discover wealth; embarked on his third voyage to the New World Sept. to Nov. 1532:The Cajamarca massacre- Pizarro led 160 Spaniards to Cuzco, slaughtering over 2,000 Inca and injuring 5,000 November 16, 1532: Atahualpa captured by Spaniards, offered gold for his freedom. Pizarro accepted more than 11 tons of gold ($6 million+) baubles, dishes, icons, ornaments, jewelry, & vases, but never released Atahualpa. July 26, 1533: Atahualpa was killed
  68. 68. FOR MORE INFORMATION: • http://www.expertperutravel.com/history.html • http://www.cuscoplaces.com/sacsayhuaman-cusco.html • http://www.unm.edu/~gbawden/324-IncCuzco/324-IncCuzco.htm • http://www.rediscovermachupicchu.com/lost-inca-cities.htm • http://www.rediscovermachupicchu.com/cuzco.htm • http://architecturalmoleskine.blogspot.com/2011/07/machu-picchu- architecture-and-landscape.html • http://www.techtunes.com.bd/ • http://www.waterhistory.org/histories/machupicchu/ • http://www.sachalayatan.com
  69. 69. Hope you Enjoy the Journey!

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