Civilizations of latin america


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Civilizations of latin america

  1. 1. Civilizations of Latin America
  2. 2. Latin American Civilizations <ul><li>The three major civilizations that existed in Latin America before the arrival of the Europeans were </li></ul>Mayas Incas Aztecs
  3. 3. A.D. 300 Mayan civilization flourishes for next 600 years A.D. 500 Teotihuac á n dominates the Mayan empire A.D. 900 1075 A.D. Incas settle in Peru, and Cuzco becomes the Incan capital A.D. 1300 1479 A.D. Incas complete conquest of Peru 1325 – 1340 A.D. Aztecs establish Tenochtitl á n 1420 – 1480s A.D. Aztec empire expands to Guatemala
  4. 6. The Aztec Civilization <ul><li>The Aztecs lived in the Valley of Mexico in the A.D. 1100s. </li></ul><ul><li>The Valley of Mexico is in central Mexico and includes the site of present-day Mexico City. </li></ul>
  5. 7. Aztec Civilization <ul><li>The Aztecs wandered the Valley of Mexico looking for a permanent home until A.D. 1325. </li></ul><ul><li>They finally settled on an island in Lake Texcoco. </li></ul><ul><li>They changed the swampy land into a magnificent city, which they called Tenochtitlán (the site of present-day Mexico City). </li></ul>
  6. 10. Tenochtitlán <ul><li>The Aztecs built floating islands by piling rich earth from the bottom of the lake onto rafts made of wood. </li></ul><ul><li>After a while, the roots of plants and trees grew down to the lake bottom, anchoring the rafts. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of these floating islands were the size of football fields. </li></ul>
  7. 11. Tenochtitlán <ul><li>In the center of the city was the Great Temple. </li></ul><ul><li>Upper-class dwellings were made of stone and ordinary dwellings were made of reeds and mud. </li></ul><ul><li>Canals, laid out in a grid system, connected all parts of the city. </li></ul><ul><li>Causeways, or raised earthen roads, connected the city to the mainland. </li></ul>
  8. 15. Aztecs expand their empire <ul><li>In the 1400s, Aztec warriors began conquering the other people in the region. </li></ul><ul><li>They forced the people they conquered to pay tribute. </li></ul><ul><li>Tribute could be paid in food, cotton, gold, or slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>The Aztecs grew rich from the tribute. </li></ul>
  9. 17. Aztec Accomplishments <ul><li>Tenochtitlán was a center of learning and trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 1,000 medicines were made from plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Astronomers predicted eclipses and planet movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Aztec hieroglyphics similar to the Mayas. </li></ul>
  10. 19. The Incas <ul><li>About A.D. 1200, the Incas settled in Cuzco, a village in the Andes (now a city in Peru). </li></ul><ul><li>Most Incas were farmers, growing maize and other crops. </li></ul><ul><li>Through wars and conquest, the Incas won control of the Cuzco Valley. </li></ul>
  11. 25. Pachacuti <ul><li>In 1438, he became ruler of the Incas. </li></ul><ul><li>The name Pachacuti means “he who shakes the earth.” </li></ul><ul><li>He conquered the people who lived near the Pacific Ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>He demanded loyalty from the people he conquered. If disloyal, the people were forced off their land and replaced with loyal Incas. </li></ul>
  12. 27. “ The Lost City” <ul><li>Pachacuti built many cities. The most famous is the “lost city” of Machu Picchu. </li></ul><ul><li>Machu Picchu is located high in the Andes Mountains, 54 miles northwest of Cuzco. </li></ul>
  13. 31. Incan Accomplishments <ul><li>The Incans were excellent farmers, builders, and managers. </li></ul><ul><li>The capital, Cuzco, was the center of government, trade, learning, and religion. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1500s, one of the first Spaniards to visit Cuzco described it as “large enough and handsome enough to compare to any Spanish city.” </li></ul>
  14. 32. Roads and Aqueducts <ul><li>The Incas built more than 19,000 miles of roads. The roads went over some of the most mountainous land in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>The Incas built canals and aqueducts to carry water to dry areas. One stone aqueduct carried water from a mountain lake almost 500 miles to its destination. </li></ul>
  15. 37. Government and Records <ul><li>The Incas organized their government carefully. </li></ul><ul><li>The Incas did not have a written language. Incan government officials and traders recorded information on knotted strings called quipus. </li></ul>
  16. 39. Religion <ul><li>The Incas worshipped many gods. </li></ul><ul><li>The sun god, Inti, was an important god of the Incas. They believed Inti was their parent and they referred to themselves as “children of the sun.” </li></ul><ul><li>Another important Incan god was Viracocha, the creator of all people of the Andes. </li></ul>
  17. 42. Quechua Descendants of the Incas <ul><li>The Spanish conquered the Incan empire in the 1500s. </li></ul><ul><li>The Incan descendants live in present-day Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia. </li></ul><ul><li>They speak Quechua, the Incan language. </li></ul>