Chapter 10                            Communication              ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR                             S T E...
Functions of CommunicationFunctions of Communication Communication The transference and the understanding of meaning.   Co...
Elements of the Communication ProcessElements of the Communication Process The sender Encoding The message The channel...
The Communication ProcessThe Communication Process Channel   – The medium selected by the sender through which the     me...
Interpersonal Communication Interpersonal Communication Oral Communication    – Advantages: Speed and feedback.    – Disa...
GrapevineGrapevine Grapevine Characteristics   – Informal, not controlled by management.   – Perceived by most employees ...
Computer-Aided CommunicationComputer-Aided Communication E-mail   – Advantages: quickly written, sent, and stored; low co...
Computer-Aided Communication (cont’d)Computer-Aided Communication (cont’d) Intranet   – A private organization-wide infor...
Knowledge Management (KM)Knowledge Management (KM) Knowledge Management A process of organizing and distributing an organi...
Choice of Communication ChannelChoice of Communication Channel Channel Richness The amount of information that can be tran...
Barriers to Effective CommunicationBarriers to Effective Communication Filtering A sender’s manipulation of information so...
Barriers to Effective Communication (cont’d)Barriers to Effective Communication (cont’d) Emotions How a receiver feels at ...
Communication Barriers Between Men andCommunication Barriers Between Men andWomenWomen Men talk to:               Women ...
“Politically Correct” Communication “Politically Correct” Communication Certain words stereotype, intimidate, and insult ...
Cross-Cultural CommunicationCross-Cultural Communication Cultural Barriers          Cultural Guide   – Semantics        ...
Communication Barriers and Cultural ContextCommunication Barriers and Cultural Context High-Context Cultures Cultures that...
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Ob11 10st

  1. 1. Chapter 10 Communication ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S E L E V E N T H E D I T I O N© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. WWW.PRENHALL.COM/ROBBINS PowerPoint PresentationAll rights reserved. by Charlie Cook
  2. 2. Functions of CommunicationFunctions of Communication Communication The transference and the understanding of meaning. Communication Functions Communication Functions 1. Control member behavior. 1. Control member behavior. 2. 2. Foster motivation for what is to be done. Foster motivation for what is to be done. 3. 3. Provide a release for emotional expression. Provide a release for emotional expression. 4. Provide information needed to make 4. Provide information needed to make decisions. decisions.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 10–2
  3. 3. Elements of the Communication ProcessElements of the Communication Process The sender Encoding The message The channel Decoding The receiver Noise Feedback© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 10–3
  4. 4. The Communication ProcessThe Communication Process Channel – The medium selected by the sender through which the message travels to the receiver. Types of Channels – Formal Channels • Are established by the organization and transmit messages that are related to the professional activities of members. – Informal Channels • Used to transmit personal or social messages in the organization. These informal channels are spontaneous and emerge as a response to individual choices.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 10–4
  5. 5. Interpersonal Communication Interpersonal Communication Oral Communication – Advantages: Speed and feedback. – Disadvantage: Distortion of the message. Written Communication – Advantages: Tangible and verifiable. – Disadvantages: Time consuming and lacks feedback. Nonverbal Communication – Advantages: Supports other communications and provides observable expression of emotions and feelings. – Disadvantage: Misperception of body language or gestures can influence receiver’s interpretation of message.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 10–5
  6. 6. GrapevineGrapevine Grapevine Characteristics – Informal, not controlled by management. – Perceived by most employees as being more believable and reliable than formal communications. – Largely used to serve the self-interests of those who use it. – Results from: • Desire for information about important situations • Ambiguous conditions • Conditions that cause anxiety© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 10–6
  7. 7. Computer-Aided CommunicationComputer-Aided Communication E-mail – Advantages: quickly written, sent, and stored; low cost for distribution. – Disadvantages: information overload, lack of emotional content, cold and impersonal. Instant messaging – Advantage: “real time” e-mail transmitted straight to the receiver’s desktop. – Disadvantage: can be intrusive and distracting.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 10–7
  8. 8. Computer-Aided Communication (cont’d)Computer-Aided Communication (cont’d) Intranet – A private organization-wide information network. Extranet – An information network connecting employees with external suppliers, customers, and strategic partners. Videoconferencing – An extension of an intranet or extranet that permits face-to-face virtual meetings via video links.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 10–8
  9. 9. Knowledge Management (KM)Knowledge Management (KM) Knowledge Management A process of organizing and distributing an organization’s collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time. Why KM is important: Why KM is important: Intellectual assets are as important as physical assets. Intellectual assets are as important as physical assets. When individuals leave, their knowledge and experience When individuals leave, their knowledge and experience goes with them. goes with them. A KM system reduces redundancy and makes the A KM system reduces redundancy and makes the organization more efficient. organization more efficient.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 10–9
  10. 10. Choice of Communication ChannelChoice of Communication Channel Channel Richness The amount of information that can be transmitted during a communication episode. Characteristics of Rich Channels Characteristics of Rich Channels 1. Handle multiple cues simultaneously. 1. Handle multiple cues simultaneously. 2. 2. Facilitate rapid feedback. Facilitate rapid feedback. 3. 3. Are very personal in context. Are very personal in context.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 10–All rights reserved. 10
  11. 11. Barriers to Effective CommunicationBarriers to Effective Communication Filtering A sender’s manipulation of information so that it will be seen more favorably by the receiver. Selective Perception People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes. Information Overload A condition in which information inflow exceeds an© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. capacity. individual’s processing 10–All rights reserved. 11
  12. 12. Barriers to Effective Communication (cont’d)Barriers to Effective Communication (cont’d) Emotions How a receiver feels at the time a message is received will influence how the message is interpreted. Language Words have different meanings to different people. Communication Apprehension Undue tension and anxiety about oral communication, written communication, or both.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 10–All rights reserved. 12
  13. 13. Communication Barriers Between Men andCommunication Barriers Between Men andWomenWomen Men talk to:  Women talk to: – Emphasize status, – Establish connection power, and and intimacy. independence. – Criticize men for not – Complain that women listening. talk on and on. – Speak of problems to – Offer solutions. promote closeness. – To boast about their – Express regret and accomplishments. restore balance to a conversation.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 10–All rights reserved. 13
  14. 14. “Politically Correct” Communication “Politically Correct” Communication Certain words stereotype, intimidate, and insult individuals. In an increasingly diverse workforce, we must be sensitive to how words might offend others. – Removed: handicapped, blind, and elderly – Replaced with: physically challenged, visually impaired, and senior. Removing certain words from the vocabulary makes it harder to communicate accurately. – Removed: death, garbage, quotas, and women. – Replaced with terms: negative patient outcome, postconsumer waste materials, educational equity, and people of gender.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 10–All rights reserved. 14
  15. 15. Cross-Cultural CommunicationCross-Cultural Communication Cultural Barriers  Cultural Guide – Semantics – Assume differences until similarity is proven. – Word connotations – Emphasize description – Tone differences rather than interpretation – Differences among or evaluation. perceptions – Practice empathy. – Treat your interpretations as a working hypothesis.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 10–All rights reserved. 15
  16. 16. Communication Barriers and Cultural ContextCommunication Barriers and Cultural Context High-Context Cultures Cultures that rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues to communication. Low-Context Cultures Cultures that rely heavily on words to convey meaning in communication.© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 10–All rights reserved. 16
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