Ap ch07


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  • The pituitary gland is actually two glands joined together: the anterior and posterior pituitary. The anterior pituitary is controlled by releasers from the hypothalamus; the posterior pituitary is controlled by nerve cells from the hypothalamus. Melatonin – A hormone responsible for regulating the body’s daily rhythms Serotonin – A hormone involved with digestion, appetite, moods, and sleep
  • Corticosteriods: gluococorticosteroids and mineralocorticosteroids Gluococorticosteroids – regulate metabolism and inhibit release of adrenocorticotropic hormone from the anterior pituitary Mineralocorticosteroids – regulate the balance of electrolytes and water in the body Androgens: The primary androgen is DHEA, a steroid agent related to male hormones. Adrenaline: Hormone produced in response to exercise, fear, or stress Noradrenaline: Hormone that has a stimulatory effect on the nervous system
  • Thyroid hormone is actually two hormones: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Its main role is to increase the cellular metabolic rate. This speeds up the conversion of food into energy and helps elevate the body temperature. The parathyroid hormone increases calcium in the blood by removing it from bone tissue. It also stimulates production of vitamin D, encourages the kidneys to retain calcium, and helps the digestive system absorb calcium.
  • The pancreas is a dual gland with both endocrine and exocrine functions. Insulin and glucagon are the primary products of the endocrine cell clusters of the pancreas. The thymus is the most specialized endocrine gland. It secretes thymosin which stimulates the development of white blood cells.
  • Testosterone: Hormone that produces male sexual characteristics and ensures sperm maturation, responsible for muscle development Estrogen: Hormone primarily responsible for providing sexual characteristics of the female, essential for bone maintenance Progesterone: Hormone that works with estrogen to produce the menstrual cycle and induce changes in the body during pregnancy
  • Ap ch07

    1. 1. Chapter 7
    2. 2. Applied Learning OutcomesUse the terminologyassociated with the endocrinesystemLearn about hormones,glands, and their functionsUnderstand the aging andpathology of the endocrinesystem Chapter 7 – The Endocrine Glands and Hormones
    3. 3. Overview• The endocrine system is a complex collection of hormones that coordinate many of the body’s functions.• It is composed of glands that produce endocrine secretions.• Endocrine secretions are cellular signals that go directly into the blood. Chapter 7 – The Endocrine Glands and Hormones
    4. 4. The Endocrine Glands – Pituitary and PinealThe pituitary gland is known as the master endocrinegland because its numerous hormones control most of theother endocrine glands and is intimately linked to theoverall coordination of the body’s organ systems.The pineal glandis responsible forproducingmelatonin andserotonin. Chapter 7 – The Endocrine Glands and Hormones
    5. 5. The Endocrine Glands - AdrenalThe adrenal glands aremade up of an outer cortexand an inner medulla.The adrenal cortexproduces corticosteroidsand androgens. Theadrenal medulla producesadrenaline andnoradrenaline. Chapter 7 – The Endocrine Glands and Hormones
    6. 6. The Endocrine Glands – Thyroid and ParathyroidThe thyroid glandhelps control themetabolic rate.The parathyroid glandincreases calciumlevels in the blood. Chapter 7 – The Endocrine Glands and Hormones
    7. 7. The Endocrine Glands – Pancreas and ThymusThe pancreas produces hormonesand digestive enzymes.The thymus gland producessecretions that stimulate the immunesystem. pancreas Chapter 7 – The Endocrine Glands and Hormones
    8. 8. The Endocrine Glands - GonadsGonad: An organ of thereproductive systemTestis: The male gonad;produces sperm andtestosteroneOvary: The female gonad;produces eggs, estrogen, andprogesterone Chapter 7 – The Endocrine Glands and Hormones
    9. 9. Wellness and Illness over the Life SpanEndocrine disorders are the result of either theoverproduction or underproduction of one or morehormones. The number of endocrine disorders isvast, as are the numbers of possible causes ofabnormal hormone production.Changes in hormone production contribute toaging. Most hormones decrease in amounts asadults age due to a natural decrease in the size ofthe endocrine glands, which is precipitated by thediminished blood flow through the capillaries thataccompanies human aging. Chapter 7 – The Endocrine Glands and Hormones
    10. 10. Summary• The endocrine system is composed of glands that produce endocrine secretions.• There are 10 distinct endocrine glands.• A hormone is any secretion that signals a cell to alter its metabolism.• Hormones work by attaching to receptors on target cells.• Most endocrine secretions control the body through negative feedback. Chapter 7 – The Endocrine Glands and Hormones