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  1. 1. Endocrine and Reproductive Systems The endocrine system is made up of glands that release their products into the blood stream. These products messages throughout the body
  2. 2. Hormones <ul><li>The chemicals that “broadcast” messages from the endocrine system are called hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones affect the activity of the other cells as they travel through the blood stream </li></ul><ul><li>Target cells are cells that have receptors for a particular hormone </li></ul><ul><li>It may take several minuets, hours, or days for hormones to take its full affect </li></ul>
  3. 3. Glands <ul><li>A gland is an organ that produces and releases a substance </li></ul><ul><li>Exocrine glands release their secretions through tube like structures called ducts </li></ul><ul><li>Exocrine glands release tears, sweat, and digestive juices </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine glands release their secretions directly into the blood stream </li></ul>
  4. 4. Prostaglandins <ul><li>All cells produce small amounts of hormone like substances called prostaglandins </li></ul><ul><li>They are modified fatty acids that are produced by a wide range of cells </li></ul><ul><li>They usually only affect “local hormones” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Complementary Hormone Action <ul><li>2 hormones with opposite affects regulate the body’s internal enviroment </li></ul><ul><li>functions depend on the coplementary effects of two organisms </li></ul>
  6. 6. Control of the Endocrine System <ul><li>The endocrine system is regulated by the feedback mechanisms that function to maintain homeostasis. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Pituitary Gland <ul><li>Bean shaped structure at base of skull. </li></ul><ul><li>Secretes nine hormones that regulate body controls and endocrine gland functions. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hypothalamus <ul><li>Part of the brain attached above the posterior pituitary. </li></ul><ul><li>Controls the secretion of the pituitary gland. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands <ul><li>In the neck, the thyroid is located at the of the neck near the trachea. </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates the body’s metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>Produces thyroxine. </li></ul><ul><li>There are four parathyroid glands on the surface of the thyroid. </li></ul><ul><li>The combined hormones from the parathyroid and thyroid glands control and maintain homeostasis of blood calcium levels </li></ul><ul><li>Produces PTH. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Adrenal & Reproductive Glands <ul><li>On top of the kidney the adrenal glands are two pyramid shaped structures </li></ul><ul><li>Helps the body prepare and deal with stress. </li></ul><ul><li>The cortex produces more than 2 dozen hormones called corticosteroids </li></ul><ul><li>The medulla produces 2 hormones epinephrine & norepinephrine. </li></ul><ul><li>The reproductive glands of the body are called gonads. </li></ul><ul><li>Produce gametes and secrete sex hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Males:testes produce sperm </li></ul><ul><li>Females:ovaries produce eggs </li></ul>
  11. 11. Pancreas <ul><li>Located behind the right side of the stomach. </li></ul><ul><li>The pancreas is a endocrine and exocrine gland </li></ul><ul><li>Releases insulin and glucagon to maintain blood glucose levels. </li></ul>