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  • 1. Chapter 19 Politics and Reform  
  • 2. Chapter Outline
    • - Politics in the Gilded Age   
    • - Politics in the Pivotal 1890s
    • - Middle-Class Reform           
  • 3. Politics in the Gilded Age  
    • Two changes: 1. Development of professional bureaucracy
    •                2. Close elections 
    • Republicans:                                               
    • - Northeastern Yankee industrial interests                    
    • - New England migrants      
    • - urban immigrants
    • - Scandinavian Lutherans across the Upper West
    • Democrats:
    • - southern whites, northern workers,
  • 4. National Issues
    • Tariff:
      • - Republicans = high tariff
      • - Democrats = low tariff
    • Currency:
      • - Specie Resumption Act
    • Civil Service
    • Government regulation of railroads
  • 5. Middle Class Reform
    • - Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
    • - Frances Willard- president
    • - Andrew Carnegie
    • - Charles Darwinism (natural selection)
    • - Reforming the city
  • 6. Settlement and Social Gospel
    • Settlement House Movement
    • Help immigrant families
    • Give college-educated women meaningful work
    • Develop city building codes, abolish child labor, and improve factory safety.
    • Jane Adam’s Hull House
    • Social Gospel Movement
    • Salvation led to social betterment
    • Seneca Falls Convention and National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
  • 7. Politics In The Pivotal 1890s
    • Americans Mistakenly think of the last decade of the 19th century as the “The gay Nineties” symbolized by ball players and Gibson girls. The 1890s was indeed an era of baseball and bicycles but it was also a decade of disturbing gaps between rich and poor.
    • The 90s featured enormous wealth but also dark tenements, grinding work, and desperate unemployment.
  • 8. Republican Legislation in the Early 1890s
    • Civil War veteran’s pensions : easily approved by Congress with little debate
    • Trusts : the Sherman Anti-Trust Act passed with only one nay vote
    • Tariffs : after many amendments and debate, American protective tariffs were raised higher than ever
    • Money : after much debate, the gold standard remained secure.
  • 9. Time Line
  • 10. Formations of the People’s Party
    • The Farmers' Alliance, formed in Lampasas, TX in 1876, promoted collective economic action by farmers and achieved widespread popularity in the South and Great Plains. The Farmers' Alliance was ultimately unable to achieve its wider economic goals of collective economic action against brokers, railroads, and merchants, and many in the movement agitated for changes in national policy.
    • The Populist Party was formed by members of the "Alliance", in conjunction with the Knights of Labor, in 1889–1890. The movement reached its peak in 1892 when the party held a convention in Omaha, Nebraska and nominated candidates for the national election.
  • 11. Depression of 1983
    • 1893 saw the worst national economic depression up until that time.
    • Wall Street crashed as the small gold supply was demanded by thousands of depositors in exchange for their paper money.
    • The election of 1896 boiled down to the single issue of free and unlimited coinage of silver, which many believed would solve all the problems of the country in short order.
  • 12. The Crucial Election of 1896
  • 13. The New Shape of American Politics
    • The Landslide republican victory broke the stalemate in post-civil war American politics. Republicans dropped their identification with the politics of piety and strengthened their image as the party of prosperity and national greatness which gave them a party dominance that lasted until the 1930s.
    • Another result of the election of the 1896 was a change in political participation. Because the republicans were so dominant outside of the south and democrats so powerful in the South, few states had vigorous two party political battles and less reason to mobilize large numbers of voters.
    • McKinley’s election marked not only the return of economic health, but also the emergence of the executive as the dominant focus of the American political system.