Early 20th century migration8 5.7


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Early 20th century migration8 5.7

  1. 1. Early 20th Century Migration 8.5-7—Compare migration patterns of South Carolinians to such patterns throughout the United States, including the movement from rural to urban areas and the migration of African Americans from the South to the North, Midwest, and West.
  2. 2. Post Civil War • Westward expansion continued • Moves from region to region • Immigration to the US • Most of SC did not move west (why?) • Why move out west? – Free land offered out west [Homestead Act] (3:16) – Economic opportunities through the railroad • Chinese and European immigrants worked the transcontinental RR
  3. 3. From Farms to Mills • African Americans moved to rural areas in SC; to factory jobs in the Northeast & Midwest. • They were not allowed to work in mills in SC • Social discrimination (Jim Crow Laws) also pushed them from SC • Agricultural depression and boll weevil destruction of cotton pushed many to mill jobs; both white and black
  4. 4. The following chart shows the states which gained the greatest percentage of their population between the 1920 and 1970s censuses.
  5. 5. Immigration to SC • Foreign immigration did not come to SC in large numbers • Due to SC’s depressed economic conditions, lack of land, & lack of industrial jobs • Those who did come made great contributions to SC by establishing businesses
  6. 6. North & Midwest Immigration • Most immigrants were too poor to move past the port cities where they arrived • Ethnic neighborhoods established • Churches, schools, businesses, & newspapers reflected the ethnicity of Little Italy, Greektown, & Polonia • SC neighborhoods & towns were divided by race, not so much ethnicity • Many helped ethnic new arrivals-played a huge part in politics • Immigrants gave their votes to neighborhood & ward bosses in gratitude for their help • Many political bosses were corrupt & bribed city contractors • The power that immigrants groups gave to this urban political machine allowed the bosses to solve urban problems • Tillman in SC was like the southern version of a northern boss
  7. 7. Paddy's Lamentation - Gangs of New York (2:40)
  8. 8. Restrictions on Immigration • Racial hostilities led to restrictions on immigration • “nativism”: A sociopolitical policy, especially in the United States in the 19th century, favoring the interests of established inhabitants over those of immigrants. • Resentment focused on immigrants from Southern & Eastern Europe (Italians, Poles, Russians, Eastern European Jews) as the number of these immigrants grew & differences between them & the already established Irish, Germans, & native Americans were more obvious • Immigration systems in the form of a quota system did not pass Congress until the 1920’s • Northern nativism = anti-African American prejudices in SC
  9. 9. Know Nothing Party Flag
  10. 10. National Identity • Native white people had an inherent superiority & “100% Americanism” • Idea of Social Darwinism gave an intellectual justification for white supremacy (1:56) • Took till late 20th century to recognize the contributions they had made to strengthen the democracy •