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Geschiedenis   german nationalism
 

Geschiedenis german nationalism

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    Geschiedenis   german nationalism Geschiedenis german nationalism Presentation Transcript

    • HI136 The History of Germany Lecture 1 Germany’s ‘Special Path’
      • Group 1: Monday 13.00-14.30
      • Room: H2.41
      • Rupert Cheyne
      • Peter Clemons
      • Jessica Davies
      • Jamie Holland
      • Olivia Hill
      • William James
      • James MacGregor
      • Claire Millar
      • Juliette Nordberg
      • Ferdinand Nyberg
      • Group 3: Tuesday 11.30-13.00
      • Room: H3.15
      • Lee Atkins
      • James Edge
      • Victoria Elton
      • Philippa Kemp
      • Benjamin Magee
      • Karla Sharp
      • Group 2: Tuesday 10.00-11.30
      • Room: H3.15
      • Joseph Billinness
      • Charlotte Dunlavey
      • Matthew Jowers
      • Christopher Luck
      • Daniel Stevens
      • Marco Wirrer
      • Group 4: Tuesday 14.00-15.30
      • Room: H2.43
      • Robert de Kort
      • Jack Donelan
      • Danielle Garrity
      • Charles Hargrave
      • Charlotte Jayaseelan
      • Alex Jackson
      • James Lower
      • Mary McCarthy
      • Nisha Patel
      • Robert Ripamonti
      • Harry Rose
      • Charlotte Rounding
      • Matthew Wright
    • What comes to mind when you think of Germany and the Germans?
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    • J. S. Bach (1685-1750) Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) Bertold Brecht (1898-1956) Emmanuel Kant (1724-1804) Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) Geprge Grosz (1893-1959)
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    • Module Themes
      • The Making of the modern German state and society.
      • Germany’s transformation from maverick to model state.
      • Diversity.
      • Germany’s ‘Special Path’ ( Sonderweg ).
    • Germany’s ‘special path’ ( Deutscher Sonderweg )
      • Distinctive German way to modernity which contrasts with the standard (West European, British, French) way
      • Industrialization: belated industrial revolution, several decades after that of England
      • Failed bourgeois revolution in Germany (defeat of the democratic revolution of 1848)
      • German unification not a result of the success of a liberal and democratic movement but created by the militarist Prussian state (born in war)
      • Weimar republic not accepted by large part of the population, seen as a result of the defeat and forced onto Germany by the victorious Entente
      • Continuous dominance of antidemocratic, reactionary elites (ostelbian agrarians, estate owners and “big business”)
      • Traditions of Prussian militarism
      • Culminating in: Third Reich, seen as logical result of the German “special path”
    • The Holy Roman Empire, 800-1806
      • The ‘loose association of territories that preceded the creation of the modern German state.’ (Tim Kirk)
      • Usually considered to have come into being with the coronation of Charlemagne as ‘Emperor of the Romans’ in 800, but the term Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation ( Heiliges R ömisches Reich deutscher Nation ) was formally adopted in 1512.
      • At its greatest extent it encompassed modern-day Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Holland, Belgium and parts of France and Italy.
      • After the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) which ended the Thirty Years War there were still 234 territories and 51 ‘Imperial Cities’.
      • The territories that made up the HRE were self-governing, but their sovereigns owed allegiance to the Emperor, who was elected by 7 Elector-Princes (3 ecclesiastical, 4 secular).
      • Rudolf von Habsburg, Duke of Austria, became Emperor in 1273. His descendents ruled the Empire off and on until it was abolished. From the 15 th Century there were no non-Habsburg Emperors.
      • The Holy Roman Empire was formally dissolved on 6 August 1806 by the Treaty of Pressburg, after the defeat of Austria by Napoleon.
    • The Holy Roman Empire in 1789
    • The French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars, 1789-1815
      • Exported the principles of liberty, equality and brotherhood ( Libert é , égalité , fraternité )
      • Broke the power of the old Monarchical regimes and states in Central Europe.
      • Saw the emergence of the idea of ‘Nationalism’ – the term first appeared in the writings of the Jesuit Abbé Barruel in 1798
      • ‘ The Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars witnessed the first upsurge of Nationalism in European history, partly under the inspiration of the French armies and message of liberation, partly in reaction against those armies and the realities of occupation and oppression.’ Robert Gildea, Barricades and Borders: Europe 1800-1914 (Oxford: OUP, 1996)
    • Effects on Germany
      • German nationalists, liberals and Romantics initially welcomed the French revolution and saw the French armies as liberators.
      • 1805: Defeat of Austria at the Battle of Austerlitz
      • 1806: Defeat of Prussia at the twin battles of Jena & Auerstadt
      • Napoleonic re-ordering of Germany: Holy Roman Empire abolished
      • Number of states reduced to 39
      • Puppet rulers installed in German states
      • Confederation of the Rhine formed
      • French legal system imposed
      • Napoleon’s German campaigns and the experience of occupation turned popular and liberal nationalist sentiment against Napoleon.
    • Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814)
      • Dismissed as professor of philosophy at the University of Jena in 1799 for his support of the French Revolution.
      • Addresses to the German Nation (1807-08): Argued that France now represented despotism and that it was therefore up to ‘the German nation’ to be the champion of liberty. The Volk (people) should thus rise up and drive out the invader.
    • Effects on Germany
      • German nationalists, liberals and Romantics initially welcomed the French revolution and saw the French armies as liberators.
      • 1805: Defeat of Austria at the Battle of Austerlitz
      • 1806: Defeat of Prussia at the twin battles of Jena & Auerstadt
      • Napoleonic re-ordering of Germany: Holy Roman Empire abolished
      • Number of states reduced to 39
      • Puppet rulers installed in German states
      • Confederation of the Rhine formed
      • French legal system imposed
      • Napoleon’s German campaigns and the experience of occupation turned popular and liberal nationalist sentiment against Napoleon.
      • 1813-14: Wars of Liberation.
    • The Congress of Vienna, 1814-15
      • Restored deposed monarchs to their thrones and sought to re-establish the ancien r é gime in Europe.
      • Granted Prussia extensive territory in the Rhineland – the population of the Kingdom of Prussia doubled overnight.
      • Established the German Confederation.
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    • The German Confederation
      • Made up of 39 German States
      • Designed to help preserve the status quo rather than as a basis for a United Germany.
      • The Austrian Chancellor Metternich saw it as a means of preserving Austrian dominance over Germany.
      • The Federal Diet (parliament) met at Frankfurt and was made up of (unelected) representatives of all the states. It was always chaired by the Austrian representative. In theory the Diet could appoint ambassadors, negotiate treaties on behalf of members and organize a Federal Army. In practice little was ever done because the unanimous agreement of all 39 states was required.
    • What is a Nation?
      • Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744-1803): The Volk (‘nation’ or ‘race’) is the decisive determinant of human identity. The nation is therefore identified not with the state (which is an artificial body), but with the ‘organic body’ of the Volk .
      • Johann Goethe (1749-1832): No need for a nation-state – Germany was a ‘cultural community’ like Ancient Greece.
      • Geog Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831): An individual only achieved their full potential through service to the state.
      • German nationalism based on the idea of a racial/cultural community with shared language, history, traditions, myths etc.
      • “ A nation can therefore be defined as
      • a named human population
      • sharing an historic territory,
      • common myths and historical memories,
      • a mass public culture,
      • a common economy
      • and common legal rights and duties for all members .”
      • Anthony D. Smith, National Identity (Reno, Las Vegas, London) 1991, p. 14.
    • Where is Germany?
      • Both The Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire incorporated territory outside the German Confederation and non-German citizens.
      • Grossdeutschland (Greater Germany) – would incorporate the German-speaking parts of the Austrian Empire and would maintain Catholic Austria’s leadership of Germany.
      • Kleindeutschland (Little Germany) – would exclude Austria but include the whole of Prussia (including her ‘Polish’ territories), leaving Protestant Prussia as the dominant German state.
    • The Revolutions of 1848
      • Causes: Economic Crisis (1846-47)
      • Demographic change (growing population, urbanization etc.)
      • Poor harvests leading to famine
      • Cholera epidemic
      • Dissatisfaction with conservative political climate
      • 24 Feb. 1848: Revolution in France – King Louis Philippe overthrown and a Republic established.
      • 13 March: Demonstrations in Vienna lead to the fall of Metternich
      • 24 October: The Austrian Emperor Ferdinand (1835-48) abdicates in favour of his nephew Franz Josef (1848-1916).
      • 13 March: Prussian troops fire on demonstrators in the palace square in Berlin, leading to 2 days of rioting
      • 16 March: News of Metternich’s fall reaches Berlin. King Friedrich Wilhelm IV (1840-61) agrees in principle to a new constitution, parliament and an end to censorship.
      • 18 March: More fighting in Berlin – at least 300 rioters killed by the Army.
      • 21 March: Friedrich Wilhelm grants a series of reforms including the appointment of a liberal ministry.
      • August-November: The Prussian King reasserts his control. Martial Law is introduced in November and the liberal constitution and parliament overturned.
    • The Frankfurt Parliament
      • 5 March 1848: The Heidelberg Declaration: calls for a single German state governed by a united German parliament.
      • 31 March: 574 representatives from the German states met in Frankfurt to agree on what form the new German parliament would take (the Vorparlament ).
      • After elections in April the parliament met in Frankfurt in May 1848. It was largely made up of liberal middle-class professionals (teachers, lawyers etc.) and was moderate in character.
      • The Assembly soon became bogged down in debate over what form a united Germany should take and how it should be governed.
      • June: A provisional government led by the Habsburg Archduke John was elected, but it had no real power and an ill-defined role.
      • March 1849: A Constitution for a united German Empire agreed and the Imperial crown was offered to the King of Prussia, who refused it. The rulers of Bavaria, Saxony and Hanover also rejected the Constitution.
      • May 1849: The parliament expelled from Frankfurt and moved to Stuttgart.
      • June 1849: The parliament forcibly broken up by the King of W ürttemberg’ s troops.
    • The Zollverein
      • Prussian Tariff Reform Law (1818): Designed to protect Prussian industry from cheap imports & break down internal barriers to free trade.
      • 1818-34: Prussia tried to encourage free trade within Germany by forming customs unions with neighbouring states.
      • By 1836 the Prussian Customs Union ( Zollverein ) was made up of 25 states with a population of 26 million. Trade barriers & customs duties between members were abolished and there were moves towards standardization of weights and measures and currency.
    • The Development of Prussia
      • Economic boom in the 1850s: industrial production, foreign trade & railway building all doubled between 1851 and 1858.
      • 1850-58: Minister-President Otto von Manteuffel pursued a policy of trying to bolster support for the monarchy through limited social (but not political) reform.
      • 1858: Friedrich Wilhelm IV declared insane and his brother Wilhelm becomes regent.
    • Wilhelm I (1861-1858)
      • Born in 1797 in Berlin
      • A soldier by training and a conservative by instinct
      • Fought against Napoleon in the Wars of Liberation & Waterloo Campaign
      • Staunch opponent of Revolution
      • A devout Protestant, he believed that he was answerable only to God.
    • The Development of Prussia
      • Economic boom in the 1850s: industrial production, foreign trade & railway building all doubled between 1851 and 1858.
      • 1850-58: Minister-President Otto von Manteuffel pursued a policy of trying to bolster support for the monarchy through limited social (but not political) reform.
      • 1858: Friedrich Wilhelm IV declared insane and his brother Wilhelm becomes regent.
      • 1858: The ‘New Era’ – Wilhelm appoints a mixed ministry of liberals and conservatives and the Liberals gain 55% of the seats in the Prussian Diet.
      • 1860: Army Reform Bill
      • 1860-1862: Constitutional Conflict.
      • 1862: Otto von Bismarck appointed Minister-President.
    • Austro-Prussian Conflict
      • 1849-50: Austrian attempts to join the Zollverein come to nothing, leaving Austria as the political leader of the German Confederation, but economically isolated.
      • 1850: The ‘Capitulation at Olmutz’ – Prussia forced to abandon her plan to replace the German Confederation with a union led jointly by Prussia and Austria.
      • 1862: Bismarck demanded that Austria recognize Prussia as its equal within Germany.
      • 1864: German-Danish War – Austria & Prussia co-operate to prevent Denmark from annexing the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. By the terms of the Convention of Gastein Schelswig was ceded to Prussia and Holstein to Austria.
      • 1866: Seven Weeks (Austro-Prussian) War – Austria brings an action against Prussia in the Federal Diet & Prussia walks out declaring the end of the German Confederation. Prussia decisively defeats Austria a Sadowa (K öniggrätz) on 3 July.
    • Prussia Ascendant
      • Prussia annexed Frankfurt, Hesse-Kassel, Hanover and Nassau, as well as Schleswig and Holstein.
      • Formed the North German Confederation with Saxony, Mecklenburg, Oldenburg and Thuringia.
      • Secret alliances signed with the South German states (Bavaria, Baden and W ürttemberg).
    • The North German Confederation, 1866-71
    • Prussia Ascendant
      • Prussia annexed Frankfurt, Hesse-Kassel, Hanover and Nassau, as well as Schleswig and Holstein.
      • Formed the North German Confederation with Saxony, Mecklenburg, Oldenburg and Thuringia.
      • Secret alliances signed with the South German states (Bavaria, Baden and W ürttemberg).
      • Austria excluded from Germany once and for all.
      • 1870-71: Franco-Prussian War
      • 18 January 1871: Proclamation of the German Empire in the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles.
    • ‘ Proclamation of German Unification’ (1888) by Anton von Werner