Ideologies & Upheavals Section 1 V2008


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Ideologies & Upheavals Section 1 V2008

  1. 1. Ideologies & Upheavals c.e. 1815-1848 Eastview High School – AP European History A History of Western Society Ch23 Section 1 – The Peace Agreement McKay et al. 8 th ed.
  2. 2. Essential Questions <ul><li>How do the European powers attempt to achieve balance of power throughout Europe after the Napoleonic empire? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the political revolution, detailed in France and resisted by European monarchs, eventually break out again after 1815? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the “dual revolution” shape the ideologies of the nineteenth century? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Balance of Power <ul><li>The victors (mainly the alliance of Russia, Austria, Prussia, and Great Britain) restored the French boundaries of 1792 and the Bourbon dynasty. </li></ul><ul><li>They made other changes in the boundaries of Europe, establishing Prussia as a “sentinel” against France, and created a new kingdom out of Belgium and Holland. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Balance of Power (continued) <ul><li>It was believed that the concept of the balance of power, an international equilibrium of political and military forces, would preserve peace in Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>But the demands of the victors, especially the Prussians and the Russians, for compensation threatened the balance. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Representatives at the Congress of Vienna, 1815 <ul><li>Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance of power throughout Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave up territories in Belgium and southern Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded by taking Venetia and Lombardy in northern Italy AND land on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Robert Castlereagh of Great Britain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance of power throughout Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Won colonies and strategic outposts and desired freedom of the seas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sought to eliminate French threat to its commercial interests </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Representatives at the Congress of Vienna, 1815 <ul><li>Tsar Alexander I of Russia: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to restore and rule Poland - this was too much according to Metternich & Castlereagh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended up with a smaller version of the Polish kingdom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prince Karl Hardenberg of Prussia: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted the large and wealthy kingdom of Saxony - this was too much according to Metternich & Castlereagh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended up with part of Saxony instead of the whole - approximately 2/5 </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Representatives at the Congress of Vienna, 1815 <ul><li>Charles Talleyrand of France: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance of power throughout Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boundaries restored to what they were in 1792 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lost Caribbean possessions to Great Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay an indemnity of 700 million Francs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support an occupational army for five years </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Intervention & Repression <ul><li>Under Metternich, Austria, Prussia, and Russia led a crusade against liberalism. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They formed a Holy Alliance to check future liberal and revolutionary activity. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Conservative Ideology <ul><li>When liberals succeeded in Spain and in the Two Sicilies, the Holy Alliance intervened to restore conservatism. </li></ul><ul><li>However, Britain blocked intervention in Latin America and encouraged the Monroe Doctrine (1823). </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Carlsbad Decrees <ul><li>Metternich’s policies also dominated the German Confederation. </li></ul><ul><li>Metternich had the Carlsbad Decrees issued in 1819. </li></ul><ul><li>These decrees repressed subversive ideas and organizations. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Metternich and Conservatism <ul><li>Metternich represented the view that the best state blended monarchy, bureaucracy, and aristocracy. </li></ul><ul><li>He hated liberalism, which he claimed stirred up the lower classes and caused war and bloodshed. </li></ul><ul><li>Liberalism also stirred up national aspirations in central Europe, which could lead to war and the breakup of the Austrian Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>The empire, which was dominated by the minority Germans, contained many ethnic groups, including Hungarians & Czechs, which was a potential source of weakness & dissatisfaction. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Questions for your review <ul><li>What principles guided the victorious allies at the Congress of Vienna? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the main resolutions of the peace settlement arranged in Vienna in 1815? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did France and Austria intervene in Spain and Italy respectively? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the Carlsbad Decrees? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the Holy Alliance? What was its purpose? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Metternich believe in conservatism? </li></ul>