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Transcript

  • 1. VALIDATION Work package 7 Evaluation 1
  • 2. 2
  • 3. EVALUATION CONTENTS 2
  • 4. EVALUATION CONTENTS• Evaluating the outputs of the development work packages. 2
  • 5. EVALUATION CONTENTS• Evaluating the outputs of the development work packages.• Each partner will conduct tests withs its respective transversal target group. 2
  • 6. EVALUATION CONTENTS• Evaluating the outputs of the development work packages.• Each partner will conduct tests withs its respective transversal target group.• Advice will also be sought from regulatory and examination bodies such as Hanban and HSK. 2
  • 7. EVALUATION CONTENTS• Evaluating the outputs of the development work packages.• Each partner will conduct tests withs its respective transversal target group.• Advice will also be sought from regulatory and examination bodies such as Hanban and HSK.• CI-SP will coordinate this work package 2
  • 8. 3
  • 9. EVALUATION CONTENTS 3
  • 10. EVALUATION CONTENTS• There will be 2 Deliverables: 3
  • 11. EVALUATION CONTENTS• There will be 2 Deliverables:• D7.1 Internal Evaluation Report 1, will deal with the preparation and results of Test 1, carried out by all partners in January to February, 2012. This report D7.1 should be ready by March, 2012 3
  • 12. EVALUATION CONTENTS• There will be 2 Deliverables:• D7.1 Internal Evaluation Report 1, will deal with the preparation and results of Test 1, carried out by all partners in January to February, 2012. This report D7.1 should be ready by March, 2012• D7.2. Internal Evaluation Report 2, will deal with the preparation and results of Test 2, which will be carried out by all partners in July-August, 2012. 3
  • 13. 4
  • 14. EVALUATION TESTS 4
  • 15. EVALUATION TESTS• TEST 1 and TEST 2 4
  • 16. EVALUATION TESTS• TEST 1 and TEST 2• There will be a period of 4 months between Test 1 and Test 2 to adjust the Test 2 and include any change or recommendation. 4
  • 17. EVALUATION TESTS• TEST 1 and TEST 2• There will be a period of 4 months between Test 1 and Test 2 to adjust the Test 2 and include any change or recommendation.• Objectives: Test 1 has to evaluate the relevant Work packages, specially WP3 (Linguistic Analysis and Pedagogy), WP4 (Materials Development) and WP6 (Mother Tongue Influence). 4
  • 18. EVALUATION TESTS• TEST 1 and TEST 2• There will be a period of 4 months between Test 1 and Test 2 to adjust the Test 2 and include any change or recommendation.• Objectives: Test 1 has to evaluate the relevant Work packages, specially WP3 (Linguistic Analysis and Pedagogy), WP4 (Materials Development) and WP6 (Mother Tongue Influence).• Objectives: Test2. After evaluating all the results coming from Test 1, introduce any necessary change in the materials and test again. 4
  • 19. EVALUATION TESTS
  • 20. EVALUATION TESTS• Evaluation process will take about 11 months, starting on November, 2011. This will be the timing:
  • 21. EVALUATION TESTS• Evaluation process will take about 11 months, starting on November, 2011. This will be the timing: • November-December, 2011: Preparation and finishing of TEST 1.
  • 22. EVALUATION TESTS• Evaluation process will take about 11 months, starting on November, 2011. This will be the timing: • November-December, 2011: Preparation and finishing of TEST 1. • January-February, 2012: Test 1
  • 23. EVALUATION TESTS• Evaluation process will take about 11 months, starting on November, 2011. This will be the timing: • November-December, 2011: Preparation and finishing of TEST 1. • January-February, 2012: Test 1 • March to June, 2012: Report on outcomes of Test 1
  • 24. EVALUATION TESTS• Evaluation process will take about 11 months, starting on November, 2011. This will be the timing: • November-December, 2011: Preparation and finishing of TEST 1. • January-February, 2012: Test 1 • March to June, 2012: Report on outcomes of Test 1 • July-August, 2012: Test 2
  • 25. EVALUATION TESTS• Evaluation process will take about 11 months, starting on November, 2011. This will be the timing: • November-December, 2011: Preparation and finishing of TEST 1. • January-February, 2012: Test 1 • March to June, 2012: Report on outcomes of Test 1 • July-August, 2012: Test 2 • September-October, 2012: Report on outcomes of Test 2
  • 26. TESTS
  • 27. TESTS• We have to discuss and agree on:
  • 28. TESTS• We have to discuss and agree on: • What kind of test
  • 29. TESTS• We have to discuss and agree on: • What kind of test • What kind of structure will have
  • 30. TESTS• We have to discuss and agree on: • What kind of test • What kind of structure will have • Which students groups we will check
  • 31. TESTS• We have to discuss and agree on: • What kind of test • What kind of structure will have • Which students groups we will check • How to process the results
  • 32. WHAT KIND OF TEST• Individual or Collective• Written or Oral
  • 33. F TE ST N D O AT KI W H• Individual or Collective• Written or Oral
  • 34. WHAT KIND OF STRUCTURE
  • 35. WHAT KIND OF STRUCTURE • Control Group and Test Group
  • 36. WHAT KIND OF STRUCTURE • Control Group and Test Group • How to define the Control Group and the Test Group
  • 37. WHAT KIND OF STRUCTURE • Control Group and Test Group • How to define the Control Group and the Test Group • How to select the participants
  • 38. WHAT KIND OF STRUCTURE • Control Group and Test Group • How to define the Control Group and the Test Group • How to select the participants • Learning materials for the Control Group
  • 39. WHICH STUDENTS GROUPS
  • 40. WHICH STUDENTS GROUPS • Transversal groups (different age, cultural background, learning Chinese experience, etc.)
  • 41. WHICH STUDENTS GROUPS • Transversal groups (different age, cultural background, learning Chinese experience, etc.) • Mothertongue influence: German, English, French and Spanish. (The tests will be in native languages also).
  • 42. HOW TO PROCESS THE RESULTS
  • 43. HOW TO PROCESS THE RESULTS• Written tests: for students and teachers
  • 44. HOW TO PROCESS THE RESULTS• Written tests: for students and teachers• Personal Interviews
  • 45. HOW TO PROCESS THE RESULTS• Written tests: for students and teachers• Personal Interviews• Everypartner process the results, get some data and conclusions, send them to the leading IC.
  • 46. HOW TO PROCESS THE RESULTS• Written tests: for students and teachers• Personal Interviews• Everypartner process the results, get some data and conclusions, send them to the leading IC.• Leading IC put all together, get some general conclusions and back to the group of partners.
  • 47. HOW TO PROCESS THE RESULTS• Written tests: for students and teachers• Personal Interviews• Everypartner process the results, get some data and conclusions, send them to the leading IC.• Leading IC put all together, get some general conclusions and back to the group of partners.• Proposalof changes and/or recommendations, both in contents and technology.
  • 48. QUESTIONNAIRE
  • 49. QUESTIONNAIREPreliminary Information and Conclusions
  • 50. QUESTIONNAIRE
  • 51. QUESTIONNAIRE General Data
  • 52. QUESTIONNAIRE General Data• 26 respondents. Basicly 2 groups: Group 1-University Students; Group 2 (Confucius Institute Students)-General students.
  • 53. QUESTIONNAIRE General Data• 26 respondents. Basicly 2 groups: Group 1-University Students; Group 2 (Confucius Institute Students)-General students.• Age: between 18-40 years old. Group 1: University Students, more compact age: around 20 years old.
  • 54. QUESTIONNAIRE General Data• 26 respondents. Basicly 2 groups: Group 1-University Students; Group 2 (Confucius Institute Students)-General students.• Age: between 18-40 years old. Group 1: University Students, more compact age: around 20 years old.• Questionnaire time: June-July 2011, Granada, Spain.
  • 55. QUESTIONNAIRE
  • 56. QUESTIONNAIRE General Data
  • 57. QUESTIONNAIRE General Data• Most of the students 23/26 don´t have Chinese as first foreing language, which means that the study or have studied other foreign languages.
  • 58. QUESTIONNAIRE General Data• Most of the students 23/26 don´t have Chinese as first foreing language, which means that the study or have studied other foreign languages.• Most of them (19/26) study full time Chinese Language
  • 59. QUESTIONNAIRE General Data• Most of the students 23/26 don´t have Chinese as first foreing language, which means that the study or have studied other foreign languages.• Most of them (19/26) study full time Chinese Language• Average period studying Chinese language is about 24,5 months. Some of them, only 8 months (University students), some of them 48 months (CI students)
  • 60. QUESTIONNAIRE General Data• Most of the students 23/26 don´t have Chinese as first foreing language, which means that the study or have studied other foreign languages.• Most of them (19/26) study full time Chinese Language• Average period studying Chinese language is about 24,5 months. Some of them, only 8 months (University students), some of them 48 months (CI students)• Most of them (20/26) study 4 hours per week (formal learning) and about 3,2 hours per week outside class. Some could have up to 10 or 15 hours per week outside class.
  • 61. QUESTIONNAIRE General Data• Most of the students 23/26 don´t have Chinese as first foreing language, which means that the study or have studied other foreign languages.• Most of them (19/26) study full time Chinese Language• Average period studying Chinese language is about 24,5 months. Some of them, only 8 months (University students), some of them 48 months (CI students)• Most of them (20/26) study 4 hours per week (formal learning) and about 3,2 hours per week outside class. Some could have up to 10 or 15 hours per week outside class.• Vast majority (25/26) never have been or studied in China.
  • 62. QUESTIONNAIRE General Data• Most of the students 23/26 don´t have Chinese as first foreing language, which means that the study or have studied other foreign languages.• Most of them (19/26) study full time Chinese Language• Average period studying Chinese language is about 24,5 months. Some of them, only 8 months (University students), some of them 48 months (CI students)• Most of them (20/26) study 4 hours per week (formal learning) and about 3,2 hours per week outside class. Some could have up to 10 or 15 hours per week outside class.• Vast majority (25/26) never have been or studied in China.• Manuals: most used is CHINO DE HOY ( ), 14/26. Other manual is BOYA HANYU ( ).
  • 63. QUESTIONNAIRE
  • 64. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Questions
  • 65. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Questions• Question 8: Which language skills do you pay most attention to: listening, speaking, reading, writing?
  • 66. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Questions• Question 8: Which language skills do you pay most attention to: listening, speaking, reading, writing? • WRITING (11) and READING (7) are the most important skills.
  • 67. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Questions• Question 8: Which language skills do you pay most attention to: listening, speaking, reading, writing? • WRITING (11) and READING (7) are the most important skills. • SPEAKING (5) and LISTENING (1) are the less important.
  • 68. QUESTIONNAIRE
  • 69. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Questions
  • 70. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Questions• Question 9: In which order do you normally practise your skills language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing? The information starts to appear contradictory.
  • 71. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Questions• Question 9: In which order do you normally practise your skills language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing? The information starts to appear contradictory. • Normally start practise with WRITING (14) or READING (15).
  • 72. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Questions• Question 9: In which order do you normally practise your skills language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing? The information starts to appear contradictory. • Normally start practise with WRITING (14) or READING (15). • Nobody starts with SPEAKING or LISTENING.
  • 73. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Questions• Question 9: In which order do you normally practise your skills language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing? The information starts to appear contradictory. • Normally start practise with WRITING (14) or READING (15). • Nobody starts with SPEAKING or LISTENING.• Are the students more focused in the non oral aspects of learning? Are they more comfortable with “passive skills” as writing or reading?
  • 74. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Questions• Question 9: In which order do you normally practise your skills language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing? The information starts to appear contradictory. • Normally start practise with WRITING (14) or READING (15). • Nobody starts with SPEAKING or LISTENING.• Are the students more focused in the non oral aspects of learning? Are they more comfortable with “passive skills” as writing or reading?• 0 students practise Speaking in the first place but 11/26 practise it in the last position. Same with Listening: 2/26 in the first position, 7 in the last position.
  • 75. QUESTIONNAIRE
  • 76. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Questions
  • 77. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Questions• Question 12: Rank these skills in order 1-4 of difficulty (1-most difficult): listening, speaking, reading, writing? or how do students perceive the degree of difficulty of this skills. Results a bit unexpected.
  • 78. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Questions• Question 12: Rank these skills in order 1-4 of difficulty (1-most difficult): listening, speaking, reading, writing? or how do students perceive the degree of difficulty of this skills. Results a bit unexpected. • LISTENING: 10/26 consider it the most difficult skill. Only 5 consider it as the easiest skill (less difficult).
  • 79. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Questions• Question 12: Rank these skills in order 1-4 of difficulty (1-most difficult): listening, speaking, reading, writing? or how do students perceive the degree of difficulty of this skills. Results a bit unexpected. • LISTENING: 10/26 consider it the most difficult skill. Only 5 consider it as the easiest skill (less difficult). • SPEAKING: 7/26 the most difficult. 6/26 consider it the less difficult.
  • 80. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Questions• Question 12: Rank these skills in order 1-4 of difficulty (1-most difficult): listening, speaking, reading, writing? or how do students perceive the degree of difficulty of this skills. Results a bit unexpected. • LISTENING: 10/26 consider it the most difficult skill. Only 5 consider it as the easiest skill (less difficult). • SPEAKING: 7/26 the most difficult. 6/26 consider it the less difficult. • READING: 3/26 consider the most difficult; 4/26 consider it the easiest.
  • 81. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Questions• Question 12: Rank these skills in order 1-4 of difficulty (1-most difficult): listening, speaking, reading, writing? or how do students perceive the degree of difficulty of this skills. Results a bit unexpected. • LISTENING: 10/26 consider it the most difficult skill. Only 5 consider it as the easiest skill (less difficult). • SPEAKING: 7/26 the most difficult. 6/26 consider it the less difficult. • READING: 3/26 consider the most difficult; 4/26 consider it the easiest. • WRITING: 4/26 consider it the most difficult; 10/26 consider it the easiest skill.
  • 82. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Questions• Question 12: Rank these skills in order 1-4 of difficulty (1-most difficult): listening, speaking, reading, writing? or how do students perceive the degree of difficulty of this skills. Results a bit unexpected. • LISTENING: 10/26 consider it the most difficult skill. Only 5 consider it as the easiest skill (less difficult). • SPEAKING: 7/26 the most difficult. 6/26 consider it the less difficult. • READING: 3/26 consider the most difficult; 4/26 consider it the easiest. • WRITING: 4/26 consider it the most difficult; 10/26 consider it the easiest skill.• Questions: Are the most difficult skills practised in the first place? Do they devote most time and effort to the skills considered most difficult?
  • 83. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Questions• Question 12: Rank these skills in order 1-4 of difficulty (1-most difficult): listening, speaking, reading, writing? or how do students perceive the degree of difficulty of this skills. Results a bit unexpected. • LISTENING: 10/26 consider it the most difficult skill. Only 5 consider it as the easiest skill (less difficult). • SPEAKING: 7/26 the most difficult. 6/26 consider it the less difficult. • READING: 3/26 consider the most difficult; 4/26 consider it the easiest. • WRITING: 4/26 consider it the most difficult; 10/26 consider it the easiest skill.• Questions: Are the most difficult skills practised in the first place? Do they devote most time and effort to the skills considered most difficult?• Answer: Most of the informants put what the consider most difficult skill only in the third or fourth place of study order. In general, ALL informants do not correspond the degree of difficulty with the order in which they study or even the time the devote to each skill.
  • 84. QUESTIONNAIRE
  • 85. QUESTIONNAIREInteresting Point about Question 12
  • 86. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Point about Question 12• Preliminary conclusion 1: the criteria for deciding in which order to study these skills IS NOT difficulty of the skill, but other.
  • 87. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Point about Question 12• Preliminary conclusion 1: the criteria for deciding in which order to study these skills IS NOT difficulty of the skill, but other.• Preliminary Hypothesis 1: students start with and devote more time to the skills they consider more “attractive” or interesting. For instance, WRITING is often practiced in the first place because is more interesting or less tiring.
  • 88. QUESTIONNAIRE
  • 89. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Points
  • 90. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Points• Question 13: How much self- study time do you devote to pronunciation? Answers go from 0% to 70%. In general, the average time devoted to pronunciation is about 20-30% of the self-study time. But the information is also contradictory:
  • 91. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Points• Question 13: How much self- study time do you devote to pronunciation? Answers go from 0% to 70%. In general, the average time devoted to pronunciation is about 20-30% of the self-study time. But the information is also contradictory: • Informant 1: devote 70% of self-study time to pronuntiation, even if for he/she Speaking is the second skill in difficulty and study it in the last place. Reading is the easiest skill and study it en second place. Listening is the most difficult skill but study it third place.
  • 92. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Points• Question 13: How much self- study time do you devote to pronunciation? Answers go from 0% to 70%. In general, the average time devoted to pronunciation is about 20-30% of the self-study time. But the information is also contradictory: • Informant 1: devote 70% of self-study time to pronuntiation, even if for he/she Speaking is the second skill in difficulty and study it in the last place. Reading is the easiest skill and study it en second place. Listening is the most difficult skill but study it third place. • Informant 4: 60% of time devoted to pronuntiation, but considers Speaking the easiest skill of all, practice it in second place. Listening is the second skill in difficulty but study it only in the last place.
  • 93. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Points• Question 13: How much self- study time do you devote to pronunciation? Answers go from 0% to 70%. In general, the average time devoted to pronunciation is about 20-30% of the self-study time. But the information is also contradictory: • Informant 1: devote 70% of self-study time to pronuntiation, even if for he/she Speaking is the second skill in difficulty and study it in the last place. Reading is the easiest skill and study it en second place. Listening is the most difficult skill but study it third place. • Informant 4: 60% of time devoted to pronuntiation, but considers Speaking the easiest skill of all, practice it in second place. Listening is the second skill in difficulty but study it only in the last place. • Informant 5: considers Speaking the most difficult skill but devotes 0% to pronunciation.
  • 94. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Points• Question 13: How much self- study time do you devote to pronunciation? Answers go from 0% to 70%. In general, the average time devoted to pronunciation is about 20-30% of the self-study time. But the information is also contradictory: • Informant 1: devote 70% of self-study time to pronuntiation, even if for he/she Speaking is the second skill in difficulty and study it in the last place. Reading is the easiest skill and study it en second place. Listening is the most difficult skill but study it third place. • Informant 4: 60% of time devoted to pronuntiation, but considers Speaking the easiest skill of all, practice it in second place. Listening is the second skill in difficulty but study it only in the last place. • Informant 5: considers Speaking the most difficult skill but devotes 0% to pronunciation. • Informant 6 devotes 60% of his/her self-study time to pronunciation but considers SPEAKING the less difficult skills, normally practices it in the second place
  • 95. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Points• Question 13: How much self- study time do you devote to pronunciation? Answers go from 0% to 70%. In general, the average time devoted to pronunciation is about 20-30% of the self-study time. But the information is also contradictory: • Informant 1: devote 70% of self-study time to pronuntiation, even if for he/she Speaking is the second skill in difficulty and study it in the last place. Reading is the easiest skill and study it en second place. Listening is the most difficult skill but study it third place. • Informant 4: 60% of time devoted to pronuntiation, but considers Speaking the easiest skill of all, practice it in second place. Listening is the second skill in difficulty but study it only in the last place. • Informant 5: considers Speaking the most difficult skill but devotes 0% to pronunciation. • Informant 6 devotes 60% of his/her self-study time to pronunciation but considers SPEAKING the less difficult skills, normally practices it in the second place• We could think a priori that the student that considers the SPEAKING skill as the most difficult would devote more time to practice pronunciation, but in fact is not like this: only 7 informants considered SPEAKING as the most difficult skill, but these are not devoting more time to pronunciation.
  • 96. QUESTIONNAIRE
  • 97. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Points
  • 98. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Points• There are many striking cases, apparently with not a such strong logic.
  • 99. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Points• There are many striking cases, apparently with not a such strong logic.• Preliminary conclusion 2: there is a problem of misperception among the students interviewed, in terms of HOW TO ORGANIZE the study time, WHAT to study first, HOW MUCH EFFORT should be devoted to different skills, etc.
  • 100. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Points• There are many striking cases, apparently with not a such strong logic.• Preliminary conclusion 2: there is a problem of misperception among the students interviewed, in terms of HOW TO ORGANIZE the study time, WHAT to study first, HOW MUCH EFFORT should be devoted to different skills, etc.• Preliminary hypothesis 2: lack of LEARNING METHODOLOGY so the student is a little bit lost when it comes to the study of Chinese Language, as compared to the study of other foreign languages. This is a topic that should get some attention in the future, with much more data coming from different european countries and different learners groups.
  • 101. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Points• There are many striking cases, apparently with not a such strong logic.• Preliminary conclusion 2: there is a problem of misperception among the students interviewed, in terms of HOW TO ORGANIZE the study time, WHAT to study first, HOW MUCH EFFORT should be devoted to different skills, etc.• Preliminary hypothesis 2: lack of LEARNING METHODOLOGY so the student is a little bit lost when it comes to the study of Chinese Language, as compared to the study of other foreign languages. This is a topic that should get some attention in the future, with much more data coming from different european countries and different learners groups.
  • 102. QUESTIONNAIRE
  • 103. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Points
  • 104. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Points• Question 14: Rank these activities in order of difficulty: tones, individual sounds, words, phrases?
  • 105. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Points• Question 14: Rank these activities in order of difficulty: tones, individual sounds, words, phrases? • TONES: 50% consider thones the most difficult part of learning Chinese. It could be considered a low percentage according with different academic studies. No informant considers tones as the easiest part of learning, even if 6/26 consider tones “quite easy”.
  • 106. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Points• Question 14: Rank these activities in order of difficulty: tones, individual sounds, words, phrases? • TONES: 50% consider thones the most difficult part of learning Chinese. It could be considered a low percentage according with different academic studies. No informant considers tones as the easiest part of learning, even if 6/26 consider tones “quite easy”. • INDIVIDUAL SOUNDS. Only 5/26 consider this part as the most difficult. 2 informants consider phonemes as the easiest part. Most of informants put them in the second or third place.
  • 107. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Points• Question 14: Rank these activities in order of difficulty: tones, individual sounds, words, phrases? • TONES: 50% consider thones the most difficult part of learning Chinese. It could be considered a low percentage according with different academic studies. No informant considers tones as the easiest part of learning, even if 6/26 consider tones “quite easy”. • INDIVIDUAL SOUNDS. Only 5/26 consider this part as the most difficult. 2 informants consider phonemes as the easiest part. Most of informants put them in the second or third place. • WORDS. Only 1 informant consider words as the most difficult. Most informants consider words in the third or fourth place.
  • 108. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Points• Question 14: Rank these activities in order of difficulty: tones, individual sounds, words, phrases? • TONES: 50% consider thones the most difficult part of learning Chinese. It could be considered a low percentage according with different academic studies. No informant considers tones as the easiest part of learning, even if 6/26 consider tones “quite easy”. • INDIVIDUAL SOUNDS. Only 5/26 consider this part as the most difficult. 2 informants consider phonemes as the easiest part. Most of informants put them in the second or third place. • WORDS. Only 1 informant consider words as the most difficult. Most informants consider words in the third or fourth place. • PHRASES. 3/26 consider them most difficult. In general, put phrases as the third or fourth place.
  • 109. QUESTIONNAIRE Interesting Points• Question 14: Rank these activities in order of difficulty: tones, individual sounds, words, phrases? • TONES: 50% consider thones the most difficult part of learning Chinese. It could be considered a low percentage according with different academic studies. No informant considers tones as the easiest part of learning, even if 6/26 consider tones “quite easy”. • INDIVIDUAL SOUNDS. Only 5/26 consider this part as the most difficult. 2 informants consider phonemes as the easiest part. Most of informants put them in the second or third place. • WORDS. Only 1 informant consider words as the most difficult. Most informants consider words in the third or fourth place. • PHRASES. 3/26 consider them most difficult. In general, put phrases as the third or fourth place.• Summarising this information: Tones and Individual sounds (both 50% of informants) are considered the most difficult parts of learning Chinese Language.
  • 110. 21
  • 111. END 21
  • 112. Work package 7 Evaluation END 21