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- 1. Teaching MetacognitionTeaching MetacognitionHelping Students Self-AssessHelping Students Self-AssessTheir Own LearningTheir Own LearningJim WentworthJim WentworthCITES Academic Technology ServicesCITES Academic Technology Services
- 2. Metacognition involves anMetacognition involves anactive awareness of theactive awareness of theprocesses of thinking andprocesses of thinking andreasoning that we engage inreasoning that we engage inwhen attempting to learn.when attempting to learn.
- 3. Why Teach Metacognition?Why Teach Metacognition?Not all students enter theNot all students enter theuniversity with theuniversity with thenecessary skills to succeednecessary skills to succeedin their chosen discipline.in their chosen discipline.
- 4. Over the past four decades there has been a dramaticOver the past four decades there has been a dramaticrise in the number of freshman students that raterise in the number of freshman students that ratetheir abilitiestheir abilitiesabove average.above average.
- 5. ““Ignorance moreIgnorance morefrequently begetsfrequently begetsconfidence thanconfidence thandoes knowledge”does knowledge”
- 6. Why Teach Metacognition?Why Teach Metacognition?By teaching metacognitive skills weBy teaching metacognitive skills wecan help students to overcome anycan help students to overcome anybad study habits and gaps in theirbad study habits and gaps in theirunderstanding and we canunderstanding and we canencourage them to assumeencourage them to assumeresponsibility for their own learning.responsibility for their own learning.
- 7. The ideal: Self-Regulated LearningThe ideal: Self-Regulated LearningPlan & SetLearning GoalsPlan & SetLearning GoalsApply Strategies& MonitorProgressApply Strategies& MonitorProgressEvaluate &Adapt BehaviorEvaluate &Adapt Behavior
- 8. Three critical steps to teachingThree critical steps to teachingmetacognition:metacognition:Remind students that their ability to learnRemind students that their ability to learninvolves skills that can be continuouslyinvolves skills that can be continuouslyimproved uponimproved uponStress the importance of goal-setting, monitoringStress the importance of goal-setting, monitoringand evaluation strategiesand evaluation strategiesProvide students ample opportunity to practiceProvide students ample opportunity to practicemonitoring their learning and adapting as necessarymonitoring their learning and adapting as necessary
- 9. Beliefs Have ConsequencesBeliefs Have ConsequencesStudents enter college with preconceived ideas aboutStudents enter college with preconceived ideas aboutschool and about their own abilities.school and about their own abilities.““I’ve always been an A student”I’ve always been an A student”““Being smart is innate”Being smart is innate”““I just don’t get philosophy”I just don’t get philosophy”““I could never learn to draw”I could never learn to draw”An important early lesson for these students is thatAn important early lesson for these students is thatthere ability to learn is not fixed, it can be improved.there ability to learn is not fixed, it can be improved.
- 10. Three critical steps to teachingThree critical steps to teachingmetacognition:metacognition:Remind students that their ability to learn involvesRemind students that their ability to learn involvesskills that can be continuously improved uponskills that can be continuously improved uponStress the importance of goal-setting,Stress the importance of goal-setting,monitoring and evaluation strategiesmonitoring and evaluation strategiesProvide students ample opportunityProvide students ample opportunityto practice monitoring their learningto practice monitoring their learningand adapting as necessaryand adapting as necessary
- 11. Teaching Students to Plan, Monitor andTeaching Students to Plan, Monitor andEvaluate Their LearningEvaluate Their Learning
- 12. Discuss assignments learning goals and design rationale beforeDiscuss assignments learning goals and design rationale beforestudents begin each assignmentstudents begin each assignmentInvite students to participate in class planning, agenda constructionInvite students to participate in class planning, agenda constructionGauge students’ understanding during class via peer work onGauge students’ understanding during class via peer work onquestions that require students to apply concepts you’ve taughtquestions that require students to apply concepts you’ve taughtEngage students in applying the grading criteria that you’ll use onEngage students in applying the grading criteria that you’ll use ontheir worktheir workExplicitly connect "how people learn" data with course activitiesExplicitly connect "how people learn" data with course activitieswhen students struggle at difficult transition pointswhen students struggle at difficult transition pointsIllinois Initiative on Transparency inIllinois Initiative on Transparency inLearning and Teaching in Higher EducationLearning and Teaching in Higher Education
- 13. Transparency in Teaching and LearningTransparency in Teaching and LearningShare Bloom’s taxonomy with students and make themShare Bloom’s taxonomy with students and make themaware of the level of thinking skill you are anticipatingaware of the level of thinking skill you are anticipating
- 14. Three critical steps to teachingThree critical steps to teachingmetacognition:metacognition:Remind students that their ability to learn involvesRemind students that their ability to learn involvesskills that can be continuously improved uponskills that can be continuously improved uponStress the importance of goal-setting, monitoringStress the importance of goal-setting, monitoringand evaluation strategiesand evaluation strategiesProvide students ample opportunity toProvide students ample opportunity topractice monitoring their learning andpractice monitoring their learning andadapting as necessaryadapting as necessary
- 15. Helping Students to Recognize andHelping Students to Recognize andDocument Their Learning GainsDocument Their Learning Gains Provide clearly defined learning outcomes soProvide clearly defined learning outcomes sostudents understand and internalize these goalsstudents understand and internalize these goals Encourage reflective journal writing to documentEncourage reflective journal writing to documentindividual progress through the courseindividual progress through the course Require assignment wrappers to documentRequire assignment wrappers to documentprocesses and outcomes of each assignmentprocesses and outcomes of each assignment Have students build concept maps to provideHave students build concept maps to providevisual structure for understanding new contentvisual structure for understanding new content Require students to document their work byRequire students to document their work bycreating an ongoing portfoliocreating an ongoing portfolio
- 16. Helping Students Compare Their Understanding ofHelping Students Compare Their Understanding ofKey Concepts to that of Their ClassmatesKey Concepts to that of Their Classmates Provide opportunities for small-group discussionProvide opportunities for small-group discussion Use a student response system to gaugeUse a student response system to gaugeunderstanding and reveal commonly heldunderstanding and reveal commonly heldmisconceptionsmisconceptions Use peer review or assessment techniques toUse peer review or assessment techniques toexpose students to the work of their peersexpose students to the work of their peers Complete in class or online critique or work-in-Complete in class or online critique or work-in-progress reviewsprogress reviews Use threaded discussion prompts that requireUse threaded discussion prompts that requirestudents to explain and analyze key coursestudents to explain and analyze key courseconcepts in their own wordsconcepts in their own words
- 17. Helping Students Uncover Weaknesses orHelping Students Uncover Weaknesses orMisconceptions in Their Understanding of KeyMisconceptions in Their Understanding of KeyConceptsConcepts Provide low-stakes self-assessment quizzes withProvide low-stakes self-assessment quizzes withformative feedbackformative feedback Use a student response system to gaugeUse a student response system to gaugeunderstanding and reveal commonly heldunderstanding and reveal commonly heldmisconceptionsmisconceptions Provide opportunities for small-group discussionProvide opportunities for small-group discussion
- 18. Helping Students Review and Assess Their ownHelping Students Review and Assess Their ownWork Against a Set of Stated ExpectationsWork Against a Set of Stated Expectations Provide clearly defined learning outcomes soProvide clearly defined learning outcomes sostudents understand and internalize course goalsstudents understand and internalize course goals Use grading rubrics that outline the expectationsUse grading rubrics that outline the expectationsof each assignmentof each assignment Use peer assessment techniques that requireUse peer assessment techniques that requirestudents to compare the work of their classmatesstudents to compare the work of their classmatesagainst a checklist or grading rubricagainst a checklist or grading rubric
- 19. Helping Students Revise and ImproveHelping Students Revise and ImproveUpon Their WorkUpon Their Work Use grading rubrics that outline the expectationsUse grading rubrics that outline the expectationsof each assignmentof each assignment Assign reiterative projects that allow you toAssign reiterative projects that allow you toreview work in its early stages and providereview work in its early stages and provideformative feedbackformative feedback Complete in class or online critique or work-in-Complete in class or online critique or work-in-progress reviewsprogress reviews Evaluate and provide feedback on reflectiveEvaluate and provide feedback on reflectivejournal or on-going portfoliojournal or on-going portfolio
- 20. Uncovering Common MisconceptionsUncovering Common MisconceptionsHeld by a Majority of Your StudentsHeld by a Majority of Your Students Use Muddiest Point exercise to uncover materialUse Muddiest Point exercise to uncover materialthat is difficult for students to comprehendthat is difficult for students to comprehend Use self-assessment quizzes and item analysis toUse self-assessment quizzes and item analysis toreveal content that has not been coveredreveal content that has not been coveredsufficientlysufficiently Use a student response system to gaugeUse a student response system to gaugeunderstanding of key concepts and revealunderstanding of key concepts and revealcommonly held misconceptionscommonly held misconceptions
- 21. Check Your UnderstandingCheck Your UnderstandingNext poll here – least effective method of fostering student improvement
- 22. Metacognitive Tools & ActivitiesMetacognitive Tools & ActivitiesSelf-Assessment QuizzesGrading RubricsAssignment WrappersFormative FeedbackAuthentic AssessmentClassroom CritiquePeer Review / AssessmentSmall Group DiscussionStudent Response SystemsOne-Minute PaperMuddiest PointReiterative ProjectsReflective JournalConcept MapsPortfoliosWeekly ReportsProcess AnalysisStudent-Generated Quiz QuestionsBackground Knowledge ProbeCategorizing GridOne Sentence SummaryDirected ParaphrasingApplication CardsProject ProspectusPro and Con GridAnalytic MemoChain NotesGoal Ranking and Matching
- 23. Metacognition Activities LargeLectureCourseSmallBlendedCourseOnlineCourseSelf-Assessment Quiz X X XGrading Rubrics X X XAssignment Wrapper X XReflective Journal X XOne Minute Paper X XMuddiest Point X XClassroom Critique XPeer Evaluation / Assessment X X XSmall Group Discussion X X XStudent Response Systems X XAuthentic Assessment X XReiterative Projects X X
- 24. Metacognitive Tools & ActivitiesMetacognitive Tools & ActivitiesNext poll here – other metacognitive strategies used
- 25. Self-Assessment QuizSelf-Assessment Quiz Use LMS to deliver online quizzesUse LMS to deliver online quizzes Selective response and short answerSelective response and short answerquestions can be computer graded toquestions can be computer graded toprovide immediate scoring for studentsprovide immediate scoring for students Comprehensive feedback can beComprehensive feedback can beincluded to redirect student’s thinkingincluded to redirect student’s thinking Item analysis in Compass 2g canItem analysis in Compass 2g canprovide data on commonly missedprovide data on commonly missedquestions revealing content that mayquestions revealing content that mayrequire further clarificationrequire further clarification
- 26. Online Self-AssessmentOnline Self-Assessmentwith Feedbackwith Feedback
- 27. Revealing Unknown UnknownsRevealing Unknown UnknownsMcGraw Hill’s LearnSmart system attempts to reveal to studentsMcGraw Hill’s LearnSmart system attempts to reveal to studentstheir lack of awareness of unknown content by asking them totheir lack of awareness of unknown content by asking them toevaluate their confidence before responding to each questionevaluate their confidence before responding to each question
- 28. Revealing Unknown UnknownsRevealing Unknown Unknowns““Ignorance more frequently begetsIgnorance more frequently begetsconfidence than does knowledge”confidence than does knowledge”- Charles Darwin- Charles DarwinccThe system tracks the responses along with the level of confidence toThe system tracks the responses along with the level of confidence toreveal those questions that students don’t realize they do not know.reveal those questions that students don’t realize they do not know.
- 29. Grading RubricsGrading Rubrics Provide grading rubrics for high-stakesProvide grading rubrics for high-stakesassignments outlining exactassignments outlining exactexpectations and grading criteriaexpectations and grading criteria Allow students to help construct theAllow students to help construct thegrading rubric to define outcomes thatgrading rubric to define outcomes thatare meaningful to themare meaningful to them Be sure students have reviewed theBe sure students have reviewed thegrading rubric prior to submitting angrading rubric prior to submitting anassignmentassignment
- 30. Grading RubricsGrading RubricsOnline Discussion Grading RubricOnline Discussion Grading Rubric
- 31. Grading RubricsGrading RubricsLaura Catalano- University of ColoradoLaura Catalano- University of Colorado
- 32. Ensuring Student Review theEnsuring Student Review theGrading RubricGrading Rubric
- 33. Assignment WrapperAssignment WrapperAssignment and exam wrappers are toolsAssignment and exam wrappers are toolsdeveloped at Carnegie Mellon to assistdeveloped at Carnegie Mellon to assiststudents with developing theirstudents with developing theirmetacognitive skills.metacognitive skills.A wrapper is essentially a secondary taskA wrapper is essentially a secondary taskor requirement that accompanies anor requirement that accompanies anassignment or exam and asks students toassignment or exam and asks students toreflect on their learning processes.reflect on their learning processes.
- 34. Assignment WrapperAssignment WrapperMarsha Lovett – Carnegie Mellon UniversityMarsha Lovett – Carnegie Mellon University
- 35. Classroom Response SystemsClassroom Response SystemsUse a classroom response system inUse a classroom response system incombination with discussion & peercombination with discussion & peerinstruction to help students gauge theirinstruction to help students gauge theirunderstanding in relation to that of theirunderstanding in relation to that of theirclassmates.classmates.These systems are also helpful inThese systems are also helpful inuncovering commonly helduncovering commonly heldmisconceptions or inaccurate information.misconceptions or inaccurate information.
- 36. Student Response SystemsStudent Response Systems i>clicker, Top Hat Monacle,i>clicker, Top Hat Monacle,LectureTools, Socrative,LectureTools, Socrative,PollEverywhere . . . and manyPollEverywhere . . . and manymoremore
- 37. Student Response SystemsStudent Response Systems Include another poll everywhereInclude another poll everywherequestion here.question here. Provide an example of in-class pollingProvide an example of in-class pollingusing poll everywhereusing poll everywhere Prepare them with an intro to Mazur’sPrepare them with an intro to Mazur’stalks including the idea of peer-talks including the idea of peer-instructioninstruction
- 38. Student Response Systems & Peer InstructionStudent Response Systems & Peer InstructionEric Mazur – Harvard UniversityEric Mazur – Harvard University
- 39. ““Ignorance moreIgnorance morefrequently begetsfrequently begetsconfidence thanconfidence thandoes knowledge”does knowledge”
- 40. ““Ignorance more frequentlyIgnorance more frequentlybegets confidence than doesbegets confidence than doesknowledge”knowledge”- Charles Darwin- Charles Darwin
- 41. Questions?Questions?Feel free to e-mail me:Feel free to e-mail me: jwentwor@illinois.edujwentwor@illinois.eduThe mind is not a vessel to be filled, but a fire to be kindledThe mind is not a vessel to be filled, but a fire to be kindled--PlutarchPlutarch

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