What is writing? “If a writer knows enough about what he is writing about,he may omit things that he knows. The dignity of movement ofan iceberg is due to only one ninth of it being above water.” Ernest Hemingway
Writing Skills 1) Grammatical Skills – the ability to write correct sentence 2) Stylistic Skills – the ability to manipulate sentences and use language effectively 3) Mechanical Skills – the ability to use correctly those conventions peculiar to the written language 4) Judgment Skills – the ability to write in an appropriate manner for a particular audience in mind, together with an ability to select, organize and order relevant information
Stages of Instruction in Writing 1)Pre-writing 2)Guided writing 3)Free writing
Different Types of Writing1. Academic writing - Persuasive/ Argumentative such as position paper, critique - Expository/ Explanatory such as review article, research report, scientific report2. Expressive writing - Creative such as poem, play, story - Personal such as personal letter, diary3. Practical writing - Prescribed such as questionnaire, formal letter, receipt - Non-prescribed such as official report(police), ads, letter to the editor, pamphlets, directions
Why are there various kinds of writing tests? A wide variety of writing tests is needed to test themany kinds of writing tasks that we engage in.
Ideas for Writing Tasks• Taking notes• Making lists• Writing messages• Writing letters• Writing notes• Writing articles• Answering want ads from the newspapers• Writing want ads• Filling-in forms• Writing diary entries• Writing telegrams, greeting cards• Writing poems, literary-type texts• Writing descriptions of home, room, family, friends, scene, etc.
Factors to consider in DevelopingWriting Tasks• The type of writing• The function• The addressee• Process• Product
Characteristics of writing tests• Authentic and communicative writing tasks place emphasis on transmitting authentic/integrative information in writing.• Current writing tasks reflect the kind of writing tasks that the students are required to do in the L2 oral communicative situations. Thus, there is emphasis on the type, and function of writing as well as the addressee.• Since current teaching of writing emphasizes also strategies of writing, the process should get attention in testing writing as well as the final product of writing.
Characteristics of writing tasks• Evaluating writing samples is generally done with the aid of rating scales which define the writing sample according to certain criteria – analytic and/or holistic, considering also the type, function and addressee.• In order to obtain higher rater reliability, raters are generally trained in rating written language samples.• There is a trend toward supplying students with the content, so he will not be penalized for not having what to write about.