China Chris France Cindy Hobbs Jennifer Granger Stefanie Aguilar
Chinese civilization originated in various city-states along the Yellow river valley almost 10,000 years ago.
The conventional view of Chinese history is that of a country alternating between periods of political unity and disunity and occasionally becoming dominated by foreign peoples, most of whom were assimilated into the Han Chinese population. Cultural and political influences from many parts of Asia, carried by successive waves of immigration, expansion, and assimilation, merged to create modern Chinese culture.
The recent history of communist China begins with Chiang Kai-shek being forced out of the country by Mao Zedong . China was a closed society until 1978 when Deng Xiaoping encouraged a market economy and capitalist-like enterprises.
China is investing billions of dollars in its infrastructure.
Highways The government has added about 3,000 km of expressway a year to the existing network. China has already built a 30,000 km network of highways, second only to the U.S. in total kilometers.
Ports China has sixteen major shipping ports with a capacity of over 50 million tons per year. Combined China’s total shipping capacity is in excess of 2,890 million tons. By 2010, 35% of the world’s shipping is expected to originate from China.
Rails Passenger rail traffic has priority over freight on the many single-track rail lines across China, extending trips which should last a few days to two weeks or more, and limiting investment interests in all but a few coastal regions. Rail tracks are now being doubled to alleviate freight train conflicts.
Over 70% of the Chinese population is of working age
More than 100 cities in China have a population of at least one million
Every year ~10 million Chinese migrate to cities
Chinese people are expected to own more cars than Americans by 2025
By 2050, 1/3 of China’s citizens will be over 60
Nearly 30% of Chinese aged 0 to 30 are only children
Ratio of boys to girls (ages 0 – 10) is 121 to 100
China supports 20% of the world population with only 7% of the worlds fresh water resources
China's environmental record has become an issue for some in the U.S. labor movement who believe Washington should demand higher standards for environmental, worker protection, and human rights
China suffers from water shortage and water pollution. About one-third of China's population lacks access to clean drinking water. Its per-capita water supply falls at around a quarter of the global average.
In 2008, China surpassed the United States as the largest global emitter of greenhouse gases by volume
China's impressive economic expansion in recent years has brought with it an emerging middle class
Real GDP grew by 10.7% in 2006 over a year earlier. This is a ten-year high and a fourth consecutive year of double-digit economic growth
In line with rising income, the country's middle class had risen to 80 million by January 2007, up from 65.5 million in January 2005
The Chinese middle class is concentrated mainly in urban areas where greater jobs and business opportunities exist. It comprises of entrepreneurs and managers in high-tech companies, foreign firms and financial institutions as well as some self-employed private entrepreneurs
The expanding middle class in China is indicative of the country's economic success and is extremely important to both local and international companies due to their significant purchasing power
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KEY FIGURES Population (2005): 1.3 billion
Life expectancy: Men 70.9 years, Women 74.5 years
Population over 65: 8 percent
Population under 15: 20.1 percent
Annual Births (2005 estimate): 16.7 million
Annual Deaths (2005 estimate): 8.49 million
Population Growth (2005 estimate): 7.68 million, a rate of 0.58 percent
Estimated net migration rate: -0.39 migrants per 1,000 population
Urban population: 43 percent (18 percent in 1978)
Labor force: 781 million
44% Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
18% Mining, Manufacturing and Construction
16% Service (banking, government, retail trade)
The state assigns people jobs; no choice
Jobs are guaranteed for a life time until retirement