Introduction Location: It is Northwest of the Tibet. The greater part of the country ismountainous. Its principal ranges are the Tien Shan, the Kunlun chain, andthe Trans-Himalaya. These separating China from South and Central Asia. Mt.Everest (8,848 m), lies on the China–Nepal border, while the worlds second-highest point, K2 is situated on Chinas border with Pakistan. Capital:- Beijing Worlds second-largest country by land area,and the third- or fourth-largest in total area, depending on the definition of total area. Area: Coastline: 9,596,960 sq km 14,500 kilometres Population: 1,336,718,015(2011 est.)(over 1.3 billion) Currency: Renminbi (yuan) (¥) (CNY)
Political factors Government type: Nominally Marxist–Leninist single-party state. The Peoples Republic of Chinais a single-party state governed by the Communist Party of China. President:- HU JINTAO Prime Minister:- WEN JIABAU Independence:- 1 October 1949(Peoples Republic of China )
Economic factors GDP:- $11.316 trillion (2011 est.) GDP growth:- 9.5% (2011 est.) (CIA World fact book) Per capita:- $8,394(2011 est.) Unemployment Rate:- 6.1% Inflation rate:- 3.2% Population below poverty line 10% (2010 est.)
Economic Factors Labor force: 815.3 million (2010); agriculture 10.2%, industry 46.9%, services 43% (2010 est.). Exports: $1.581 trillion (2010 est.): machinery and equipment, plastics, optical and medical equipment, iron and steel. Imports: $1.327 trillion (2010 est.): machinery and equipment, oil and mineral fuels, plastics, optical and medical equipment, organic chemicals, iron and steel.
Socio-cultural factors Population: 1,336,718,015 (2011 est.)(over 1.3 billion) Age structure (Yrs) 13.26 16.6 0-14 15-60 70.14 60+ Sex ratio:- 0.95 male(s)/female 51.27 percent male & 48.73 percent female of the total population. Literacy rate:- 92.8%(2010 est.) Religions:Buddhism(50%), Taoism(30%), and Chinese folk religions & others(Muslim 1.5-2%,Christian 3-4%)
Languages The official language of the Peoples Republic of China is Putonghua (Mandarin). The population of China is so great that Mandarin is spoken by over fourteen percent of the people in the world.
ENVIRONMENT China has a variety of forest types. Hardwoods such as teak and mahogany are cultivated as commercial crops, as are pine and other softwoods. Bamboo is a very fast growing plant which can grow up to one metre a day. An interesting tree found in China is the ginkgo or maidenhair tree which is used in Chinese medicine. It is one of the worlds earliest surviving plant species and first grew 160 million years ago. China has a wide variety of wildlife: tigers, snow leopards, monkeys, yaks and giant pandas. The birdlife includes peacocks, parrots, cranes and storks. Cormorants are used by some fishermen on the rivers to catch fish for them. Chinas natural environment has been adversely affected by human intervention in a number of ways. Deforestation has gone on for many years. In 1978 steps were taken to protect the environment. There is now a programme of tree planting and a national conservation organization looks at the consequences for the environment of using pesticides and chemicals.
Technological factors Internet users:-500 million (2011) Internet hosts: 15.251 million (2010). China Telecom alone serves 55 million broadband subscribers Tianhe-1A world’s fastest supercomputer developed in 2010. China has been pioneering the deployment of pebble bed nuclear reactors, which run cooler and safer than conventional nuclear reactors. In 2011, China unveiled a prototype train capable of reaching speeds of 310 mph (500 km/h), the first ultra-high-speed train developed solely by its domestic railway industry.
Cont… In September 2011, the first Chinese space station module, Tiangong- 1, was successfully launched, marking the first step in a decade-long project to construct a large manned space station. made its first attempt at the robotic exploration of Mars in November 2011. China conducted a successful test of an anti-satellite missile. JL-2 missile, a new submarine-launched nuclear ICBM with multiple- warhead delivery capabilities.
Business opportunities There are whole a lot of investment opportunities for the FDI. Following are the different sectors in which investment can be made and profits can be earned. Real estate Energy Information technology Tourism Environment Manufacturing and production