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Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
Leading Change
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Leading Change

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This is from a workshop I did for the Project Management Institute in Minnesota

This is from a workshop I did for the Project Management Institute in Minnesota

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  • 1. Welcome to . . . Leading Change for Project Managers Strategies for Introducing New Ideas and for Dealing with the “Push-Back” “Push- Jeff Russell, Co-Director Co- © 2007, Photograph by Jeff Russell
  • 2. The Th major advances in j d i civilization are processes which all but wreck the society in which they occur. – Alfred North Whitehead British mathematician and philosopher (1861 - 1947) © 2007, Photograph by Jeff Russell
  • 3. People don’t resist change as much as they resist being changed! © 2008, Photograph by Jeff Russell
  • 4. People CRAVE Change! Change is an extraordinarily natural and normal practice that people routinely embrace . . . on their own y terms! When people are in the driver’s seat of p p change, seeking out learning, opportunity, and growth, they usually view change as th i ally to and a i h their ll t d wellspring of their personal success. Photograph, © 2005, Jeffrey Russell
  • 5. Imagine a world without change . . . You live in the same house with the same family next to the same annoying neighbors You never read another book Your children never grow up — or (worse) they never leave home! You eat the same meal at the same restaurant with the same rude waiter for the rest of your life You d th same work every d at a j b th t i f Y do the k day t job that is forever th the same for a boss who is always cross You never visit a foreign country You never marry . . . or never divorce You never see a blazing scarlet sunset You never experience awe, wonder, or joy!
  • 6. It’s usually not change that It s people resist, but how organizations manage it! © 2008, Photograph by Jeff Russell
  • 7. The Origins of Resistance . . . 1. Some people fear loss. loss. 2. Some people mistrust those who lead. h l d 3. . Some people disagree on p p g the change. 4. 4 Some people don’t tolerate change well. Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 8. The Possible Losses of Change Social Status Job Independence Security Social Future Connections Opportunities Psychological Competence Territory Comfort Control over Trust in Purpose/Meaning p g the Future F t re Others Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 9. The Change Acceptance Curve
  • 10. The Four Levels of Infrastructure Short-Term Physical (Processes, ange Tools, & Structures)) Durability of the Cha Infrastructure (Management Systems, Measurements & Rewards) y Behavioral (What Groups & Individuals Do) Cultural (Values, Beliefs, & Norms) Long-Term g Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 11. Your Organization as a System
  • 12. Leading Change g g Create a Stabilize & Felt Need Sustain the for Change Change Ch g Revise R i & Introduce Finalize the the Change Change Plan Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 13. What Actions Can We Take to . . . Create a felt need . . . . And what are the consequences if we cry wolf? Introduce the change . . . And what are the consequences if we don’t create a shared vision? Finalize the change plan . . . And the consequences if we aren’t able to reconcile differences? Stabilize and reinforce . . . And how build/sustain employee commitment to and ownership of the change? Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 14. Create a Felt Need Identify what needs to change. y g Identify why it must change — identify the problem that needs to be solved. Immerse them in the data from the customer, from other stakeholders, from the organization’s performance successes and failures failures. Identify the consequences for the organization of not solving the problem or not responding to the g p p g challenge. Get their attention — give people a reason to move out of comfort and complacency. f f d l Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 15. It i not th strongest of th species th t is t the t t f the i that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the most responsive t change. t i to h — Charles Darwin British naturalist c. 1809-1882 1809- Photograph © 2005, Jeffrey Russell
  • 16. Introduce the Change Ask people to solve the “problem.” Offer your own possible solutions and strategies. Work with others to co-create a shared change vision. co- Guide people in exploring the positive outcomes. Listen to people’s objections, concerns, fears, and perceived losses. Acknowledge their fears and perceived losses. Invite people to offer ideas to offset the losses and realize the benefits. Integrate their concerns about and ideas for improving change. Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 17. The problems that exist in the world today cannot be solved by the level of thinking that created them — Albert Einstein Photograph © 2008, Jeffrey Russell
  • 18. Revise and Finalize the Change Help people to . . . identify/explore the hidden opportunities define the future of the change on their terms — and those of the organization invent creative solutions to the challenges Continue to identify obstacles to change acceptance that must b overcome — explore the hidd opportunities. t be l th hidden t iti Encourage people to find creative answers to their questions about the change. Adjust the change vision, strategy, and plan in response to the ideas and answers offered by stakeholders. Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 19. Stabilize and Sustain the Change Develop action steps for stabilizing, reinforcing, and sustaining the change h h Give people time to mourn their actual losses provide skill and knowledge training revise job descriptions develop new reward systems strengthen social connections and relationships recognize and celebrate accomplishments Develop performance measures to evaluate the results from the change. Make dj t M k adjustments t th change vision and strategy t reflect t to the h i i d t t to fl t new learning and insights. Challenge people to be open to new challenges, forces, and pressures for the next change change. Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 20. The art of progress is to preserve change amid order and preserve order amid change. g ― Alfred North Whitehead British mathematician and philosopher (1861 - 1947) © 2008, Photograph by Jeff Russell
  • 21. Force Field Analysis . . . The The Present Ideal (+) Driving Forces Restraining Forces (-) Feel better I’m just too old Look better It’s cold out there! Sick less often I don’t have the right clothes Wear clothes longer Requires too much time Attend H.S. reunion with pride . . . ith I really could Status hurt myself Quo
  • 22. The Journey Through Change Stability Learning, Comfort Acceptance, and and Control Commitment Looking Looking Back Forward Inquiry, Fear, Anger, Fear Anger Experimentation, E i t ti and Resistance and Discovery Chaos Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 23. Characteristics of Comfort and Control Comfortable C f t bl Safe Everything s Everything’s fine Happy People feel comfortable, Satisfied safe, and in control. They f , y No problems are working hard ― but Positive often on the wrong things. Rewarding In control I’m okay, you’re okay! Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 24. Characteristics of Fear, Anger, and R i t A g d Resistance Frustration Hostility Anger Anxiety Fearful Self- Self-doubt Betrayed Lost Upset Dazed Confused People f l f t t d angry, P l feel frustrated, Challenged and fearful about the change. Performance deteriorates. Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 25. Characteristics of Inquiry, Experimentation, and Discovery E i t ti d Di Confused Going in all directions at Questioning once! Hopeful Searching for solutions Opportunity Exciting! Frustrated Innovation/creativity Disappointed Challenged People want to make the change Half- Half-way there! work ― on their terms as well as Making progress those of the organization ― but they don’t have clear answers. y Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 26. Characteristics of Learning, Acceptance, and Commitment A dC i Now I k N know!! Energized Success! We made it! Relief Wow! Self- Self-confidence Satisfied People are f P l focused upon and excited d n nd it d Comfortable about the future. They begin What’s next? working together to accomplish the change vision. h i i Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 27. The Journey Through Change Stability Learning, Comfort Acceptance, and and Control Commitment Looking Looking Back Forward Inquiry, Fear, Anger, Fear Anger Experimentation, E i t ti and Resistance and Discovery Chaos Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 28. Actions for Comfort and Control Acknowledge their successful past. g p Get people’s attention! Sell the need for change . . . sell the pain and the consequences of not changing. Immerse people in information about the change . . . customer complaints budget data, complaints, data increasing costs, competitive pressures. Let people know it will happen — one way or another! Give people time to let the ideas sink in. Don’t sell th solutions . . . sell th problem! D ’t ll the l ti ll the problem! bl Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 29. Actions for Fear, Anger, and Resistance R i Co- Co-create the vision. Listen, listen, listen. Acknowledge people’s pain, perceived losses, and anger. Strive to address their perceived losses. Tell people what you know — and what you don’tdon t know. Don’t try to talk people out of their feelings. Discuss ways to solve the problems people see with the change. Encourage discussion, dissent, disagreement, debate . . . keep people talking. talking. Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 30. Actions for Inquiry, Experimentation, and Discovery E i i d Di Give people freedom and direction direction. Give people permission to find their own solutions. Encourage people to take risks. Affirm and refine the vision — make room for others others’ ideas. Tell people as much as you know. Encourage teamwork and collaboration. Encourage personal reflection and learning. Provide people training and support. Set short-term goals short- goals. Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 31. Actions for Learning, Acceptance, and C d Commitment i Acknowledge their hard work. Celebrate successes and accomplishments. Reaffirm the vision. Bring people together toward the vision vision. Acknowledge what people have left behind. Develop long-term goals and plans. long- Provide tools and training to reinforce new behaviors. Reinforce and reward the new behaviors. Create systems and structures that reinforce new behaviors. Prepare people for the next change change. Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 32. An Integrative Model . . . g Stability Learning, Comfort Acceptance, and and Control Commitment Create a Stabilize Felt Need and Sustain for Change the Change Looking Looking g Leader Actions Back Forward Introduce Revise and the Change Finalize the Change Plan Inquiry, Inquiry Fear, Anger, Experimentation, and Resistance and Discovery Chaos
  • 33. There is nothing more delicate to take in hand, nor more dangerous to conduct, nor more doubtful of success, than to step up as a l d in the introduction of changes. leader h d f h For he who innovates will have for his enemies all those who are well off under the existing order of things, and only lukewarm supporters in those who might be better off under the new. Niccolò Machiavelli The Prince, 1527 © 2005, Photograph by Jeff Russell
  • 34. We Value Resisters Because . . . 1. They clarify the problem. 2. They identify problems that need to be solved first. 3. They force change leaders to think before they implement the change. 4. Their tough questions can strengthen and improve the change change. 5. They let us know who opposes the change. 6. They slow down the change. 7. They may be right, it is a dumb idea! Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 35. The Crisis of Change . . . Danger! Hidden Opportunity © 2005, Photograph by Jeff Russell
  • 36. What is “Readiness” Readiness A cognitive/emotional state that occurs when employees have positive attitudes, beliefs, and intentions attitudes beliefs toward a change. When readiness exists . . . Greater openness to new ideas Lower resistance to learning/growth Earlier acceptance of the change Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 37. Moving Toward Change . . . g g Readiness — being cognitively and emotionally receptive to change; evident in openness toward the change in attitudes/beliefs/intentions. Acceptance — a deepening belief in the change and a willingness p p g g g to work with the change on one’s own terms. terms. Integration — having attitudes/beliefs/intentions that wholly reflect the change . . . The change is difficult to separate from the individual’s routine thoughts and actions. Integration is evident when new ways of thinking and acting are deeply engrained in the attitudes, b li f and actions. ttit d beliefs, d ti Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 38. Why Assess Readiness? As a small group . . . Why might be important to assess y g p change readiness of a group? How might th results f H i ht the lt from a readiness assessment be used to help lead l d a change initiative? h i iti ti ? Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 39. Components of Change Readiness Organizational Support . . . g pp Clarity of the vision Centralized vs. distributed decision making History of employee involvement in decision making, goal setting, and past change initiatives Strength of t i i and d St th f training d development l t Extent to which the employees’ voices are heard/responded to Quality of organizational communications Performance accountability Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 40. Components of Change Readiness Organizational Culture . . . Cultural receptivity to new ideas/innovation Level of teamwork/collaboration Level of trust What people do under stress Past active participation levels Whether people feel responsible for their own success Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 41. Components of Change Readiness The Change Environment Awareness of the forces driving change Clarity of the change and its effects Quality of the measures to gauge the success of the change (we’ll know if we’re getting there) The organization’s track record with change The number of changes occurring simultaneously (Change overload! At the breaking point!) Cost/benefit analysis — advantages outweigh the p perceived disadvantages g Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 42. Components of Change Readiness Employee Attitudes and Behaviors People feel a sense of “urgency” “urgency” Level of job engagement Level of employee autonomy/independence The presence of innovators and risk takers p Employee- Employee-perceived ability to influence the change Degree of employee receptivity to change Confidence in the managers’ and supervisors’ ability to guide people through the change Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 43. Compute Your OCRA Score Complete your self-assessment self- Tabulate the results Read the “interpretations” section R d th “i t t ti ” ti at the bottom of the second page Discuss your reactions to the OCRA with your table partners . . . Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 44. #1: A Lack of a Urgency Many change efforts fail because they have failed to create a “felt need” or a sense of “felt need” urgency throughout the organization. g y g g Before selling people on the opportunities and benefits of a change people must first change, experience the need to change. change. Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 45. #2: A Lack of a Shared Vision Without a truly shared vision of the destination of the change stakeholders may remain in the dark as to the purpose and intention of a change and they will find it much harder to bring h ll d hh d b their positive energy to help drive the change. h Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 46. Where there is no vision, the people perish. l perish. i h — Proverbs 29:18 © 2005, Photograph by Jeff Russell
  • 47. #3: An Absence of Measurable O M bl Outcomes Change efforts often fail because they neglect to define and focus on specific and measurable outcomes. outcomes. Every change effort must have clear metrics y g that enable everyone from those in the boardroom to those on the frontline to know if and when progress is b i made on th d h i being d the change objectives. Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 48. #4: A Failure to Communicate the Vision It’s not enough to have a vision of the change and effective measures of the change outcomes. Stakeholders must understand and share this vision, they must understand the “whys” of the change, and they need to know the change, organizational and personal benefits resulting from a change. Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 49. #5: Being Surprised at the “Push- g p “Push- Back” Back” from a Change Every change, no matter how positively it is viewed by change leaders and others throughout the organization, will create emotional stress for some. If not anticipated or understood, this emotional stress i lik l t result i hi h ti l t is likely to lt in higher levels of change resistance. resistance. Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 50. #6: A Failure to Integrate Dissident g Perspectives into the Vision The questions, issues, and concerns of the dissidents and other resisters who lead the “push back” on the “push back” change can help improve and strengthen any change effort — but only if they are encouraged to offer up their concerns. concerns. Successful change leaders pay attention to what the change nay-sayers are concerned about — and then nay- do their best to integrate these dissident perspectives into the change vision. vision. Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 51. #7: Failing to Anticipate and Confront Obstacles to the Change All organizational change initiatives experience more than a few bumps in the p p road. One characteristic of successful efforts is that the change leaders proactively anticipate, identify, and directly confront systemic and y, y y structural obstacles to the change vision and plan. Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 52. #8: A Failure to Integrate What Works or Doesn’t Into the Vision Successful change initiatives benefit most when change leaders have a high level of self- g g self- awareness that results from a critical assessment of the successes, missteps, and inevitable setbacks that they experience throughout the change implementation process. Then, based upon this self-assessment, change self- leaders change what they do next. Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 53. You Y can count on th A t the American i people to do the right thing . . . After exhausting all the other p possibilities. – Winston Churchill © 2005, Photograph by Jeff Russell
  • 54. #9: An Ignorance of the Organization’s C l O i i ’ Culture Culture plays a powerful and often underestimated role in the success or failure of a change initiative. Successful changes are guided by leaders who have a deep respect for and understanding of the organization’s culture and its role in the change g g process. Culture is a central contributor to the success or failure of every change. Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 55. #10: Failing to Establish Interim Benchmarks of Success B h k fS The failure to establish interim benchmarks to measure the progress of the change can diminish t k h ld buy in. di i i h stakeholder b -i buy- Interim measures bring the added benefit of helping people see and feel progress — something that may be especially important for f maintaining stakeholder motivation d i g i t i i g t k h ld ti ti during a long-term change initiative. long- Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 56. #11: #11: The Lack of Structural Reinforcers S i f Sustaining the Change i i h Ch The most significant cause leading to the failure of change initiatives is the failure to create organizational infrastructure to help stabilize the change and reinforce the new ways of thinking and acting. Without structural reinforcements, change leaders, those on the front line, and everyone in between will , y tend to drift back into old mindsets and behaviors. Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 57. Implications for the Top-eleven Top- Reasons for Failure? R f F il ? Which of these 11 factors poses the most risk for your project and its change efforts? What actions can you take, given these factors, to prevent these factors from jeopardizing your project? Russell Consulting, Inc. — Helping You Build and Sustain a Great Organization
  • 58. Change is inevitable, g , growth is optional © 1995, Photograph by Jeff Russell
  • 59. Blessed are the flexible for flexible, they shall not be bent out of shape. h — Dr Michael McGriffy Dr. © 1995, Photograph by Jeff Russell
  • 60. The master doesn’t talk, he acts. When his work is done, the people say “Amazing! We did it all by ourselves.” y – Lao-Tzu Lao- Chinese poet & Chi philosopher
  • 61. Sometimes I lie awake at night, and I ask, "Where have I gone wrong?“ Then a voice g g says to me . . . "This is going to take more than one This night.” — Charles M. Schulz Charlie Brown in "Peanuts“ American Cartoonist b. 1922 d b 1922, d. 2000 © 2005, Photograph by Jeff Russell
  • 62. Somebody has to do something . . . and it's just incredibly pathetic that it has to be us us. — the late Jerry Garcia (of the Grateful Dead) b. 1942, d. 1995 © 2005, Photograph by Jeff Russell
  • 63. Thank You!! Good luck with your projects . . . And with d h introducing change your company!! © 2007, Photograph by Jeff Russell

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