Mon Apr 7 And Tue Apr 8 Living With Legacies
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Mon Apr 7 And Tue Apr 8 Living With Legacies

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Mon Apr 7 And Tue Apr 8 Living With Legacies Mon Apr 7 And Tue Apr 8 Living With Legacies Presentation Transcript

  • The End of an Empire & Turmoil in Canada
  • Overview  Background: WWI & WWII  On the Home Front: The changing face of Canada  The atmosphere in Quebec  Revolution & Crisis in Canada: the 1960’s
  • Causes of WWI: Imperialist Tension  Imperialism had led to incredible tension in Europe, as superpowers Britain, France & Germany competed for territory and resources to fuel the Industrial Revolution.  In response to the rising tension, alliances were made and treaties signed:  The Triple Alliance: Germany, Italy & Austria-Hungary  The Triple Entente: Great Britain, France & Russia
  • British Empire, 1914
  • Alliances: The Domino Effect 1. Heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne is assassinated by a member of the “Black Hand” (a Serbian nationalist group). Austria-Hungray declares war on Serbia, July 28, 1914. 2. Russia mobilizes against Austria-Hungary, in support of Serbia. 3. Germans respond to Russian mobilization: on August 1st they declare war on Russia, two days later, on France. 4. Germany violates Belgium’s claim to neutrality, bringing Great Britain into the war.
  • WWI: At Home  During the war, leaders of the Canadian government advocates that “success at war will mean greater autonomy for Canada” (Robert Borden, 8th Prime Minister).  However, when conscription is introduced in 1917, divisions between English and French Canada are widened.
  • WWI: In Quebec  When Britain declared war in 1914, Canada was immediately implicated as a dominion of the empire.  Reluctance to create a French regiment added to feelings of estrangement from a cause strongly tied to Britain and English Canada.  Throughout Canada, feelings of resentment grew: people felt that Quebec was not ‘carrying her weight’
  • The Conscription Crisis, 1917  While Borden had promised that he would not instate conscription, volunteer numbers were low...  In order to gain the support needed to introduce conscription, Borden formed a coalition government and held elections in 1917...  To ensure the vote turned out in his favour, Borden redefined who could and could not vote.
  • Wartime Elections Act  Who could vote:  Every man and woman serving overseas  Mothers, wives and sisters of soldiers (dead or alive)  Who could NOT vote:  “Citizens of enemy origin”  Why do you think Borden defined the voting population as he did?  Do you see anything wrong with his actions? Why?
  • The Conscription Crisis in Quebec  Anti-conscription feelings ran high throughout Quebec, French Canadians argued that they felt no loyalty to Britain or France – their loyalty was to Quebec, to Canada, alone.  Anti-conscription = Anti-government  The conscription crisis forever changed French – English relations in Canada.
  • The New Canada: Post WWI  As Borden had said, success at war meant greater autonomy for Canada...  At the 1919 negotiations of the Treaty of Versailles, Canada was represented as a separate nation.  Similarly, Canada had her own seat at the League of Nations.
  • Imperialism?  The Treaty of Versailles:  France, Great Britain and the United States were the superpowers involved in the treaty negotiations Main Points of the Treaty:  War Guilt Clause  Reparations  Disarmament  Territorial Clauses  The League of Nations:
  • Failure Following WWI  The conditions laid out in the Treaty of Versailles added to the atmosphere of discontent that was brewing in Germany...  Adolf Hitler, who had fought in WWI and then gotten involved in politics, created the Nazi Party in 1920.  Hitler swore to tear up the Treaty of Versailles, appealing to national feelings of dissent surrounding the conditions of the treaty. How might feelings of dissent in Germany at this time echo feelings of other countries affected by imperial rule?
  • WWII: Something Familiar  As happened in WWI, the Canadian government, (now led by Mackenzie King), had promised not to introduce conscription.  The Blitzkreig (lightning war) that the Nazi’s were inflicting on Europe led to the surrender of France, Demark, Netherlands and Belgium.  Would North America be next?
  • Lessons of the Past  King remembered the backlash that had come from Borden’s introduction of conscription in WWI.  He tried everything to increase the number of volunteer recruits, including firing his defence minister in favour of someone less ‘pro-conscription’  When the numbers still did not increase, King and his government passed an order allowing conscription...
  • Terrace B.C. Mutiny  When word of conscription reached soldiers stationed in Terrace, B.C. riots erupted  The men seized an anti-tank gun to defend themselves against officers trying to send them overseas. None of the demonstrations that occurred in response to the introduction of conscription reached the public – the press was subject to strict censorship during the war... How might this relate to imperialism?
  • Betrayal in Quebec  Similar to the conscription crisis of WWI, the introduction of conscription in this war added to the feelings of betrayal among French-Canadians  However, it was clear the King had done everything possible to avoid conscription prior to introducing it, saving him in the next election.
  • Lasting Impacts of the World Wars: The New Face of Canada  A “Middle Power”  Expanding role in international affairs  Distinct Canadian citizenship officially emerges  Symbols of national pride, such as the flag of Canada (still the Union Jack at this time) were on the agenda as a distinct Canadian identity emerged.
  • Lasting Legacies of Imperialism: Quebec  Since the early 1500’s, French populations in Canada have been confronted with an overwhelming British majority.  The Seven Years War was only one of the first steps leading to the large divide between French and English Canada.  In both of the World Wars, Quebec stood apart from the rest of the provinces and territories in it’s opposition to conscription and loyalty to the British crown.
  • The Quiet Revolution...  Following WWII, people living in Quebec experienced rapid social changes  Prior to the 1960’s, Quebec was characterised by traditional values, conservatism, and a general rejection of contemporary ways  When the Quebec government changed hands and became liberal in 1960, rapid and incredible changes began in the province.
  • Quiet Revolution Cont’d...  There was a large scale rejection of values of the past  More secular, rather than religious  Traditional, conservative values were replaced with new and more liberal ones  High marriage and birth rates were rapidly reversed What technological development of the early 1960’s would have contributed to this shift?
  • Quiet Revolution Cont’d...  There were also intense social changes:  Movements of decolonization and civil rights made it hard to ignore national inequalities in Canada  The role of the state increased dramatically as: “the only lever of significance in the hands of French Canadians and capable of effecting the great transformations that seemed to be required” (Belanger, 2000)  In 6 years Quebec went from being the lowest taxed and least in debt province, to the highest.  Pension plans & the Hydro-Quebec monopoly
  • Quebecois are born...  As the Quiet Revolution unfolded, there was a growing number of Quebecers that had become sovereignists, in support of a sovereign Quebec nation.  In 1968 the Parti Quebecois was formed, their platform was to create an independent nation out of Quebec, one that would maintain economic ties to Ottawa.
  • Federal Responses to the Quiet Revolution  In 1963 the government launched a Royal Commission (an investigation) on Bilingualism and Biculturalism  The commission revealed that the rate of assimilation of French Canadians outside of Quebec was so alarming that Quebecois claims that something had to be done to protect their culture were legitimate.
  • Federal Responses to the Quiet Revolution Cont’d...  In 1969 the government passed the Official Languages Act, making French the second language of the federal government.  Throughout Canada this was largely resented by English speaking Canadians, who now had to learn French if they wanted a job with the federal government
  • Terrorism in Quebec...  In Quebec, the Front de Libération du Québec (FLQ) was responsible for over 200 bombings from 1963-1970.  In October of 1970, the group turned to new tactics: the following CBC news report details the events: http://archives.cbc.ca/war_conflict/civil_unrest/topics/1 01/
  • The Governments Response  War Measures Act: An act to confer extraordinary powers upon the Governor in Council in the event of "war, invasion or insurrection, real or apprehended” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_Measures_Act )  “But, how far is the government willing to go?” http://archives.cbc.ca/war_conflict/civil_unrest/topics/1 01/
  • The Final Chapter: Your Turn  Why was the government’s response to the FLQ crisis considered controversial?  How did the FLQ crisis of October, 1970 come to a close?  How does the FLQ crisis illustrate the legacies of imperialism in Quebec?
  • Resources  Causes of WWI: http://www.cusd.chico.k12.ca.us/~bsilva/projects/great_war/cau ses.htm  Causes of WWII: http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/riseofhitler/index.htm l  The October Crisis: http://history.cbc.ca/history/?MIval=EpisContent&series_id=1&episo de_id=16&chapter_id=1&page_id=4&lang=E http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/quebechistory/events/qui et.htm  The October Crisis: Civil Liberties Suspended http://archives.cbc.ca/war_conflict/civil_unrest/topics/101/