Can financial education and social support enhance the effectiveness of an adolescent HIV prevention program? Evidence fro...
Setting<br />Semi-rural KwaZulu Natal<br />Poverty and income inequality<br />Unemployment<br />Early pregnancy<br />Early...
Formative research: vulnerabilities associated with adolescent HIV risk behaviors<br />Living in poverty<br />Not socially...
Poorer more likely to sexually debut earlier<br />Ever had sex:  14-16 year-olds<br />Poor<br />Non-poor<br />Source: Hall...
Those with less social capital <br />more likely to experience forced sex<br />Ever forced sex:14-16 year-old females<br /...
Orphans have more <br />economically-motivated sexual encounters<br />Ever traded sex:  sexually debuted 14-16-year-olds<b...
Possible protective factors<br />Education<br />Access to financial services and social grants<br />Social support<br />
Purpose<br />Improve functional capabilities and well-being of adolescents at high risk for:<br />	HIV and STIs		teenage p...
Program Methods<br /> Intervention<br />Evidence-based<br />Piloted<br />Multi-sectoral<br />Participatory<br />Intensive ...
Randomization<br />HIV, RH, Life Skills<br />HIV, RH, Life Skills + financial capabilities<br />Delayed intervention<br />
Research Methods<br />Longitudinal survey <br />Youth-conducted social mapping with presentations back to community<br />Y...
Description of sample<br />Age<br />Household size<br />Orphaning<br />Sex<br />Pregnancy<br />Economic status<br />Assets...
How powerful do you feel?<br />Males	*			Females*<br />
Awareness of social grants<br />Males	*			Females*<br />
Know can get pregnant if you have sex only once<br />Males				females*<br />
Very or somewhat confident know how to use a condom correctly<br />Males	*			Females*<br />
Have drugs or alcohol affected your sexual decisionmaking in the last 12 months?<br />Males	*			Females<br />
Talk to partner about avoiding or delaying sex<br />Males				Females<br />
Partner reduction-mean # in last year<br />Males				Females<br />
Partner reduction--% reduced to 1 or 0<br />Males				females<br />
This is only the beginning—much more analysis to come<br />More disaggregation<br />Age, orphan status, household poverty,...
“It’s different, in school we learn mathematics and biology but here we learn things that we can use in the future.”<br />...
Participant views <br />“….. I didn’t understand about HIV and AIDS before <br />but now I do. I didn’t learn that in scho...
Selected resources<br />Hallman, K.  2008a.“Researching the determinants of vulnerability to HIV amongst adolescents,” IDS...
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Can financial education and social support enhance the effectiveness of an adolescent HIV prevention program? Evidence from the Siyakha Nentsha program in KwaZulu Natal

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April 2010

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Can financial education and social support enhance the effectiveness of an adolescent HIV prevention program? Evidence from the Siyakha Nentsha program in KwaZulu Natal

  1. 1. Can financial education and social support enhance the effectiveness of an adolescent HIV prevention program? Evidence from the Siyakha Nentsha program in KwaZulu-Natal<br />Kelly Hallman, Eva Roca, Kasthuri Govender, Emmanuel Mbatha, <br />Rob Pattman, DeeviaBhana, Mike Rogan, and Hannah Taboada <br />Economic Empowerment and HIV meeting<br />Washington, DC April 22, 2010<br />
  2. 2. Setting<br />Semi-rural KwaZulu Natal<br />Poverty and income inequality<br />Unemployment<br />Early pregnancy<br />Early school leaving<br />HIV<br />
  3. 3. Formative research: vulnerabilities associated with adolescent HIV risk behaviors<br />Living in poverty<br />Not socially connected<br />Orphaned<br />Source: Hallman 2004, 2005, 2008a, 2008b, 2008c<br />
  4. 4. Poorer more likely to sexually debut earlier<br />Ever had sex: 14-16 year-olds<br />Poor<br />Non-poor<br />Source: Hallman 2005, 2008a<br />
  5. 5. Those with less social capital <br />more likely to experience forced sex<br />Ever forced sex:14-16 year-old females<br />Source: Hallman 2008a, 2008b<br />
  6. 6. Orphans have more <br />economically-motivated sexual encounters<br />Ever traded sex: sexually debuted 14-16-year-olds<br />Source: Hallman 2008a, 2008c<br />
  7. 7. Possible protective factors<br />Education<br />Access to financial services and social grants<br />Social support<br />
  8. 8. Purpose<br />Improve functional capabilities and well-being of adolescents at high risk for:<br /> HIV and STIs teenage pregnancy parenthood<br /> school dropout loss of one or both parents<br /> lack of knowledge of further employment and training opportunities<br />
  9. 9. Program Methods<br /> Intervention<br />Evidence-based<br />Piloted<br />Multi-sectoral<br />Participatory<br />Intensive – multi-session<br />
  10. 10. Randomization<br />HIV, RH, Life Skills<br />HIV, RH, Life Skills + financial capabilities<br />Delayed intervention<br />
  11. 11. Research Methods<br />Longitudinal survey <br />Youth-conducted social mapping with presentations back to community<br />Youth, parent, mentor focus groups to assess experience with intervention<br />
  12. 12.
  13. 13. Description of sample<br />Age<br />Household size<br />Orphaning<br />Sex<br />Pregnancy<br />Economic status<br />Assets—household and personal<br />Friendship networks<br />Participation<br />
  14. 14. How powerful do you feel?<br />Males * Females*<br />
  15. 15. Awareness of social grants<br />Males * Females*<br />
  16. 16. Know can get pregnant if you have sex only once<br />Males females*<br />
  17. 17. Very or somewhat confident know how to use a condom correctly<br />Males * Females*<br />
  18. 18. Have drugs or alcohol affected your sexual decisionmaking in the last 12 months?<br />Males * Females<br />
  19. 19. Talk to partner about avoiding or delaying sex<br />Males Females<br />
  20. 20. Partner reduction-mean # in last year<br />Males Females<br />
  21. 21. Partner reduction--% reduced to 1 or 0<br />Males females<br />
  22. 22. This is only the beginning—much more analysis to come<br />More disaggregation<br />Age, orphan status, household poverty, personal assets, etc.<br />More outcomes<br />Gender attitudes, beliefs about partner violence, aspirations and how to achieve, financial beliefs and behaviors, more on empowerment<br />Regressions<br />Round 3?<br />
  23. 23. “It’s different, in school we learn mathematics and biology but here we learn things that we can use in the future.”<br /> - female age 16 <br />
  24. 24. Participant views <br />“….. I didn’t understand about HIV and AIDS before <br />but now I do. I didn’t learn that in school.” <br />–female age 20 years<br />“It changed my attitude, because I know how to use a condom and I know how to trust my partner and I know how to advise my partner, when we are sitting together and talking about, how to have sexual intercourse and I know even to advise the community as a whole about HIV/AIDS…”–male age 22 years<br />
  25. 25. Selected resources<br />Hallman, K. 2008a.“Researching the determinants of vulnerability to HIV amongst adolescents,” IDS Bulletin, 39(5), November 2008.<br />Hallman, K. 2008b, in press. “Social exclusion: The gendering of adolescent HIV risks in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa,” in J. Klot and V. Nguyen eds., The Fourth Wave: An Assault on Women - Gender, Culture and HIV in the 21st Century. Social Science Research Council and UNESCO.<br />Hallman, K. 2008c, under review. "Orphanhood Type and Sexual Debut: A panel study from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa," Economic Development and Cultural Change.<br />Bruce, J. and Hallman, K. 2008. “Reaching the girls left behind,” Gender & Development, 16(2): 227-245.<br />Hallman, K. 2007. “Nonconsensual sex, school enrollment and educational outcomes in South Africa,” Africa Insight (special issue on Youth in Africa), 37(3): 454-472.<br />Hallman, K. Genderedsocioeconomic conditions and HIV riskbehavioursamongyoung people in South Africa. 2005. African Journal of AIDS Research 4(1): 37–50.Abstract: http://www.popcouncil.org/projects/abstracts/AJAR_4_1.html<br />
  26. 26. Thank you!<br />Our funders: ESRC/Hewlett Joint Scheme<br />& DFID via the ABBA RPC<br />

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