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Siyakha Nentsha
 “Building with Young People”
  Enhancing the  health,
    economic, and
social capabilities of highly
   vulnerable youth

                                                                        KEY FINDINGS
   The Isihlangu Health and Development Agency               Working with both boys and girls can
   developed a life-orientation programme for               make a difference in the lives of both and
   KwaZulu Natal that has been piloted locally. The
                                                             impact how they relate to one another
   programme is accredited by the South African
                                                                                Ø
   Qualifications Authority, meaning participants who
   complete Siyakha Nentsha have an asset that can             Siyakha Nentsha addresses topics not
   help them get jobs and further training in the          discussed elsewhere that are important in
   future.                                                         the lives of young people.
                                                                                Ø
   The long-term goal of the programme is to
                                                            Siyakha Nentsha increases young people’s
    improve the lifelong skills and well-being
                                                            confidence to prepare for the future
             of adolescents in KZN
                                                              and cope with difficult situations
   The programme provides context-specific                                      Ø
   strategies to enhance participants’ financial skills,     Among boys, Siyakha Nentsha participants
   HIV/AIDS and reproductive health knowledge,                were less likely to begin having sex
   social support, and future life options.                                     Ø
                                                           For female who were having sex, those in the
   Young people in KwaZulu Natal face high risks for        programme used condoms with sexual
   HIV, teenage pregnancy, school dropout, and
                                                                  partners more consistently
   unemployment. This all takes place in a context in
                                                                                Ø
   which home life is fragile—many have already lost
   or face the impending loss of one or both parents,      SN learners far more successful in opening
   and the responsibilities of adulthood may come                       a bank account
   before young people are ready.                                               Ø
                                                            SN girls and boys were more likely to have
   Over 1400 learners have participated in Siyakha         talked about gender and sexuality issues
   Nentsha since 2008. The programme was carried                                Ø
   out in grades 10-12 and has been rigorously              Financial decisionmaking was actively
   evaluated by the Population Council and UKZN.               discussed by Siyakha Nentsha learners
   Results from the programme evaluation are                                    Ø
   promising.                                              Siyakha Nentsha students were more likely to
                                                               talk about ways of a finding a job,
                                                             interviewing and starting a business
What is Siyakha Nentsha?
                                                   Our programme is delivered by teams of trained
                                                   facilitators from the community. The
                                                   facilitators, 4 males and 20 females between 20
                                                   -24 years old, were chosen via a competitive
                                                   process and were continuously trained
                                                   throughout the programme. They lead sessions
                                                   with students 2-3 times per week in classrooms
                                                   during school hours and each session lasts
                                                   approximately 1 hour. The facilitators’ skills in
                                                   relating with the learners is one of the key
                                                   factors that made the programme a success.
Sessions include modules on self-identity, human rights awareness, HIV and AIDS, reproductive
health, the value of saving money, accessing banks, job readiness and basic principles around
starting a business. Each session is highly interactive and includes time for participation and
reflection on the session of the day. Facilitators are also available after session hours to discuss
personal issues with learners.
The intervention took place in a peri-urban area called “Ngonyameni,” located outside of Durban
and adjacent to the township of Umlazi. Like many communities in South Africa, this area is
impoverished, food insecure and heavily affected by HIV and AIDS.
Why schools?
As the vast majority of young people in South Africa attend school
throughout their teenage years, working through the schools was the
most effective way to reach large numbers of participants. Because
there was a relatively short window within which to design and
implement the programme, we wanted to work with young people
who would be able to utilize the skills relatively quickly after finishing
school, yet not be distracted by the programme and lose time studying
for their matric exams. We determined therefore that learners in
grades 10 and 11 would be the most appropriate to start with.
Does the programme work?
We undertook a research study to begin to assess the effectiveness of
the programme. The research paid careful attention to who had access
to the programme. We wanted to have a group of learners who were
“typical” for this type of area. We therefore chose participant
classrooms by lottery. This enabled us to avoid any unfairness in who had access to the
programme and ensured that we did not work with only the most talented learners, or,
alternatively, only those who were the most vulnerable. There were 7 secondary schools in the
study area; 6 initially received the programme and the seventh served as a comparison. After the
study was over, learners in the control school received a streamlined version of the intervention.
To know about the situation of learners in the area before the intervention began, we
interviewed each grade 10 and 11 learner in the area in early 2008. In the interview we asked
them questions about their families, schooling, work experience, attitudes and values, as well as
health knowledge and behaviours. After the intervention finished in late 2009, we returned to
these learners and asked the same questions. This enabled us to know how learners in both the
comparison school and the intervention schools had changed during this time period.
Characteristics of the learners in the study
                                      Males            Females

           Average age                  19               18
        % who are orphans               37               36
  % who have ever been pregnant         —                18
    % who say their household           20               23
  doesn’t have enough money for
         basic necessities
 % whose homes are connected to         96               92
           electricity
                                                                  Over a third of young people in the study
  % who did not have food to eat        10               14       have lost a parent to death: 20% are
     the morning of survey                                        without mothers, 30% without fathers
        % who walk to school            89              82        and 10% have lost both of their parents.
      % who have ever worked            17               8        Many learners live with grandmothers,
                                                                  siblings, aunts or uncles. Over twenty
percent of participants in the programme reported that their household did not have enough money for
food, much less other basics. Most households were connected to electricity. Eighty eight percent of
households had a grant recipient. Disconcertingly, 10% of boys and 14% of girls did not have any food to
eat the morning they were interviewed. Although schools are often located far from learners’ homes,
transport is lacking and most learners walk to school. Around 10% of girls, however, reported taking a taxi
to school most days, possibly to avoid unsafe situations that can arise when girls walk alone. Reflecting
the lack of employment opportunities in the area, only a small number of participants have ever
undertaken work for which they were paid: 17% of boys and 8% of girls.

                                                                    Siyakha Nentsha is unique
While many programmes for young people in South Africa attempt to reach them with information about
HIV and AIDS, Siyakha Nentsha also gives young people a chance to discuss and learn about critical issues
that aren’t generally addressed anywhere else. These normally neglected topics are critical in young
people’s lives. This chart shows the difference in what learners in the programme recall discussing
compared to learners who are not in the programme (statistical significance is shown by the *). For many
participants – especially boys –
this was their first opportunity to                                           Males            Females
touch upon these themes. For        Have you discussed...               No Prog     SN     No Prog     SN
instance, males who were part of
Siyakha Nentsha had significantly Self-esteem, attitudes, and values       85       98*      83        94*
higher rates than control group     Sexuality                              88      100*      91         95
males of discussing sexuality,
                                    Violence and sexual abuse              85       99*      91         97
sexual violence/abuse, gender
relations and saving money.         HIV/AIDS                              100        98      94         98
                                   Financial decisionmaking             73        89*        64       86*
                                   Interpreting data                    61        83*        53       77*
                                   Looking for work                     70        89*        70       85*
                                   Career guidance                      73        92*        77       89*
                                   Saving                               40        89*        66       83*
                                   How to start a business              62        88*        64       81*

                                   Social grants                        45        89*        45       86*
                                   Gender relations                     58        91*        62       84*
Confidence and planning increase future chances for success
The programme also devoted substantial time to helping young people think about their self identities,
goals and sense of worth. Siyakha Nentsha participants, especially boys, had much higher rates of having
discussed self-esteem, attitudes and values. They also felt more hopeful about their futures and believe
they had a number of good qualities. Participants were much more likely to report being able to express
their ideas to others. Moreover, they were more able to put these ideas into practice.
                                                                       Males                  Females
                                                              No Prog          SN      No Prog          SN
    I feel like I have a number of good qualities                 53           72*       60             64
    I feel like I can express my ideas to others                  85           95*       87             93
    I don’t have any hope for the future                          21           12        22             13
    I feel as intelligent as most people my age                   82           92        76             86


Siyakha Nentsha makes a difference in the way learners feel about themselves and the way they are able
to navigate the world. The financial education and career guidance offered by the programme also appear
to have made a lasting impression on participants. Siyakha Nentsha males and females had much higher
rates having discussed financial decision making, careers, starting a business and looking for work.
Programme learners were also more likely to have greater knowledge of the range of social grants
available in South Africa, including eligibility criteria for each grant. Ability to answer maths questions was
also higher among Siyakha Nentsha participants. More than two-thirds of participants reported they
would have benefited by having the programme at an earlier grade.
Healthy decisions, healthy future                                          Who started having sex?
Over and above this increased exposure to                     Learners who did not participate were less likely to
information on gender relations, self-identity and            remain abstinent than learners in Siyakha Nentsha
sexual health among programme participants, the
programme also appears to have impacted on a                 60
number of behavioural outcomes. There is                     50                      No Programme
evidence, for example, that a significantly smaller
                                                             40
percentage of male participants (compared with                                       Siyakha Nentsha
non-participant males) sexually debuted (had sex             30
for the first time) between the baseline and follow-         20
up surveys. Among females, there were no
                                                             10
detectable impacts on sexual debut, but
encouraging changes in condom use were observed.             0
                                                                         Boys*                Girls
   Confidence in ability to use condoms correctly increased
    significantly among programme participants compared                   Female participants reported a
                  to those with no programme                              significant increase in confidence in
 100                                                                      the ability to use a condom
   80                                                                     effectively after completing the
   60
                                                                          programme. Moreover, this
                                                                          increase in confidence seems to
   40
                                                                          have translated into more
   20                                                                     consistent condom use. Among
    0                                                                     sexually active female participants,
                 Round 1                       Round 2                    for example, there was a significant
                                                                          rise in the proportion that reported
        Siyakha Nentsha females*           No prog females
                                                                          regularly using a condom with their
        Siyakha Nentsha males              No prog males                  most recent partner.
Siyakha Nentsha girls significantly increased
       their consistent condom use compared to
         girls who didn't have the programme
 20

 15

 10

  5

  0
             Round 1               Round 2
         Siyakha Nentsha females        No prog females    Siyakha Nentsha participants were more able
                                                                to successfully open a bank account
  Siyakha Nentsha prepares young                      80
 people for lives as productive adults                60
Siyakha Nentsha also had an impact on concrete
skills that help prepare young people for their    40
future. One of the key objectives of the           20
programme was to help learners develop financial
                                                    0
goals and to enhance their financial literacy.
Accordingly, programme participation appears to                 Round 1                 Round 2
be associated with changes in financial behaviour.           Siyakha Nentsha males*      No prog males
A substantial and (marginally) significant
percentage of female programme participants, for
example, started to save for the future during the
course of the programme. In addition, both male
and female programme participants engaged with
financial institutions in the formal sector. There
was a large and significant increase in the
proportion of participants that tried to open a
bank account. Moreover, programme participants
were much more likely to succeed in opening a
bank account than non-programme participants.
Comprehensive programmes like Siyakha Nentsha are the way forward

Some programmes are moving beyond talking just about condoms to also addressing the social
and economic context of HIV, including financial empowerment, human rights and the ability to
navigate the adult world. Programmes such as Siyakha Nentsha in KwaZulu Natal bring these
issues together, along with HIV and AIDS - in an environment in which young people can speak
freely and are mentored by trained young adults from their own community. This type of life
orientation can provide young people with useable skills that lower HIV risk behaviours, increase
their financial empowerment and enhance their ability to cope with the stresses of growing up in
a difficult environment. A critical component of the success of Siyakha Nentsha was working with
both young men and young women, as both were shown to benefit from this kind of programme.
It also changed the way girls and boys relate to one another by increasing their understanding
and appreciation of the opposite sex. Skills-building provided by young adults from the same
community was shown to increase the participation and engagement of participants—
transforming the programme from a passive to an active one. Building together with young
people—Siyakha Nentsha—can help lead to a brighter future for South Africa.
For more information about Siyakha Nentsha contact:
Kasthuri Govender                       Michael Rogan                               Dr. Kelly Hallman
or Emmanuel Mbatha                      031 2603332                                 +1 212-339-0662
031 3015524                             rogan@ukzn.ac.za                    khallman@popcouncil.org
kasthurigo@telkomsa.net
emmanuelmbatha979@gmail.com
               Isihlangu.blogspot.com                www.slideshare.net/IsihlanguHDA
 We gratefully acknowledge the guidance, support, and participation of the following people, without
                          whom this programme could never have taken place.
                      Inkosi M.M. Cele, Acting inkosi of Vumengazi Tribal Authority
                        Inkosi Makhanya, Inkosi of Sobonakhona Tribal Authority
       Mr. Mbuyiseni Percival Mkhize, Chairperson Ward 100 Youth Forum, Municipal Structure
               Mr. N. Cele, Ward Manager, Umbumbulu District, Department of Education
                           Mr. M.W. Mbhele & staff, Mhawu Secondary School
                           Mr. M.J. Mhlongo & staff, Inwabi Secondary School
                        Mr. M.D. Msomi & staff, Nomavimbela Secondary School
                         Mrs. P. Deonath & staff, Khulabebuka Secondary School
                           Mr. S.E. Sibiya & staff, Fundinduku Secondary School
                          Mrs. C.B. Ngubane & staff, Skhwama Secondary School
                            Mr. Ndlela & staff, Sobonakhona Secondary School
                     Ms. Nomali Magwaza, Umbumbulu District, Dept. of Education
                                        Mr. Solly Serumula, Accudata
              Dr. Deevia Bhana, Dr. Rob Pattman, and Prof. Alan Whiteside (HEARD), UKZN
  The facilitators: Nombango Anna Sibeko, Thabile Shozi, Mboneni Genesis Thwala, Nduduzo Blessing
  Msomi, Pretty Thandani Cele, Nontobeko Charlotte Cele, Sabelo Emmanuel Mkhize, Banele Precious
 Ngcobo, Njabulo Freedom Ndlovu, Noxolo Peaceful Makhanya, Mbali Pretty Mseleku, Sithembile Pretty
 Gumede, Bongekile Carol Shozi, Nokulunga Dorah Shange, Ayanda Mthabela, and Siphiwe Cyril Mbava
    The participants : A special word of thank you for staying with the programme and persevering.

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Siyakha Nentsha, early results

  • 1. Siyakha Nentsha “Building with Young People” Enhancing the health, economic, and social capabilities of highly vulnerable youth KEY FINDINGS The Isihlangu Health and Development Agency Working with both boys and girls can developed a life-orientation programme for make a difference in the lives of both and KwaZulu Natal that has been piloted locally. The impact how they relate to one another programme is accredited by the South African Ø Qualifications Authority, meaning participants who complete Siyakha Nentsha have an asset that can Siyakha Nentsha addresses topics not help them get jobs and further training in the discussed elsewhere that are important in future. the lives of young people. Ø The long-term goal of the programme is to Siyakha Nentsha increases young people’s improve the lifelong skills and well-being confidence to prepare for the future of adolescents in KZN and cope with difficult situations The programme provides context-specific Ø strategies to enhance participants’ financial skills, Among boys, Siyakha Nentsha participants HIV/AIDS and reproductive health knowledge, were less likely to begin having sex social support, and future life options. Ø For female who were having sex, those in the Young people in KwaZulu Natal face high risks for programme used condoms with sexual HIV, teenage pregnancy, school dropout, and partners more consistently unemployment. This all takes place in a context in Ø which home life is fragile—many have already lost or face the impending loss of one or both parents, SN learners far more successful in opening and the responsibilities of adulthood may come a bank account before young people are ready. Ø SN girls and boys were more likely to have Over 1400 learners have participated in Siyakha talked about gender and sexuality issues Nentsha since 2008. The programme was carried Ø out in grades 10-12 and has been rigorously Financial decisionmaking was actively evaluated by the Population Council and UKZN. discussed by Siyakha Nentsha learners Results from the programme evaluation are Ø promising. Siyakha Nentsha students were more likely to talk about ways of a finding a job, interviewing and starting a business
  • 2. What is Siyakha Nentsha? Our programme is delivered by teams of trained facilitators from the community. The facilitators, 4 males and 20 females between 20 -24 years old, were chosen via a competitive process and were continuously trained throughout the programme. They lead sessions with students 2-3 times per week in classrooms during school hours and each session lasts approximately 1 hour. The facilitators’ skills in relating with the learners is one of the key factors that made the programme a success. Sessions include modules on self-identity, human rights awareness, HIV and AIDS, reproductive health, the value of saving money, accessing banks, job readiness and basic principles around starting a business. Each session is highly interactive and includes time for participation and reflection on the session of the day. Facilitators are also available after session hours to discuss personal issues with learners. The intervention took place in a peri-urban area called “Ngonyameni,” located outside of Durban and adjacent to the township of Umlazi. Like many communities in South Africa, this area is impoverished, food insecure and heavily affected by HIV and AIDS. Why schools? As the vast majority of young people in South Africa attend school throughout their teenage years, working through the schools was the most effective way to reach large numbers of participants. Because there was a relatively short window within which to design and implement the programme, we wanted to work with young people who would be able to utilize the skills relatively quickly after finishing school, yet not be distracted by the programme and lose time studying for their matric exams. We determined therefore that learners in grades 10 and 11 would be the most appropriate to start with. Does the programme work? We undertook a research study to begin to assess the effectiveness of the programme. The research paid careful attention to who had access to the programme. We wanted to have a group of learners who were “typical” for this type of area. We therefore chose participant classrooms by lottery. This enabled us to avoid any unfairness in who had access to the programme and ensured that we did not work with only the most talented learners, or, alternatively, only those who were the most vulnerable. There were 7 secondary schools in the study area; 6 initially received the programme and the seventh served as a comparison. After the study was over, learners in the control school received a streamlined version of the intervention. To know about the situation of learners in the area before the intervention began, we interviewed each grade 10 and 11 learner in the area in early 2008. In the interview we asked them questions about their families, schooling, work experience, attitudes and values, as well as health knowledge and behaviours. After the intervention finished in late 2009, we returned to these learners and asked the same questions. This enabled us to know how learners in both the comparison school and the intervention schools had changed during this time period.
  • 3. Characteristics of the learners in the study Males Females Average age 19 18 % who are orphans 37 36 % who have ever been pregnant — 18 % who say their household 20 23 doesn’t have enough money for basic necessities % whose homes are connected to 96 92 electricity Over a third of young people in the study % who did not have food to eat 10 14 have lost a parent to death: 20% are the morning of survey without mothers, 30% without fathers % who walk to school 89 82 and 10% have lost both of their parents. % who have ever worked 17 8 Many learners live with grandmothers, siblings, aunts or uncles. Over twenty percent of participants in the programme reported that their household did not have enough money for food, much less other basics. Most households were connected to electricity. Eighty eight percent of households had a grant recipient. Disconcertingly, 10% of boys and 14% of girls did not have any food to eat the morning they were interviewed. Although schools are often located far from learners’ homes, transport is lacking and most learners walk to school. Around 10% of girls, however, reported taking a taxi to school most days, possibly to avoid unsafe situations that can arise when girls walk alone. Reflecting the lack of employment opportunities in the area, only a small number of participants have ever undertaken work for which they were paid: 17% of boys and 8% of girls. Siyakha Nentsha is unique While many programmes for young people in South Africa attempt to reach them with information about HIV and AIDS, Siyakha Nentsha also gives young people a chance to discuss and learn about critical issues that aren’t generally addressed anywhere else. These normally neglected topics are critical in young people’s lives. This chart shows the difference in what learners in the programme recall discussing compared to learners who are not in the programme (statistical significance is shown by the *). For many participants – especially boys – this was their first opportunity to Males Females touch upon these themes. For Have you discussed... No Prog SN No Prog SN instance, males who were part of Siyakha Nentsha had significantly Self-esteem, attitudes, and values 85 98* 83 94* higher rates than control group Sexuality 88 100* 91 95 males of discussing sexuality, Violence and sexual abuse 85 99* 91 97 sexual violence/abuse, gender relations and saving money. HIV/AIDS 100 98 94 98 Financial decisionmaking 73 89* 64 86* Interpreting data 61 83* 53 77* Looking for work 70 89* 70 85* Career guidance 73 92* 77 89* Saving 40 89* 66 83* How to start a business 62 88* 64 81* Social grants 45 89* 45 86* Gender relations 58 91* 62 84*
  • 4. Confidence and planning increase future chances for success The programme also devoted substantial time to helping young people think about their self identities, goals and sense of worth. Siyakha Nentsha participants, especially boys, had much higher rates of having discussed self-esteem, attitudes and values. They also felt more hopeful about their futures and believe they had a number of good qualities. Participants were much more likely to report being able to express their ideas to others. Moreover, they were more able to put these ideas into practice. Males Females No Prog SN No Prog SN I feel like I have a number of good qualities 53 72* 60 64 I feel like I can express my ideas to others 85 95* 87 93 I don’t have any hope for the future 21 12 22 13 I feel as intelligent as most people my age 82 92 76 86 Siyakha Nentsha makes a difference in the way learners feel about themselves and the way they are able to navigate the world. The financial education and career guidance offered by the programme also appear to have made a lasting impression on participants. Siyakha Nentsha males and females had much higher rates having discussed financial decision making, careers, starting a business and looking for work. Programme learners were also more likely to have greater knowledge of the range of social grants available in South Africa, including eligibility criteria for each grant. Ability to answer maths questions was also higher among Siyakha Nentsha participants. More than two-thirds of participants reported they would have benefited by having the programme at an earlier grade. Healthy decisions, healthy future Who started having sex? Over and above this increased exposure to Learners who did not participate were less likely to information on gender relations, self-identity and remain abstinent than learners in Siyakha Nentsha sexual health among programme participants, the programme also appears to have impacted on a 60 number of behavioural outcomes. There is 50 No Programme evidence, for example, that a significantly smaller 40 percentage of male participants (compared with Siyakha Nentsha non-participant males) sexually debuted (had sex 30 for the first time) between the baseline and follow- 20 up surveys. Among females, there were no 10 detectable impacts on sexual debut, but encouraging changes in condom use were observed. 0 Boys* Girls Confidence in ability to use condoms correctly increased significantly among programme participants compared Female participants reported a to those with no programme significant increase in confidence in 100 the ability to use a condom 80 effectively after completing the 60 programme. Moreover, this increase in confidence seems to 40 have translated into more 20 consistent condom use. Among 0 sexually active female participants, Round 1 Round 2 for example, there was a significant rise in the proportion that reported Siyakha Nentsha females* No prog females regularly using a condom with their Siyakha Nentsha males No prog males most recent partner.
  • 5. Siyakha Nentsha girls significantly increased their consistent condom use compared to girls who didn't have the programme 20 15 10 5 0 Round 1 Round 2 Siyakha Nentsha females No prog females Siyakha Nentsha participants were more able to successfully open a bank account Siyakha Nentsha prepares young 80 people for lives as productive adults 60 Siyakha Nentsha also had an impact on concrete skills that help prepare young people for their 40 future. One of the key objectives of the 20 programme was to help learners develop financial 0 goals and to enhance their financial literacy. Accordingly, programme participation appears to Round 1 Round 2 be associated with changes in financial behaviour. Siyakha Nentsha males* No prog males A substantial and (marginally) significant percentage of female programme participants, for example, started to save for the future during the course of the programme. In addition, both male and female programme participants engaged with financial institutions in the formal sector. There was a large and significant increase in the proportion of participants that tried to open a bank account. Moreover, programme participants were much more likely to succeed in opening a bank account than non-programme participants. Comprehensive programmes like Siyakha Nentsha are the way forward Some programmes are moving beyond talking just about condoms to also addressing the social and economic context of HIV, including financial empowerment, human rights and the ability to navigate the adult world. Programmes such as Siyakha Nentsha in KwaZulu Natal bring these issues together, along with HIV and AIDS - in an environment in which young people can speak freely and are mentored by trained young adults from their own community. This type of life orientation can provide young people with useable skills that lower HIV risk behaviours, increase their financial empowerment and enhance their ability to cope with the stresses of growing up in a difficult environment. A critical component of the success of Siyakha Nentsha was working with both young men and young women, as both were shown to benefit from this kind of programme. It also changed the way girls and boys relate to one another by increasing their understanding and appreciation of the opposite sex. Skills-building provided by young adults from the same community was shown to increase the participation and engagement of participants— transforming the programme from a passive to an active one. Building together with young people—Siyakha Nentsha—can help lead to a brighter future for South Africa.
  • 6. For more information about Siyakha Nentsha contact: Kasthuri Govender Michael Rogan Dr. Kelly Hallman or Emmanuel Mbatha 031 2603332 +1 212-339-0662 031 3015524 rogan@ukzn.ac.za khallman@popcouncil.org kasthurigo@telkomsa.net emmanuelmbatha979@gmail.com Isihlangu.blogspot.com www.slideshare.net/IsihlanguHDA We gratefully acknowledge the guidance, support, and participation of the following people, without whom this programme could never have taken place. Inkosi M.M. Cele, Acting inkosi of Vumengazi Tribal Authority Inkosi Makhanya, Inkosi of Sobonakhona Tribal Authority Mr. Mbuyiseni Percival Mkhize, Chairperson Ward 100 Youth Forum, Municipal Structure Mr. N. Cele, Ward Manager, Umbumbulu District, Department of Education Mr. M.W. Mbhele & staff, Mhawu Secondary School Mr. M.J. Mhlongo & staff, Inwabi Secondary School Mr. M.D. Msomi & staff, Nomavimbela Secondary School Mrs. P. Deonath & staff, Khulabebuka Secondary School Mr. S.E. Sibiya & staff, Fundinduku Secondary School Mrs. C.B. Ngubane & staff, Skhwama Secondary School Mr. Ndlela & staff, Sobonakhona Secondary School Ms. Nomali Magwaza, Umbumbulu District, Dept. of Education Mr. Solly Serumula, Accudata Dr. Deevia Bhana, Dr. Rob Pattman, and Prof. Alan Whiteside (HEARD), UKZN The facilitators: Nombango Anna Sibeko, Thabile Shozi, Mboneni Genesis Thwala, Nduduzo Blessing Msomi, Pretty Thandani Cele, Nontobeko Charlotte Cele, Sabelo Emmanuel Mkhize, Banele Precious Ngcobo, Njabulo Freedom Ndlovu, Noxolo Peaceful Makhanya, Mbali Pretty Mseleku, Sithembile Pretty Gumede, Bongekile Carol Shozi, Nokulunga Dorah Shange, Ayanda Mthabela, and Siphiwe Cyril Mbava The participants : A special word of thank you for staying with the programme and persevering.