HIV is the big story. This chart, not ours http://www.ajtmh.org/cgi/content/full/77/6/116315-24 year oldsThis data is from 2004 but for kzn things haven’t changed much since that time and more importantly you can see the trends, which are still in place. Girls have a much higher risk than boysHIV can be a cause and a consequence of movement.
Relative prosperity compared to neighboring countries make SA a magnet for other immigrants from around the region but there are huge disparities in the country (click) and extremely high unemployment (data), especially among young people and particularly in KZN.SA is a Relatively prosperous country in SSA which makes it a magnet for migration in the reason but nevertheless, but it has huge income inequality and lots of poverty. Also, very high migration. This is especially the case for young people in KZN.
Age of consent, marriage, voting, everything
So just to show you where we are on thThe program I’m going to tell you about took place in a traditional zulu area called Engonyameni, just outside the township of Umlazi. e map….
School enrollment quite high in this area and this captures most adolescents in the area. One school ward. Facilitators chosen through competitive process, from community, paid, continuously trainedLearn about skills and practice them. For example, using english, practicing being assertive, communicatingCertificate, SAQA, an asset young people can use to get jobs
Go quickly through the longitudinal results. Don’t yet have the FGDs translated. Possibly relevant for migration work we have the GPS. And for many learners we have a limited set of information on the learners. Talk about results here—moving, death, pregnancy.
1400 young people, followed over two rounds
Girls on left, boys on right, if both, in middleBirth certificates and IDs especially important for accessing social grants, bank accounts, et.
These are the kinds of challenges migrating young people will have to deal with30% boys and 22% girls say they want to be living in this community in five years
AnecdotallyThis is mostly boys—they’re more likely to have ID to have been job seeking and to have social networks that would enable them to migrate for workFor girls some are moving away because of pregnancy, education seeking.
Siyakha Nentsha: building assets and reducing vulnerability in KwaZulu Natal
Building assets and reducing vulnerability in KwaZulu Natal<br />SiyakhaNentsha<br />Migration and Adolescents<br />March 24, 2011<br />Paris, France<br />Eva Roca<br />
General context in KZN<br />HIV<br />Kleinschmidt, Pettifor et al, 2007<br />
Preparing for opportunities and risks<br /> HIV and STIs teenage pregnancy early unplanned parenthood<br /> school dropout loss of one or both parents<br /> employment and training opportunities social grants<br /> social support citizenship<br />language skills<br />
<ul><li>HIV/AIDS and RH: knowledge, skills and behaviors, including adoption of safer sexual behaviors and service use
Economic skills: ability to plan and manage personal and familial finances, identify and access available services, FET opps, social benefits; articulate a plan for pursuing future livelihood-enhancing opportunities
Social networks and support: access to friends, adult role models and individuals/groups who can assist with crisis management and provide links to opportunities</li></li></ul><li>Measures<br />
How is all this relevant for migrants?<br />Many young people hope to migrate in next 5 years.<br />Similar challenges<br />
Some learners are alreadyon the move<br />Mostly within KZN<br />Because parents migrate<br />Because caregivers die<br />To change schools<br />Work<br />
Data that might be relevant for migration<br />GPS coordinates<br />Household composition and size<br />Relationahip to head of household<br />Type of work involved in<br />Compensation for work<br />Have CV, ID, birth certificate<br />Knowledge of income-generating opportunities<br />Have friends that would provide food if hungry, place to sleep, borrow money<br />Types of organizations belong to<br />Who expects to share money earned<br />Have money keep in case of emergency<br />Have bank account<br />Know requirements for social grants<br />Have a goal<br />Where would like to be in 5 years<br />Emotional well-being<br />Speak and read English<br />
Selected resources<br />Hallman, K. 2010, in press. “Social exclusion: The gendering of adolescent HIV risks in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa,” in J. Klot and V. Nguyen eds., The Fourth Wave: An Assault on Women - Gender, Culture and HIV in the 21st Century. Social Science Research Council and UNESCO.<br />Hallman, K. 2008.“Researching the determinants of vulnerability to HIV amongst adolescents,” IDS Bulletin, 39(5), November 2008.<br />Bruce, J. and Hallman, K. 2008. “Reaching the girls left behind,” Gender & Development, 16(2): 227-245.<br />Hallman, K and Roca, E. 2007. “Reducing the social exclusion of girls,” www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/TABriefs/PGY_Brief27_SocialExclusion.pdf<br />Hallman, K. 2007. “Nonconsensual sex, school enrollment and educational outcomes in South Africa,” Africa Insight (special issue on Youth in Africa), 37(3): 454-472.<br />Hallman, K. 2005. “Genderedsocioeconomic conditions and HIV riskbehavioursamongyoung people in South Africa,”African Journal of AIDS Research 4(1): 37–50.Abstract: http://www.popcouncil.org/projects/abstracts/AJAR_4_1.html<br />
Thank you! <br />Our funders: ESRC/Hewlett Joint Scheme<br />& DFID via the ABBA RPC<br />