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Siyakha Nentsha
“Building with Young People”
Enhancing the health,
economic,
and social
capabilities
of
highly
vulnerable
adolescents



T
         he Isihlangu Health and Development Agency developed a life-                KEY FINDINGS
                                                                                             ØØØØ
         orientation programme for young people in KwaZulu-Natal that              Siyakha Nentsha addresses
         has been tested locally. The programme, Siyakha Nentsha (isiZulu             topics not discussed
         for „building with young people‟), provides context-appropriate         elsewhere that are important
strategies to enhance participants‟ financial skills, social support, HIV/AIDS    in the lives of young people
and reproductive health knowledge and skills, and future life options.                         Ø
        The programme is accredited by the South African Qualifications            Siyakha Nentsha increases
Authority, meaning participants who complete Siyakha Nentsha have an             young people‟s confidence to
asset that may assist them with accessing jobs and other opportunities in          prepare for the future and
the future.                                                                       cope with difficult situations
                                                                                               Ø
   The long-term goal of the programme is to improve the                         Siyakha Nentsha girls and boys
     lifelong skills and well-being of adolescents in KZN                         learned and used budgeting
       Over 1400 young people have participated in Siyakha Nentsha since               and planning skills
                                                                                               Ø
2008. The intervention took place in a peri-urban area called                    Siyakha Nentsha girls and boys
“Ngonyameni,” located outside of Durban and adjacent to the township of          showed improved knowledge
Umlazi. The programme has been rigorously evaluated by the Population             of social grant requirements
Council and UKZN; results from the evaluation are promising.                               and criteria
                                                                                               Ø
         As the vast majority of young people in South Africa attend school      Siyakha Nentsha girls and boys
during their teenage years, working through the schools was the most               were more likely to know
effective way to reach large numbers of participants. We wanted to work             how to search for a job,
with young people who would be able to use the skills relatively quickly         interview and start a business
after finishing school, yet not be too distracted by the programme and lose                    Ø
time studying for their matric exams. We determined therefore that               Among boys, Siyakha Nentsha
learners in grades 10 and 11 would be the most appropriate to start with.         participants were less likely
                                                                                      to begin having sex
                                                                                               Ø
     What were some topics discussed in Siyakha Nentsha? Siyakha Nentsha girls and boys
       While many programmes for young people in South Africa attempt             were more likely to know
to reach them with information about HIV and AIDS, Siyakha Nentsha also           where to get a condom if
gives young people a chance to discuss and learn about critical issues that            they needed it
                                                                                               Ø
are not addressed elsewhere, like gender, budgeting, job seeking and sexual      Working with both boys and
violence. These normally neglected topics are critical in young people‟s lives    girls can impact how they
and for many participants—especially boys—this was their first opportunity        relate to one another and
to touch upon such themes.                                                        make a difference to both
                                                                                            genders
                                                       1
What is Siyakha Nentsha?
                                                                 The programme was delivered in 10th -11th standard
                                                         classrooms by teams of facilitators who were recent graduates
                                                         from the programme schools. They led sessions with learners 2 to
                                                         3 times per week in classrooms during school hours; each session
                                                         lasted approximately 1 hour.
                                                               Sessions included modules on self-awareness, human
                                                      rights, HIV and AIDS, reproductive health, the value of planning for
                                                      the future, saving money, accessing banks, job readiness and basic
The evaluation process                                principles of starting a business. Each session was highly interactive
                                                      and included time for participation and reflection. Facilitators were
        We did research to assess the effectiveness also available after session hours to discuss personal issues faced
of the programme. There were 7 secondary schools by learners.
in the study area; 6 initially received the programme
and the seventh served as a comparison. After the
study was over, learners in the comparison school
received a streamlined version of the intervention.

        We interviewed learners before and after
the programme to see how their lives changed over
time. We asked them questions about their families,
schooling, work experience, attitudes and values, as
well as health knowledge and behaviours. We
compared the changes experienced by learners who
were in Siyakha Nentsha to those who were not.

What did we learn about the learners?
 Situation of learners in 2009                Boys     Girls                Learners in the study faced a host of challenges.
                                                                   Over one-third of young people in the study had lost a
            Average age (years)                19       18         parent. Many learners lived with grandmothers, siblings,
             % who are orphans                 41       38         aunts or uncles. More than one out of every five learners
     % who report ever been pregnant           —        20         reported that their household did not have enough money
                                                                   for food, much less other basics.
  % who say their household doesn’t have
    enough money for basic necessities
                                               74       75                  Most live in homes with electricity, but report
                                                                   frequent outages. Eighty eight percent of households were
     % whose homes are connected to                                receiving some kind of social grant. Although schools are
                                               97       92
               electricity
                                                                   often located far from learners‟ homes, transport is lacking
       % who did not have food to eat                              and most learners walk to school. Around 17% of girls take
                                               10       14
         the morning of the survey
                                                                   a taxi to school most days, possibly to avoid unsafe
           % who walk to school                88       82         situations that can arise when girls walk alone. Reflecting
      % who have ever worked for pay           19        8         the lack of employment opportunities in the area, only a
                                                                   small number of participants had ever undertaken work for
       # of members in the household            7        8
                                                                   which they were paid: 17% of boys and 8% of girls.
  % who live in a female-headed household      54       48
 Mean # of items owned by household, out
                                               9.8      9.5
                                                                            How did Siyakha Nentsha affect
                  of 22
                                                                                                learners?
                                                                                                     Boys (%)          Girls (%)
         The charts on the next pages show the differences
between males and females and between learners in the                                               Non-    Siyakha  Non-     Siyakha
programme and those who did not have it until after the                                            Progra   Nentsha Program   Nentsha
                                                                                                    mme               me
study. (Statistical significance is shown by the *).
                                                                   I feel like I have a number      82       89*      86        87
                                                                   of good qualities
         The programme devoted substantial amount of time
to helping young people think about their self-identities, goals   I feel like I can express my     88       95*      91        94
and sense of worth. Siyakha Nentsha participants, especially       ideas to others
boys, felt more confident and believed they had a number of        I do not have any hope for       18        13      16        13
good qualities. Participants were also much more likely to         the future
report being able to express their ideas to others.                I feel as intelligent as most    81       93*      84        87
                                                               2 people my age
Skills and confidence lead to a better future
        Siyakha Nentsha makes a difference in the way learners feel about
themselves and the way they are able to navigate the world. Siyakha
Nentsha boys and girls had significantly higher rates of discussing social
grants, looking for work, starting a business, sexuality, HIV/AIDS and
gender relations.
        The financial education and career guidance offered by the
programme also appear to have made a lasting impression on participants.
 Siyakha Nentsha males and females had much higher rates of having
   discussed financial decision making, careers, starting a business and
   looking for work.
 Programme learners were also more likely to have greater knowledge
   of the range of social grants available in South Africa, including
   eligibility criteria for each grant.
 Ability to answer math/financial questions correctly was also higher among Siyakha Nentsha participants.

                              Boys (%)           Girls (%)              Over and above this increased exposure to
                                                               information about gender relations, self-identity and sexual
Have you ever                Non
                                    Siyakha
                                                Non
                                                       Siyakha health among programme participants, the programme also
                             Pro-               Pro-
talked about...            gramme
                                    Nentsha
                                              gramme
                                                       Nentsha appears to have made real changes in behaviours. There is
                                                               evidence, for example, that a significantly smaller
Accessing social grants      59      83*        53       81*   percentage of male participants (compared with non-
Looking for work             70      86*        72       84*   participant males) sexually debuted (had sex for the first
                                                               time) between the first and second surveys. Among
Career guidance              69      90*        76       89*
                                                               females, there were no detectable impacts on sexual debut,
How to start a business      73      86*        66       80*   but encouraging changes in condom use were observed.
Financial decisionmaking     69      86*        67       85*
Saving money for the
                             55      84*        67           80
future
Interpreting data            61      80*        59       78*
Self-esteem, attitudes,
                             84      94*        82           89
values
Sexuality                    83      98*        83       92*
Violence and sexual
                             75      96*        79       93*
abuse
HIV/AIDS                     89       93        88           92
Gender relations             64      90*        66       83*
                                                                            Female participants reported a significant increase
                                                              in confidence in the ability to find and to use a condom
                                                              effectively after completing the programme. Moreover, this
                                                              increase in confidence seems to have translated into more
                                                              consistent condom use. Among females who were already
                                                              having sex, for example, more participants reported regularly
                                                              using a condom with their most recent sexual partner.
                                                                       Siyakha Nentsha also had an impact on concrete skills
                                                              that help prepare young people for their future. One of the key
                                                              objectives of the programme was to help learners develop
                                                              financial goals and to enhance their financial decisionmaking
                                                              ability. Learners in
                                                              the program have
made big progress in this area.
         A substantial and percentage of female programme participants, for
example, started to save money for the future during the programme. In
addition, both male and female programme participants engaged with
financial institutions such as banks. Girls in the program were significantly
more likely (p<0.10) to have tried to open a bank account, and programme
boys who tried to open a bank account were more successful than their
counterparts who did not have access to Siyakha Nentsha. 3
Comprehensive programmes like Siyakha Nentsha are the way forward



S
        ome programmes for young people are moving beyond talking only about sexual abstinence and using condoms.
        The social and economic challenges that make HIV and AIDS threats to young people also need to be tackled
        straight away. Programmes such as Siyakha Nentsha include training on human rights, financial planning, and skills for
        making better choices.
         These topics are discussed—along with teen pregnancy, HIV and AIDS - in setting where young people can speak
freely and are mentored by trained facilitators from their own community. This type of life orientation can provide young
people with useable skills that reduce HIV risk, increase their financial empowerment and enhance their ability to cope
with the stresses of growing up in a challenging environment. More than two-thirds of participants reported they would
have benefited by having the programme at an earlier grade. A critical component of the success of Siyakha Nentsha was
working with both young men and young women, as both were shown to benefit from this programme. It also changed
the way girls and boys related to one another by increasing their understanding and respect for the opposite sex. Skills-
building provided by young adults from the same community was shown to increase the participation and engagement of
participants—transforming the programme from a passive to an active one. Building together with young people—Siyakha
Nentsha—can help lead to a brighter future for South Africa.
                            For more information about Siyakha Nentsha contact:
Kasthuri Govender / Emmanuel Mbatha                      Michael Rogan                                      Kelly Hallman
Isihlangu Health & Development Agency              University of KwaZulu-Natal                            Population Council
27 (0)835657378                                           031 2603332                                      +1 212-339-0602
kasthurigo@telkomsa.net                                 rogan@ukzn.ac.za                           khallman@popcouncil.org
 Isihlangu.blogspot.com                   IsihlanguHDA@gmail.com                    www.slideshare.net/IsihlanguHDA



      We gratefully acknowledge the guidance, support, and participation of the
   following people, without whom this programme could never have taken place:

                     Inkosi M.M. Cele, Acting inkosi of Vumengazi Tribal Authority
                       Inkosi Makhanya, Inkosi of Sobonakhona Tribal Authority
         Mr. Mbuyiseni Percival Mkhize, Chairperson Ward 100 Youth Forum, Municipal Structure
                Mr. N. Cele, Ward Manager, Umbumbulu District, Department of Education
                         Mr. M.W. Mbhele & staff, Mhawu Secondary School
                          Mr. M.J. Mhlongo & staff, Inwabi Secondary School
                       Mr. M.D. Msomi & staff, Nomavimbela Secondary School
                        Mrs. P. Deonath & staff, Khulabebuka Secondary School
                         Mr. S.E. Sibiya & staff, Fundinduku Secondary School
                        Mrs. C.B. Ngubane & staff, Skhwama Secondary School
                          Mr. Ndlela & staff, Sobonakhona Secondary School
                     Ms. Nomali Magwaza, Umbumbulu District, Dept. of Education
                                    Mr. Solly Serumula, Accudata
            Ms. Eva Roca, Ms. Cecilia Calderon, Ms. Hannah Taboada, Population Council
          Dr. Deevia Bhana, Dr. Rob Pattman, and Prof. Alan Whiteside (HEARD), UKZN


    The facilitators: Nombango Anna Sibeko, Thabile Shozi, Mboneni Genesis Thwala, Nduduzo Blessing
     Msomi, Pretty Thandani Cele, Nontobeko Charlotte Cele, Sabelo Emmanuel Mkhize, Banele Precious
    Ngcobo, Njabulo Freedom Ndlovu, Noxolo Peaceful Makhanya, Mbali Pretty Mseleku, Sithembile Pretty
    Gumede, Bongekile Carol Shozi, Nokulunga Dorah Shange, Ayanda Mthabela, and Siphiwe Cyril Mbava


                         The participants : A special word of thank you for staying
                                  with the programme and persevering.




                                                              4

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110607 s nbrief

  • 1. Siyakha Nentsha “Building with Young People” Enhancing the health, economic, and social capabilities of highly vulnerable adolescents T he Isihlangu Health and Development Agency developed a life- KEY FINDINGS ØØØØ orientation programme for young people in KwaZulu-Natal that Siyakha Nentsha addresses has been tested locally. The programme, Siyakha Nentsha (isiZulu topics not discussed for „building with young people‟), provides context-appropriate elsewhere that are important strategies to enhance participants‟ financial skills, social support, HIV/AIDS in the lives of young people and reproductive health knowledge and skills, and future life options. Ø The programme is accredited by the South African Qualifications Siyakha Nentsha increases Authority, meaning participants who complete Siyakha Nentsha have an young people‟s confidence to asset that may assist them with accessing jobs and other opportunities in prepare for the future and the future. cope with difficult situations Ø The long-term goal of the programme is to improve the Siyakha Nentsha girls and boys lifelong skills and well-being of adolescents in KZN learned and used budgeting Over 1400 young people have participated in Siyakha Nentsha since and planning skills Ø 2008. The intervention took place in a peri-urban area called Siyakha Nentsha girls and boys “Ngonyameni,” located outside of Durban and adjacent to the township of showed improved knowledge Umlazi. The programme has been rigorously evaluated by the Population of social grant requirements Council and UKZN; results from the evaluation are promising. and criteria Ø As the vast majority of young people in South Africa attend school Siyakha Nentsha girls and boys during their teenage years, working through the schools was the most were more likely to know effective way to reach large numbers of participants. We wanted to work how to search for a job, with young people who would be able to use the skills relatively quickly interview and start a business after finishing school, yet not be too distracted by the programme and lose Ø time studying for their matric exams. We determined therefore that Among boys, Siyakha Nentsha learners in grades 10 and 11 would be the most appropriate to start with. participants were less likely to begin having sex Ø What were some topics discussed in Siyakha Nentsha? Siyakha Nentsha girls and boys While many programmes for young people in South Africa attempt were more likely to know to reach them with information about HIV and AIDS, Siyakha Nentsha also where to get a condom if gives young people a chance to discuss and learn about critical issues that they needed it Ø are not addressed elsewhere, like gender, budgeting, job seeking and sexual Working with both boys and violence. These normally neglected topics are critical in young people‟s lives girls can impact how they and for many participants—especially boys—this was their first opportunity relate to one another and to touch upon such themes. make a difference to both genders 1
  • 2. What is Siyakha Nentsha? The programme was delivered in 10th -11th standard classrooms by teams of facilitators who were recent graduates from the programme schools. They led sessions with learners 2 to 3 times per week in classrooms during school hours; each session lasted approximately 1 hour. Sessions included modules on self-awareness, human rights, HIV and AIDS, reproductive health, the value of planning for the future, saving money, accessing banks, job readiness and basic The evaluation process principles of starting a business. Each session was highly interactive and included time for participation and reflection. Facilitators were We did research to assess the effectiveness also available after session hours to discuss personal issues faced of the programme. There were 7 secondary schools by learners. in the study area; 6 initially received the programme and the seventh served as a comparison. After the study was over, learners in the comparison school received a streamlined version of the intervention. We interviewed learners before and after the programme to see how their lives changed over time. We asked them questions about their families, schooling, work experience, attitudes and values, as well as health knowledge and behaviours. We compared the changes experienced by learners who were in Siyakha Nentsha to those who were not. What did we learn about the learners? Situation of learners in 2009 Boys Girls Learners in the study faced a host of challenges. Over one-third of young people in the study had lost a Average age (years) 19 18 parent. Many learners lived with grandmothers, siblings, % who are orphans 41 38 aunts or uncles. More than one out of every five learners % who report ever been pregnant — 20 reported that their household did not have enough money for food, much less other basics. % who say their household doesn’t have enough money for basic necessities 74 75 Most live in homes with electricity, but report frequent outages. Eighty eight percent of households were % whose homes are connected to receiving some kind of social grant. Although schools are 97 92 electricity often located far from learners‟ homes, transport is lacking % who did not have food to eat and most learners walk to school. Around 17% of girls take 10 14 the morning of the survey a taxi to school most days, possibly to avoid unsafe % who walk to school 88 82 situations that can arise when girls walk alone. Reflecting % who have ever worked for pay 19 8 the lack of employment opportunities in the area, only a small number of participants had ever undertaken work for # of members in the household 7 8 which they were paid: 17% of boys and 8% of girls. % who live in a female-headed household 54 48 Mean # of items owned by household, out 9.8 9.5 How did Siyakha Nentsha affect of 22 learners? Boys (%) Girls (%) The charts on the next pages show the differences between males and females and between learners in the Non- Siyakha Non- Siyakha programme and those who did not have it until after the Progra Nentsha Program Nentsha mme me study. (Statistical significance is shown by the *). I feel like I have a number 82 89* 86 87 of good qualities The programme devoted substantial amount of time to helping young people think about their self-identities, goals I feel like I can express my 88 95* 91 94 and sense of worth. Siyakha Nentsha participants, especially ideas to others boys, felt more confident and believed they had a number of I do not have any hope for 18 13 16 13 good qualities. Participants were also much more likely to the future report being able to express their ideas to others. I feel as intelligent as most 81 93* 84 87 2 people my age
  • 3. Skills and confidence lead to a better future Siyakha Nentsha makes a difference in the way learners feel about themselves and the way they are able to navigate the world. Siyakha Nentsha boys and girls had significantly higher rates of discussing social grants, looking for work, starting a business, sexuality, HIV/AIDS and gender relations. The financial education and career guidance offered by the programme also appear to have made a lasting impression on participants.  Siyakha Nentsha males and females had much higher rates of having discussed financial decision making, careers, starting a business and looking for work.  Programme learners were also more likely to have greater knowledge of the range of social grants available in South Africa, including eligibility criteria for each grant.  Ability to answer math/financial questions correctly was also higher among Siyakha Nentsha participants. Boys (%) Girls (%) Over and above this increased exposure to information about gender relations, self-identity and sexual Have you ever Non Siyakha Non Siyakha health among programme participants, the programme also Pro- Pro- talked about... gramme Nentsha gramme Nentsha appears to have made real changes in behaviours. There is evidence, for example, that a significantly smaller Accessing social grants 59 83* 53 81* percentage of male participants (compared with non- Looking for work 70 86* 72 84* participant males) sexually debuted (had sex for the first time) between the first and second surveys. Among Career guidance 69 90* 76 89* females, there were no detectable impacts on sexual debut, How to start a business 73 86* 66 80* but encouraging changes in condom use were observed. Financial decisionmaking 69 86* 67 85* Saving money for the 55 84* 67 80 future Interpreting data 61 80* 59 78* Self-esteem, attitudes, 84 94* 82 89 values Sexuality 83 98* 83 92* Violence and sexual 75 96* 79 93* abuse HIV/AIDS 89 93 88 92 Gender relations 64 90* 66 83* Female participants reported a significant increase in confidence in the ability to find and to use a condom effectively after completing the programme. Moreover, this increase in confidence seems to have translated into more consistent condom use. Among females who were already having sex, for example, more participants reported regularly using a condom with their most recent sexual partner. Siyakha Nentsha also had an impact on concrete skills that help prepare young people for their future. One of the key objectives of the programme was to help learners develop financial goals and to enhance their financial decisionmaking ability. Learners in the program have made big progress in this area. A substantial and percentage of female programme participants, for example, started to save money for the future during the programme. In addition, both male and female programme participants engaged with financial institutions such as banks. Girls in the program were significantly more likely (p<0.10) to have tried to open a bank account, and programme boys who tried to open a bank account were more successful than their counterparts who did not have access to Siyakha Nentsha. 3
  • 4. Comprehensive programmes like Siyakha Nentsha are the way forward S ome programmes for young people are moving beyond talking only about sexual abstinence and using condoms. The social and economic challenges that make HIV and AIDS threats to young people also need to be tackled straight away. Programmes such as Siyakha Nentsha include training on human rights, financial planning, and skills for making better choices. These topics are discussed—along with teen pregnancy, HIV and AIDS - in setting where young people can speak freely and are mentored by trained facilitators from their own community. This type of life orientation can provide young people with useable skills that reduce HIV risk, increase their financial empowerment and enhance their ability to cope with the stresses of growing up in a challenging environment. More than two-thirds of participants reported they would have benefited by having the programme at an earlier grade. A critical component of the success of Siyakha Nentsha was working with both young men and young women, as both were shown to benefit from this programme. It also changed the way girls and boys related to one another by increasing their understanding and respect for the opposite sex. Skills- building provided by young adults from the same community was shown to increase the participation and engagement of participants—transforming the programme from a passive to an active one. Building together with young people—Siyakha Nentsha—can help lead to a brighter future for South Africa. For more information about Siyakha Nentsha contact: Kasthuri Govender / Emmanuel Mbatha Michael Rogan Kelly Hallman Isihlangu Health & Development Agency University of KwaZulu-Natal Population Council 27 (0)835657378 031 2603332 +1 212-339-0602 kasthurigo@telkomsa.net rogan@ukzn.ac.za khallman@popcouncil.org Isihlangu.blogspot.com IsihlanguHDA@gmail.com www.slideshare.net/IsihlanguHDA We gratefully acknowledge the guidance, support, and participation of the following people, without whom this programme could never have taken place: Inkosi M.M. Cele, Acting inkosi of Vumengazi Tribal Authority Inkosi Makhanya, Inkosi of Sobonakhona Tribal Authority Mr. Mbuyiseni Percival Mkhize, Chairperson Ward 100 Youth Forum, Municipal Structure Mr. N. Cele, Ward Manager, Umbumbulu District, Department of Education Mr. M.W. Mbhele & staff, Mhawu Secondary School Mr. M.J. Mhlongo & staff, Inwabi Secondary School Mr. M.D. Msomi & staff, Nomavimbela Secondary School Mrs. P. Deonath & staff, Khulabebuka Secondary School Mr. S.E. Sibiya & staff, Fundinduku Secondary School Mrs. C.B. Ngubane & staff, Skhwama Secondary School Mr. Ndlela & staff, Sobonakhona Secondary School Ms. Nomali Magwaza, Umbumbulu District, Dept. of Education Mr. Solly Serumula, Accudata Ms. Eva Roca, Ms. Cecilia Calderon, Ms. Hannah Taboada, Population Council Dr. Deevia Bhana, Dr. Rob Pattman, and Prof. Alan Whiteside (HEARD), UKZN The facilitators: Nombango Anna Sibeko, Thabile Shozi, Mboneni Genesis Thwala, Nduduzo Blessing Msomi, Pretty Thandani Cele, Nontobeko Charlotte Cele, Sabelo Emmanuel Mkhize, Banele Precious Ngcobo, Njabulo Freedom Ndlovu, Noxolo Peaceful Makhanya, Mbali Pretty Mseleku, Sithembile Pretty Gumede, Bongekile Carol Shozi, Nokulunga Dorah Shange, Ayanda Mthabela, and Siphiwe Cyril Mbava The participants : A special word of thank you for staying with the programme and persevering. 4