Mention advantages of TC: For Students: Development of FL competence, intercultural awareness, electronic literacies; For University Educators: Opening up of classroom / Authentic communication and project work / Developing international network of collaborators; For Mobility Officers: Preparation for physical mobility/ Alternative to physical mobility; For University Management: ‘Low cost’ internationalisation strategy / Opening up new university partnerships
Virtual & Physical Mobility
TELECOLLABORATION: INTEGRATING VIRTUAL AND PHYSICAL MOBILITY IN HIGHER EDUCATIONChair: Rafael de Paz, Universidad de Leon, SpainSpeakers: Melinda Dooly, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain Robert ODowd, Universidad de León, Spain EAIE September 2012Dublin
Some questions for you:How much student mobility in your institution?What are the main barriers to student mobility in yourinstitutions?In your opinion, in what ways can online technologies supportphysical student mobility or provide a ‘second-best’alternative to physical mobility?
PLAN FOR THIS MORNING• Explain what telecollaboration is and why it could be relevant to your educational contexts• Demonstrate how this type of activity can be used either as an alternative to physical mobility or as a preparatory tool for mobility programmes• Outline some of the common barriers which exist at university level to setting up such virtual mobility exchanges• Identify examples of online exchange projects which have overcome these barriers.
Student mobility in Europe Mobility is important for personal development and employability, it fosters respect for diversity and a capacity to deal with other cultures. It encourages linguistic pluralism, thus underpinning the multilingual tradition of the European Higher Education Area and it increases cooperation and competition between higher education institutions In 2020, at least 20% of those graduating in the European Higher Education Area should have had a study or training period abroad.Communiqué of the Conference of European Ministers Responsible for Higher Education,Leuven and Louvain-la-Neuve, 28-29 April 2009
What happens to the remaining 80%?Virtual mobility, i.e. the use of the internet and other electronicforms of information and communication, is often a catalyst forembarking on a period of physical mobility. Although not asubstitute for physical mobility, it does enable young people toprepare a stay abroad and can create conditions for future physicalmobility by facilitating friendships, contacts and social networkingetc…. It can also provide an international dimension to those learners who, for different reasons, are not able or willing to go abroad. In that context, ICT can be used for “electronic twinning” …etc. Commission of the European Communities: Green paper: promoting the learning mobility of young people (2009)
Telecollaboration: Virtual mobility in the classroom• Telecollaboration involves online intercultural collaborative projects between students in geographically distant locations
Different set-ups which telecollaboration can take 1. A Class of learners in Germany carry out collaborative tasks online 1. A Class of learners in Germany carry out collaborative tasks online with a class of learners in Ireland – using German and English with a class of learners in Ireland – using German and English 2. A class of students in Spain collaborate online with a class in USA. 2. A class of students in Spain collaborate online with a class in USA. This is combined with week-long study visits by both groups to This is combined with week-long study visits by both groups to partner universities. partner universities. 3. Before leaving on mobility programmes to the UK, students from 3. Before leaving on mobility programmes to the UK, students from Italy are ‘matched’ and interact online with British students Italy are ‘matched’ and interact online with British students planning to travel to Italy. planning to travel to Italy. 4. Students on Erasmus mobility contribute to a blog where they 4. Students on Erasmus mobility contribute to a blog where they discuss their experiences abroad. This blog includes quetions and discuss their experiences abroad. This blog includes quetions and comments by ‘pre-mobility’ students at the home university. comments by ‘pre-mobility’ students at the home university.
Example of set-up 2: Integrating mobility students into faculty’s study activities • “The Spanish-American Cultura Exchange” • University of León – Barnard College, University of Colombia, New York • EFL students at León + Spanish students at Barnard • Combining virtual and physical mobility
Spanish-American Cultura Combining On-line and Physical Contact Mobility• January-March: On-line Exchange (1) – Project work – videos, essay etc. – Online interaction between both classes• March: Group from New York visit León• April: Group from León visit New York• April: New Materials collected/created by students are added to on-line platform• April-May: On-line Exchange (2). Analysis of new materials• Following year: Previous year’s materials available for new groups of learners….
Exploiting Students’ VisitsOne week study visit to partneruniversity by 6 students. Thisincludes: •Home-stays with families •Visiting students attend various classes: Presentations in their native language / participation in class activities •Interviewing of local residents •Organised tours and visits with host class as ‘guides’
Feeding back to the on-line Platform – for next year’s participants• Favourite photos and their commentaries• Videos of presentations• Essays based on ethnographic interviews
Example of set-up 2: Exchange between teacher education classes Long term collaboration between Spain & USACollaboration began in 2004-20052 Teacher education classes (mostly exchange of products)Expanded to collaboration between online groups2012-2013: Co-written curriculum for methodology course
Main objectives•Collaborate on designing, implementing and evaluating ateaching sequence & 1 partnered educational activity•Role of online collaboration: •Support & critique teaching sequence design (1 per student) •Design together materials & teaching instructions for technology-enhanced activity (1 per group)•Participate in cross-cultural teaching & learningexperiences
Collaboration on Teaching Units•Introductory phase (get toknow online partners)•Working groups forbrainstorming & feedback1st draft•Revision following PeerInput & Self Reflection•Implementation
I’ve learnt to observe a lot which I think has enormous advantages.Commenting our units’ draft on and on has been really useful aswell as UIUC peers’ comments and advice. Getting feedback frommany different people has made me read and rewrite my draft somany times and I think this is a good point […] without all thisinsightful feedback, I wouldn’t have realized my first unit draft wastoo ambiguous … Learning to reflect on own teaching practice through telecollaboration
Partnered educational activity•Educational Podcasts & Related Teaching Activities•Introductory phase •Students introduced to new virtual space for interaction (Second Life) with Scavenger Hunt•Podcast Design •Students brainstorm, post preliminary ideas in Second Life •Peers give feedback on preliminary ideas•Podcast Production •UIUC students create podcasts in class •UAB students write pre- during & post-activities. All students view final products and give feedback on them during ‘end of term’ SL party
Student Reflectionso Student Wikis: served as both ongoing collaborative tool and as final output (instead of final report with only audience of teacher)o Reflection on entire process, learning outcomes, new teaching strategies, rationale of teaching paradigm, etc.o Reflection on nexus between school internship activities, methodology courses and internship tutorials.
What impact is Telecollaboration making in European universities? Guth, Helm & O’Dowd (2012): http://intent-project.eu/sites/default/files/Telecollaboration_report_Final.pdf Online surveys from December 2011 - February 2012 in 4 languages Three surveys: Experienced teacher telecollaborators (102 responses) Inexperienced teacher telecollaborators (108 responses) Experienced student telecollaborators (131 responses) Qualitative Case studies: 7 representative examples of telecollaboration around Europe Aims: Identify types of telecollaborative practices undertaken by European university educators Explore the barriers to telecollaboration and the strategies used to overcome these barriers
EXPERIENCED UNIVERSITY PRACTITIONERS GIVE THEIR FEEDBACKON TELECOLLABORATION AND ITS LINK TO PHYSICAL MOBILITY
So why isn’t everyone doing it? In your opinion, what are the reasons why telecollaborative exchange is not more popular in university education? __________________________________ (Mentioned by 49/ 98 practitioners) __________________________________ (Mentioned by 28 / 98 practitioners) __________________________________ (Mentioned by 20/ 98 practitioners) __________________________________ (Mentioned by 19 / 98 practitioners) __________________________________ (Mentioned by 9/ 98 practitioners)
So why isn’t everyone doing it? In your opinion, what are the reasons why telecollaborative exchange is not more popular in university education? Time necessary to set up and run exchanges (Mentioned 49/ 98 practitioners) Difficulties in integration & assessment due to institutional requirements (Mentioned by 28 / 98 practitioners) Lack of pedagogical knowledge about how to run and integrate exchanges (Mentioned by 20/ 98 practitioners) Teachers lack e-literacies/ required technological knowledge (Mentioned by 19 / 98 practitioners) Difficulty in finding appropriate partners (Mentioned by 9/ 98 practitioners)
PRACTITIONERS’ EXPLANATIONS FOR THE SLOWINTEGRATION OF TC IN HEI’S• Because teachers are not trained and insitutions are not aware of the potential and needs and those teachers carrying out innovative teaching practice are not in a position of power and cannot make decisions which impact on their insitution.• First, it is difficult to organize such exchanges at institutional level. Second, the idea sounds interesting, but the teachers involved need to dedicate much time and energy to the exchange, so finally they wont do it. Third, the students motivation wont last long since it is not a credited course.• It is essential to find a partner with similar aims, able to adapt programs to different institutional expectations (amount of homework done by students for example), willing to adapt to technical disturbances (network disturbances, computer crashes), and to some extent lose or share control of class dynamics. The partners must build a program that satifies needs, levels and interests of both classes.
Identifying Strategies for integrating TC into university education• What are practitioners doing to overcome these barriers and to ensure successful, on-going exchanges which involve recognition of teachers and students’ work?• Case studies of practitioners in – Trinity College, Dublin – Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden – The University of Padua, Italy – University of Manchester, UK – Arhus Universitet, Denmark – University of Riga, Latvia – University of Warwick, UK
Learning from the Case Studies Telecollaboration is not only for ‘pure’ language students – Engineering students in Sweden, Business Studies students in Trinity, Dublin Senior Management – view OIE as a positive international activity but are often unwilling to provide adequate staff and technical support OIE can contribute to educators’ academic careers – new academic networks, staff mobility – e.g. Riga & Grenoble / Warwick & Clermont sign ‘Memorandum of Understanding’ No ‘one size fits all’ -Different levels of integration are possible: Claivier at Warwick takes place independently of academic courses SpEakWise at Trinity is integrated into a course but does not carry credit Manchester and Latvia – course marks are based completely on OIE activity
Strategies for Integrating Telecollaboration (1) Signing of written contracts between participating partner classes – provides security to include exchanges in study guides etc. Ensure that students see relevance and value of exchanges – e.g. through providing academic credit for OIE Functioning partnerships gather momentum – try to maintain steady partners Ensure awareness and support of department heads – coordinating staff can be replaced if necessary Prestige and awareness raising through press releases and prize winning (e.g. Trinity award) Ensure internal department collaboration and sharing of good practices (e.g. Padova – tool sharing)
Strategies for Integrating Telecollaboration (2) ‘Loose networks’ of partners are gaining in popularity TransAtlantic Network (Translation students around Europe & technical writing students in USA) Soliya – Connects students from 100 HEI’s in 27 countries in Western-Eastern dialogue Cultura – bilingual bicultural exchanges through comparative task types AUSJAL DUAL IMMERSION PROJECT - 21 Jesuit universities from eight different countries in North and South America Byram’s Intercultural Citizenship project – 25 practitioners looking for partners to carry out a project on intercultural citizenship Advantages: Common themes of interest Not obliged to work with same partner constantly - flexibility Activities, solutions and ideas are shared and developed
Exchanges, ideas, questions andexperiences with other practitioners
Announce your own class / group ofstudents to the community
Get involved• Contact and suggestions welcome: firstname.lastname@example.org – Read our Report on Telecollaboration in Europe: – www.intent-project.eu• Upcoming platform for collaboration and networking: – www.uni-collaboration.eu The INTENT project has been funded with support from the European Commission. The publications related to the project reflect the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.