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Online and blended learning


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Cooperative online and blended learning environments

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Online and blended learning

  1. 1. Cooperative online and blended learning environments The presentation is available via my homepage at: A 75-minutes keynote presentation, 10.03.2011 Helsinki
  2. 2. About me <ul><li>Thought my first online, distance education course in 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>Director of Development and Innovation at NKI Distance Education </li></ul><ul><li>Professor of Online Education </li></ul><ul><li>President of EDEN </li></ul><ul><li>Doctor of Education from the Pennsylvania State University, working for the American Center for the Study of Distance Education </li></ul><ul><li>Has been Adjunct Professor, at the Athabasca University in Canada and professor associado at Universidade Aberta in Portugal </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>20th anniversary in 2011, 8 in secretariat, 11 in EC </li></ul><ul><li>EDEN members fra 400 institutions in 56 countries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1150 individual members in NAP- Network of Academics and Professionals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200 institutional members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finnish members: Aalto Professional Development, HCI Productions OY, University of Helsinki and University of Turku </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conferences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual conference in Helsinki 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research conference Budapest October 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual conference, Dubline Juni 2011 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Clasroom conference, Athens October 2011 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EU-projects </li></ul><ul><li>European Journal of Open, Distance and E-learning </li></ul>
  4. 4. NKI was established as a correspondence school in 1910 <ul><li>One of Europe’s largest providers of online distance education </li></ul><ul><li>More than 130 000 enrolments in online courses since 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>Broad range of subjects from secondary to master level </li></ul><ul><li>About 400 distance education courses online (all in Norwegian) </li></ul><ul><li>About 13 000 online students in about 40 countries </li></ul><ul><li>About 70 % women </li></ul><ul><li>Individual progress plans/individual follow-up </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of potential learning partners </li></ul><ul><li>Global student catalogue with 1650 profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Always room for more students </li></ul><ul><li>Exams at local schools and embassies </li></ul>October 2010
  5. 5. Secondary school courses: Tonje Kvalvik 18 courses completed Vocational courses: Thor Steinsland 24 and Roger Skogberget 27 College courses: Trude Helen Flak 13 and Erma Bratic 14 Celebrating 100 000 online course enrolments in 2008 During the first 20 years, NKI’s online students enrolled in hundred thousand courses and spent many million hours of studying to reach their goals. This was celebrated August 22, 2008 with 5 students as guests of honour.
  6. 6. NKI experiences with blended learning <ul><li>Combined courses </li></ul><ul><li>Mass distribution of video tapes </li></ul><ul><li>Learning centres </li></ul><ul><li>Learning in prisons </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronous technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio conferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conference centres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop conferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital cinemas </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Combined courses <ul><li>Decreasing numbers may come from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Added costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to get enough students in local communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less need because of more social networking in online education </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Mass distribution of video tapes <ul><li>NKI College og Engineering was offered as evening classes in local schools in several Norwegian Towns </li></ul>
  9. 9. Learning Centres Course D Course B Course A Course B Course C Course A Course A No teaching, but support, guidance and cooperation Access to computers and office facilities <ul><ul><li>60 students 12 courses </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10.
  11. 11. Barred from the internet Blended learning in prisons <ul><li>My conclusion is that online education has a potential to improve prison education significantly. First of all, it may increase the range of available courses dramatically. Secondly, it makes it much easier to stay the course in spite of the frequent relocations that are common in prisons. Finally, it may help prisoners continue and complete courses after they are released. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The most interesting pedagogical challenge in our lifetime is to provide online education that combines individual freedom with meaningful cooperation. </li></ul><ul><li>I have struggled with this challenge since I first introduced my Theory of Cooperative Freedom in 1992. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  13. 13. The book’s website: The Theory of Cooperative Freedom is described in my book, which you can download from the Internet. Online Education and Learning Management Systems: Global E-learning in a Scandinavian Perspective .
  14. 14. Some more relevant resources <ul><li>E-viva em Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Transparency in Cooperative Online Education </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative Online Education </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative Freedom and Transparency in Online Education </li></ul><ul><li>Visualizing student profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Transparency for Cooperation </li></ul>
  15. 15. Now… <ul><li>… the web2.0 and PLE services may help the theory suceed… </li></ul><ul><li>The most interesting characteristics of Web 2.0 is the development of social networks that are hugely successful since the users produce, share and refine information of mutual interest and benefit for all the community members . </li></ul>
  16. 16. Partners Audio Journalism: Berghs School of Communication (Sweeden) Video Journalism: UPDATE – Danish School of Media and Journalism Text Journalism: NKI Distance Education (Norway) Project is funded by Norgesuniversitetet (Norway)
  17. 18. Six Dimensions of Freedom It is difficult to combine individual flexibility and cooperation What about blended learning?
  18. 19. Six Dimensions of Flexibility Challenge: How to provide individual flexibility and a community for learning?
  19. 20. Asynchronous communication offers much individual flexibility in time <ul><li>Much flexibility: </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul><ul><li>Forum </li></ul><ul><li>Little flexibility: </li></ul><ul><li>Chat </li></ul><ul><li>Video conferences </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone conferences </li></ul><ul><li>Face-to-face classes </li></ul>Synchronous communication makes students dependent on each other
  20. 21. One may say that: <ul><li>Individual learning is conducted alone </li></ul>Collaborative learning depends on groups Cooperative learning takes place in networks
  21. 22. NKI provides cooperative online education What about blended learning?
  22. 23. <ul><li>NKI’s Philosophy on Online Learning </li></ul><ul><li>NKI facilitates individual freedom within a learning community in which online students serve as mutual resources without being dependent on each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Features and Tools Supporting NKI’s Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Students may start whenever they like Tool for individual progress plans Automatic tracking of turnaround time </li></ul><ul><li>Learning partners Global student catalogue </li></ul>Cooperative learning is based on voluntary participation in a learning community
  23. 24. NKI Innovations in Online Education <ul><li>1986: First LMS </li></ul><ul><li>1987: First online distance education course </li></ul><ul><li>1996: First web-based courses </li></ul><ul><li>1998: First online journal for students (Nettskoleavisen) </li></ul><ul><li>2002: First m-learning courses </li></ul><ul><li>2003: Speech synthesis in all courses </li></ul><ul><li>2004: Individual planning system </li></ul><ul><li>2004: Continuous tracking of turn around time </li></ul><ul><li>2006: Learning partner system </li></ul><ul><li>2008: Global student profiles </li></ul><ul><li>2009: Individual progress reports </li></ul>Rosing Competency Award 2003 Baldic Award 2006 Tisip E-learning Award 2007
  24. 25. Continuous tracking of turn around time <ul><li>Introduced in May 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Resulted in much discussion in the teachers’ online forum </li></ul><ul><li>A few teachers voiced strong criticism, doubts and reservations </li></ul>The average response time dropped month by month during the Fall of 2004. In October it showed 3.97 days, in November 3.06 days and in December 2.76 days. Since then, the average response time has been less than 3 days except during summer holidays. In 2008 we introduced an automatic e-mail reminder to the tutors who had one ore more assignments waiting for 7 days or more.
  25. 26. NKI’s quality goal: 90 % of students positive or neutrale My results last quarter/year: 93/84 %. Average teacher results last quarter/year: 86/89 % <ul><li>A nonymous evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic e-mail reminders if quality should be noticed </li></ul>Quality Barometer - coming 2011 22
  26. 27. NKI students have individual progress plans UA students have collective progress plans Copyright Atle Løkken What about blended learning?
  27. 28. NKI introduced the individual planning system in 2004 assignments that are completed assignments that are delayed according to the plan assignments that are planned
  28. 29.
  29. 30. In January 2009 we started to e-mail individual monthly progress reports to all students <ul><li>Includes personal: </li></ul><ul><li>Contact information </li></ul><ul><li>LMS settings </li></ul><ul><li>Progress report </li></ul><ul><li>Planed progress </li></ul>
  30. 31. Lists with information about next submission number and planned submission date makes cooperation easier
  31. 32. Boldic Award 2006 NKI’s Learning Partners <ul><li>Innovative service for voluntary cooperation between students in a large online learning community </li></ul><ul><li>International award for the Baltic and Nordic countries. </li></ul><ul><li>The jury stated that NKI’s Learning Partner Service: &quot;Furthers and develops the Nordic tradition in ODL. The learning partner concept adds a new, innovative dimension of student support to flexible distance education.“ </li></ul><ul><li>Learning partner - opportunities for cooperation in distance learning </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  32. 33. There is an online demo explaining in Norwegian how students may find learning partners <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Make your personal presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Decide who may access it </li></ul><ul><li>Search for potential learning partners </li></ul><ul><li>Invite somebody to become your learning partner </li></ul>
  33. 34. Anders S., student at the NKI School of Project Management: <ul><li>I have three learning partners, whom I chose because the y were about at the same stage in the course as I was. Luckily enough, one of my learning partners also lives not far from me. The communication vary, in general I communicate with at least 2 of my LPs each week. </li></ul><ul><li>I wish to increase my competence by seeing the subject matter content from different angles, and get healthy and inspiring discussions about the assignments. I feel like I have got some new friends, and a possibility to both learn and help others. I feel that I have benefited from the cooperation, I would very much like to recommend the Learning partner service to other online students. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Presentations May 2009 <ul><li>All 10102 users of NKI’s LMS have personal presentations which automatically list relevant information about them and their courses as shown below. </li></ul>5299 of them have added some personal information, typically a photo and a description of previous education, work experience and personal interests as shown below.
  35. 36. Presentations May 2009 The default values are: Limited visibility and Don’t want LP Visibility Want LP Don’t want LP Sum Percent Closed 141 913 1054 10 Limited 2096 3469 5565 55 Open 745 1580 2325 23 Global 670 488 1158 12 Sum 3652 6450 10102 100 Percent 36 64 100  
  36. 37. Google translation of the Global Catalogue at
  37. 38. <ul><li>350 Senior students </li></ul><ul><li>70 Fellow students </li></ul><ul><li>55 Senior Fellow students courses </li></ul><ul><li>Kurt Karlsen completed 56 courses from 1995 to 2005 </li></ul>
  38. 39. NKI has 1600 global student presentations
  39. 40. The presentations show that online courses support individual needs and challenges <ul><li>Man, 42 years: I chose online learning since I need flexibility to study . At the moment I work 50/50 in Norway and India, and it would be impossible for me to study without NKI’s flexibility. Online education makes it possible for me to study independent of time zones, geography and daily tasks . </li></ul><ul><li>52 of the 100 global students mention that they have children. 5 of them write that they are less than 23 years old and have children. </li></ul><ul><li>Woman, 18 years : I’m 18 years old…. I used to go to … secondary school, but when I got pregnant, I found that it would be easier to finish school via online courses and not take the baby with me to school. </li></ul><ul><li>10 of the 100 presentations disclose particular learning challenges. </li></ul><ul><li>Woman 23: I have dyslexia … </li></ul><ul><li>Woman, 38: I received the diagnosis Multiple Sclerosis two years ago, and to quit a busy job. With online courses, I can organize my days so that I have energy for my family, friends and physical exercises. </li></ul><ul><li>NKI has many gifted immigrants who study online to get Norwegian certificates and competencies. </li></ul>
  40. 41. How to manage 28 self-paced courses, three kids and a job in the North Sea Thor Steinsland presented his experiences at the EDEN Research Workshop in Paris, October 2008
  41. 42. There are NKI students who understand Norwegian in about 40 countries Translated by Google from
  42. 43. Presented with permission from I now try to get a diploma showing that I can write. Have worked as a TV journalist … but now the Fibromyalgia pains restrains me so much that I have to work from bed in the future.
  43. 44. Translated by Google from I was accepted as a psychology student at the university, but had no interpreter, so I chose to study online to combine family life and education. I need a sign language interpreter to follow traditional lectures, since I am deaf. So it is ideal with NKI, since I do not need an interpreter.
  44. 45. Why the presentations are important to NKI <ul><li>Better service since we see the human behind the e-mail addresses and student IDs </li></ul><ul><li>More cooperation since students know more about each others </li></ul><ul><li>Improved information to prospective students </li></ul>
  45. 46. Global teacher presentations <ul><li>Courses thought are automatically listed </li></ul><ul><li>Many teachers provide advice to students in their presentations </li></ul><ul><li>The advice is valuable also for prospective students </li></ul>
  46. 47. Transparency or privacy ?
  47. 48.
  48. 49. Risks!!! <ul><li>Inappropriate content </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright issues </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism from dissatisfied students </li></ul><ul><li>Students who expose too much personal information </li></ul><ul><li>NKI handles these issues by asking readers to report inappropriate content to an e-mail address. </li></ul><ul><li>So far, we have not received any reports or complaints . </li></ul>
  49. 50. Transparency improves quality
  50. 51. Transparency promotes cooperation Dalsgaard, C. and Paulsen, M.F. (2009) Transparency in Cooperative Online Education. IRRODL, Vol 10, No 3.
  51. 52. <ul><li>I demonstrated what I mean by cooperative freedom, and transparency through an online master course at Universidade Aberta in Portugal </li></ul>Some of the MPEL-students at Futuralia Read about my experiences at:
  52. 53. Processos Pedagógicos em Elearning The Course had 4 Study Units <ul><li>The Theory of Cooperative Freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Online Teaching Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Transparency in Online Education </li></ul><ul><li>Final report, reflection and refinement </li></ul>
  53. 54. Each Study Unit had 4 Week-long Activities <ul><li>Find, study and share materials related to the theme and organizing it together with ideas and thoughts in an annotated bibliography in your blog </li></ul><ul><li>Produce a learning object related to the theme, publish it somewhere </li></ul><ul><li>Write reviews in the forum on one annotated bibliography and one learning object published by colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>Take part in a structured discussion on issues related to the theme </li></ul>
  54. 55. The students’ course work and personal learning environments are available via
  55. 56. Activity 2: Examples of Learning Objects my students published in various web2.0 services!/group.php?gid=206533992596
  56. 57.
  57. 58. :   Cooperative Freedom in Learning   by elearninghoje
  58. 59. Activity 4: Structured discussion <ul><li>One-Question-Interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terry Anderson: About Cooperative Freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stephen Downes: Collaboration vs Cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Debate: Transparency vs Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Debate: self-paced versus group-paced progression </li></ul><ul><li>Roleplay on workload </li></ul>
  59. 60. Mónica’s final report: Sónia’s final report:
  60. 61. Summary of experiences from Universidade Aberta <ul><li>The students publish their work in blogs (Blogspot, Wordpress etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>They share it in Moodle, Facebook and Diigo </li></ul><ul><li>They make learning objects in Toonlet, Glogster, Slideshare, Youtube, Issuu, Voicetread etc. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s much work to overview this distributed learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>The “entire world” can see our work and give us feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Many tutors and students may not be comfortable with this extreme openness. </li></ul>
  61. 62. Kiitos I care, so I share: