Restoring Degraded Land after Oil, Gas and Mining Operation

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Presentation Yadi Setiadi on restoration activities on former oil, gas or mining areas.

Presentation Yadi Setiadi on restoration activities on former oil, gas or mining areas.

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  • 1. Restoring Degraded Land After Oil/Gas and Mining Operation Dr. Yadi Setiadi Faculty of Forestry Bogor Agricultural University Campus IPB, Capus IPB Darmaga, Bogor. INDONESIA, hp 08111102302
  • 2. The Function of Tropical Rain Forest § Major habitat for flora and fauna § Reservoir for gene pools § Conserve for soil, water, nutrients § Maintain biodiversity § Resources for economical development § Maintaining the balance of local and global climatic conditions § Water cycle
  • 3. Factors for forest destruction § Poor Logging Operation § Illegal Logging § Forest Fire § Agriculture Development § Timber Plantation § Estate Crops Plantation § Shifting Cultivation § Transmigration § Mining Operation § Oil and Gas operation
  • 4. Potential Resources Under Forest • Nickel • Gold and Cupper • Coal • Tin • Oil • Others
  • 5. Impact on the Forest Ecosystem § Breaking forest canopy : reduced forest, disturbed wildlife habitat § Fragmented forest : cut off migration routes of dispersed seed arboreal mamals § Exposed areas : increase run off and soil erosion, and sedimentation § Open access : enhance deforestation,invasion occupancy of indigenous land
  • 6. Degraded land after oil and mining operation § Exposed ( lost crown and root function) § No vegetation (Lost of biodiversity) § No top-sub soil (lost of land capability ) § Erodable ( lost of land stability) § Marginal (lost option for development)
  • 7. Impact of mining operation § Eliminate some part of vegetation; § Destroy some of the original ecosystem § Increase the rate of soil erosion and run-off (sedimentation, contamination) § Reduce of native species biodiversity § Damage to wildlife habitat and § Degradation of watershed area § Change natural landscape
  • 8. Benefit of Restoration } Re-establishment of potential native species } Protecting from erosion and surface run-off } Improving wildlife habitat } Improving native species biodiversity } Improving soil productivity, and stability } Improving environmental conditions and aesthetically pleasing } Producing refuges for native species and genetic resources that might be lost
  • 9. Government regulation for rehabilitation and reclamation § KEPMenHut, no:43/2008. Guide line for forest lend used § PP, no :76/2008. Rehabilitation and Forest reclamation § KepMenHut, no 146/1999. Guideline for Reclamation } NO change the structure and function of forest } Conduct reclamation and reforestation for impacted land } Minimize forest destruction (foot print) } Protect the forest from illegal logging, and land occupancy § AMDAL (EIA) } Conduct mitigation measures, for significant impacts } Pre planning, management monitoring
  • 10. Soil problems Soil Physical Properties } Soil texture (grain size distribution) } Porosity (aeration) } Depth to hard-pand or impervious layer } Soil Compaction (water-log, root inhibition) } Soil moisture content, surface temperature Soil Biology } Vegetation cover and carbon content } Microbial population and activities Soil Chemical } Poor of soil nutrients } Soil reaction (pH) } Low of cation exchange capacity (CEC) } Mineral toxicity
  • 11. SITES CHARACTERISTICS Characteristics Block-1 Block-2 Bolock-3 Block-4 Materials Mixed of sub- Peat layer, cov. with Ultramafic rock Ultramafic rock surface soil leached grayish mineral soil layer Nutrient Status N,P,K,Ca N, P, K, Ca, Mg N, K, Ca (low); P N, P, K, Ca, Mg (deficient); Fe, Cu, (low); Fe, Cu, Zn, (low-very high); Mg (low); Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn (low); C- Mn (sufficient); C- (high); Mg>Ca (3- Zn, Mn (suff.); Org (very low) organic (low) 5); Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn C-org. (low) (suff.) Soil reaction 4.7-5.7 (strongly 4.6-5.2 (strongly 3.4-4.7 (extremely 4.6-4.9 (pH) acidic) acidic) acidic) (strongly acidic) Al saturation 34% 72% (very high) 19.4% (low) 74% (very high) (moderate) CEC 5-12 (low) 19-28 (medium) 30 (high) 5-17 (low) Texture Organic+Soil Loam-Silty Clay Fine Clay Fraction Loam HC 0.23 cm/hr (very 2.34 – 8.09 cm/hr 0.62 cm/hr (low) low low) (fast) BD 0.43-0.97 gr/cc 0.97 gr/cc 1.12 gr/cc 1.45 gr/cc (high) (low) (moderate) (moderate) Compacted, poor Drainage Poor drainage and Poor drainage, Moderate aeration, water- aeration aeration, water-log drainage log
  • 12. Soil amendment § Top soil, Fertilizer, § Compost active, lime, § Mycorrhizae § Humic acid, Bio-enzim, § Improve root development § Solubilize fixed mineral (phosphate) § Increase cation exchange capacity § Increase water-holding-capacity § Chelating heavy metal § Improve nutrient uptake § Improve potential microbes § Provide macro-nutrients
  • 13. Restoration Objectives § Protection • Stabilize land • Cover the exposed land • Reduce the erosion and surface run-off § Conservation • Stimulate native plant species (biodiversity) • Conserve potential native species • Improved wild life habitat § Production • Improved soil fertility (long term) • Produce non woody products • Benefit for local people
  • 14. Restoration Activities § Native potential trees selection § Planting stock production § Site preparation § Soil amendments § Planting techniques § Maintenance § Monitoring § Training § Management commitment
  • 15. Species selection 1. Select adapted local species 2. Relatively fast growing 3. Light demanding and low nutrient demand 4. Produce abundance litter and its litter decomposed 5. The species can perform or function as “catalytic” 6. Easy to propagate and to culture 7. Low cost for planting and maintenance 8. Easy to manage
  • 16. Oil operation
  • 17. Heavily degraded site
  • 18. Abandoned Well
  • 19. Tree growth performance 13 Mo
  • 20. Wild life habitat Improvement
  • 21. Sandy tailing-1
  • 22. Coal overburden
  • 23. Post Nickel Mining
  • 24. Rehabilitation post nickel mine site
  • 25. Criteria for sustained restored degraded land 1. The rate of seedling survival is high 2. Plant growth performance normal and continuous 3. Root extension can pass on the original soil 4. Crown closure is fast, stratified and diverse 5. The system produce abundance litter and decomposed 6. The system diverse and naturally regenerate native species re-colonization 7. The system create habitat suitable for different wild- life 8. Land-form (safe, stabile and limited erosion) Setiadi (2006)
  • 26. Success criteria § Adaptability } Survival >80% } Growth performance (progressive) } Root development (across mine land) § Sustainability } Biodiversity (shannon, Spec richness) } Natural colonization (abundance) } Nutrient retention (decomposed litter) } Wild life status (spec richness) § Stand structure } Plant density (800-1000/ha) } Crown structure (3-5 layer) } Crown coverage (60-70%) } Spec composition (Pioneer (40 %),Primer (50%), Wildlife (10%) § Land Form } Slope (leveling <30o) } Erosion status (below threshold level) } Land stabilization (controlled) Setiadi (2006)
  • 27. 1. Species used No exotic species, preferable using native species Identified no pest and endemic diseases Planting stock (seeds) easily to provide 2. Seed sources Healthy seed (no carried pathogen) Purity (no mixed with a weeds) High germination value 3.Chemical fertilizer used Ensure the original product Used based on optimum recommended dosage Apply following standard recommendation No contained heavy metals 4.Organic fertilizer No contained pathogen No contained seed of weed Ensure the quality ( low C/N ratio) No toxic materials 5.Soil amendment materials No contained exotic microbes Apply following the standard recommendation 6.Site preparation Minimize using herbicide for weeds control Conserve soil condition and prevent soil erosion 7.Planting methods Conducted on the right time Suitable with specific site conditions 8.Maintaining Minimize using pesticide and herbicide Quick response when plants sowing deficiency or abnormality 9.Monitoring Assess the growth performance regularly Made improvement for unsuccessful performance 10.Safety Follow the standard procedure
  • 28. Lesson Learned • Degraded land can be recovered • Avaiable information of frame work sepcies for restoring degraded land • Avaiable information for soil amendment • Avaiable information for revegetation model • Avaiable information for monitoring tool and succsesfull criteria • Guide line for restoring degraded post mine land
  • 29. The challenge • The action limited on site level • Focus on ecosystem recovery • Limited involving stakholder • No social and economical consederation § Challenge to link from site level to landcape level § Promote the FLR as alternative post mining land use
  • 30. THANK YOU and LETS KEEPS OUR PLANET GREEN good for planet, good for us