Restoring Degraded Land
After Oil/Gas and Mining Operation




          Dr. Yadi Setiadi
            Faculty of Forestry
...
The Function of Tropical Rain Forest

                   §   Major habitat for flora and
                       fauna
    ...
Factors for forest destruction

              §   Poor Logging Operation
              §   Illegal Logging
              §...
Potential Resources Under Forest




                    • Nickel
                    • Gold and Cupper
                  ...
Impact on the Forest Ecosystem


§ Breaking forest canopy : reduced forest,
  disturbed wildlife habitat
§ Fragmented fore...
Degraded land after oil and mining operation




                   §   Exposed ( lost crown and root function)
          ...
Impact of mining operation
§ Eliminate some part of
  vegetation;
§ Destroy some of the original
  ecosystem
§ Increase th...
Benefit of Restoration

}   Re-establishment of potential native species
}   Protecting from erosion and surface run-off
}...
Government regulation for rehabilitation and reclamation



 §   KEPMenHut, no:43/2008. Guide line for forest lend used
 §...
Soil problems
   Soil Physical Properties
    }    Soil texture (grain size distribution)
    }    Porosity (aeration)
   ...
SITES CHARACTERISTICS
Characteristics        Block-1                Block-2                Bolock-3             Block-4
Ma...
Soil amendment
    §   Top soil, Fertilizer,
    §   Compost active, lime,
    §   Mycorrhizae
    §   Humic acid, Bio-enz...
Restoration Objectives

§ Protection
    • Stabilize land
    • Cover the exposed land
    • Reduce the erosion and surfac...
Restoration Activities

§   Native potential trees selection
§   Planting stock production
§   Site preparation
§   Soil a...
Species selection


1.   Select adapted local
     species
2.   Relatively fast growing
3.   Light demanding and low
     ...
Oil operation
Heavily degraded site
Abandoned Well
Tree growth performance 13 Mo
Wild life habitat Improvement
Sandy tailing-1
Coal overburden
Post Nickel Mining
Rehabilitation post nickel mine site
Criteria for sustained restored degraded land


1.       The rate of seedling survival is high
2.       Plant growth perfo...
Success criteria
§ Adaptability
   } Survival                 >80%
   } Growth performance       (progressive)
   } Root d...
1. Species used
      No exotic species, preferable using native species
          Identified no pest and endemic diseases...
Lesson Learned

• Degraded land can be recovered
• Avaiable information of frame work sepcies for
  restoring degraded lan...
The challenge

         • The action limited on site level
         • Focus on ecosystem recovery
         • Limited invol...
THANK YOU
 and
LETS KEEPS OUR PLANET
GREEN

good for planet, good for us
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Restoring Degraded Land after Oil, Gas and Mining Operation

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Presentation Yadi Setiadi on restoration activities on former oil, gas or mining areas.

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Restoring Degraded Land after Oil, Gas and Mining Operation

  1. 1. Restoring Degraded Land After Oil/Gas and Mining Operation Dr. Yadi Setiadi Faculty of Forestry Bogor Agricultural University Campus IPB, Capus IPB Darmaga, Bogor. INDONESIA ysetiad55@gmail.com, hp 08111102302
  2. 2. The Function of Tropical Rain Forest § Major habitat for flora and fauna § Reservoir for gene pools § Conserve for soil, water, nutrients § Maintain biodiversity § Resources for economical development § Maintaining the balance of local and global climatic conditions § Water cycle
  3. 3. Factors for forest destruction § Poor Logging Operation § Illegal Logging § Forest Fire § Agriculture Development § Timber Plantation § Estate Crops Plantation § Shifting Cultivation § Transmigration § Mining Operation § Oil and Gas operation
  4. 4. Potential Resources Under Forest • Nickel • Gold and Cupper • Coal • Tin • Oil • Others
  5. 5. Impact on the Forest Ecosystem § Breaking forest canopy : reduced forest, disturbed wildlife habitat § Fragmented forest : cut off migration routes of dispersed seed arboreal mamals § Exposed areas : increase run off and soil erosion, and sedimentation § Open access : enhance deforestation,invasion occupancy of indigenous land
  6. 6. Degraded land after oil and mining operation § Exposed ( lost crown and root function) § No vegetation (Lost of biodiversity) § No top-sub soil (lost of land capability ) § Erodable ( lost of land stability) § Marginal (lost option for development)
  7. 7. Impact of mining operation § Eliminate some part of vegetation; § Destroy some of the original ecosystem § Increase the rate of soil erosion and run-off (sedimentation, contamination) § Reduce of native species biodiversity § Damage to wildlife habitat and § Degradation of watershed area § Change natural landscape
  8. 8. Benefit of Restoration } Re-establishment of potential native species } Protecting from erosion and surface run-off } Improving wildlife habitat } Improving native species biodiversity } Improving soil productivity, and stability } Improving environmental conditions and aesthetically pleasing } Producing refuges for native species and genetic resources that might be lost
  9. 9. Government regulation for rehabilitation and reclamation § KEPMenHut, no:43/2008. Guide line for forest lend used § PP, no :76/2008. Rehabilitation and Forest reclamation § KepMenHut, no 146/1999. Guideline for Reclamation } NO change the structure and function of forest } Conduct reclamation and reforestation for impacted land } Minimize forest destruction (foot print) } Protect the forest from illegal logging, and land occupancy § AMDAL (EIA) } Conduct mitigation measures, for significant impacts } Pre planning, management monitoring
  10. 10. Soil problems Soil Physical Properties } Soil texture (grain size distribution) } Porosity (aeration) } Depth to hard-pand or impervious layer } Soil Compaction (water-log, root inhibition) } Soil moisture content, surface temperature Soil Biology } Vegetation cover and carbon content } Microbial population and activities Soil Chemical } Poor of soil nutrients } Soil reaction (pH) } Low of cation exchange capacity (CEC) } Mineral toxicity
  11. 11. SITES CHARACTERISTICS Characteristics Block-1 Block-2 Bolock-3 Block-4 Materials Mixed of sub- Peat layer, cov. with Ultramafic rock Ultramafic rock surface soil leached grayish mineral soil layer Nutrient Status N,P,K,Ca N, P, K, Ca, Mg N, K, Ca (low); P N, P, K, Ca, Mg (deficient); Fe, Cu, (low); Fe, Cu, Zn, (low-very high); Mg (low); Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn (low); C- Mn (sufficient); C- (high); Mg>Ca (3- Zn, Mn (suff.); Org (very low) organic (low) 5); Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn C-org. (low) (suff.) Soil reaction 4.7-5.7 (strongly 4.6-5.2 (strongly 3.4-4.7 (extremely 4.6-4.9 (pH) acidic) acidic) acidic) (strongly acidic) Al saturation 34% 72% (very high) 19.4% (low) 74% (very high) (moderate) CEC 5-12 (low) 19-28 (medium) 30 (high) 5-17 (low) Texture Organic+Soil Loam-Silty Clay Fine Clay Fraction Loam HC 0.23 cm/hr (very 2.34 – 8.09 cm/hr 0.62 cm/hr (low) low low) (fast) BD 0.43-0.97 gr/cc 0.97 gr/cc 1.12 gr/cc 1.45 gr/cc (high) (low) (moderate) (moderate) Compacted, poor Drainage Poor drainage and Poor drainage, Moderate aeration, water- aeration aeration, water-log drainage log
  12. 12. Soil amendment § Top soil, Fertilizer, § Compost active, lime, § Mycorrhizae § Humic acid, Bio-enzim, § Improve root development § Solubilize fixed mineral (phosphate) § Increase cation exchange capacity § Increase water-holding-capacity § Chelating heavy metal § Improve nutrient uptake § Improve potential microbes § Provide macro-nutrients
  13. 13. Restoration Objectives § Protection • Stabilize land • Cover the exposed land • Reduce the erosion and surface run-off § Conservation • Stimulate native plant species (biodiversity) • Conserve potential native species • Improved wild life habitat § Production • Improved soil fertility (long term) • Produce non woody products • Benefit for local people
  14. 14. Restoration Activities § Native potential trees selection § Planting stock production § Site preparation § Soil amendments § Planting techniques § Maintenance § Monitoring § Training § Management commitment
  15. 15. Species selection 1. Select adapted local species 2. Relatively fast growing 3. Light demanding and low nutrient demand 4. Produce abundance litter and its litter decomposed 5. The species can perform or function as “catalytic” 6. Easy to propagate and to culture 7. Low cost for planting and maintenance 8. Easy to manage
  16. 16. Oil operation
  17. 17. Heavily degraded site
  18. 18. Abandoned Well
  19. 19. Tree growth performance 13 Mo
  20. 20. Wild life habitat Improvement
  21. 21. Sandy tailing-1
  22. 22. Coal overburden
  23. 23. Post Nickel Mining
  24. 24. Rehabilitation post nickel mine site
  25. 25. Criteria for sustained restored degraded land 1. The rate of seedling survival is high 2. Plant growth performance normal and continuous 3. Root extension can pass on the original soil 4. Crown closure is fast, stratified and diverse 5. The system produce abundance litter and decomposed 6. The system diverse and naturally regenerate native species re-colonization 7. The system create habitat suitable for different wild- life 8. Land-form (safe, stabile and limited erosion) Setiadi (2006)
  26. 26. Success criteria § Adaptability } Survival >80% } Growth performance (progressive) } Root development (across mine land) § Sustainability } Biodiversity (shannon, Spec richness) } Natural colonization (abundance) } Nutrient retention (decomposed litter) } Wild life status (spec richness) § Stand structure } Plant density (800-1000/ha) } Crown structure (3-5 layer) } Crown coverage (60-70%) } Spec composition (Pioneer (40 %),Primer (50%), Wildlife (10%) § Land Form } Slope (leveling <30o) } Erosion status (below threshold level) } Land stabilization (controlled) Setiadi (2006)
  27. 27. 1. Species used No exotic species, preferable using native species Identified no pest and endemic diseases Planting stock (seeds) easily to provide 2. Seed sources Healthy seed (no carried pathogen) Purity (no mixed with a weeds) High germination value 3.Chemical fertilizer used Ensure the original product Used based on optimum recommended dosage Apply following standard recommendation No contained heavy metals 4.Organic fertilizer No contained pathogen No contained seed of weed Ensure the quality ( low C/N ratio) No toxic materials 5.Soil amendment materials No contained exotic microbes Apply following the standard recommendation 6.Site preparation Minimize using herbicide for weeds control Conserve soil condition and prevent soil erosion 7.Planting methods Conducted on the right time Suitable with specific site conditions 8.Maintaining Minimize using pesticide and herbicide Quick response when plants sowing deficiency or abnormality 9.Monitoring Assess the growth performance regularly Made improvement for unsuccessful performance 10.Safety Follow the standard procedure
  28. 28. Lesson Learned • Degraded land can be recovered • Avaiable information of frame work sepcies for restoring degraded land • Avaiable information for soil amendment • Avaiable information for revegetation model • Avaiable information for monitoring tool and succsesfull criteria • Guide line for restoring degraded post mine land
  29. 29. The challenge • The action limited on site level • Focus on ecosystem recovery • Limited involving stakholder • No social and economical consederation § Challenge to link from site level to landcape level § Promote the FLR as alternative post mining land use
  30. 30. THANK YOU and LETS KEEPS OUR PLANET GREEN good for planet, good for us

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