Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Increasing resilience when undertaking restoration          David Lamb   University of Queensland           Australia     ...
Several approaches to reforesting             degraded landsMonoculture plantations                                       ...
Each has disadvantages• Monocultures  – Supplies limited only range of goods and services  – Vulnerable to pests, diseases...
Third approach• Use some but not all original  species• Perhaps include exotics                                Monoculture...
Building resilience• Definition of resilience  – Capacity to tolerate/adapt to disturbances and  – remain in same state wi...
Some attributes of resilient        systems: they have1. Diversity2. Modularity (connectedness)3. Tight feedbacks4. Openne...
In the case of restorationresilience has four components    • Ecological resilience    • Economic resilience    • Social r...
1. Ecological componentIn Theory•   Use more species                                                                Monocu...
2. Economic componentIn Theory• Use >1 species providing multiple goods• Look for multiple markets   – goods and services ...
3. Social componentsIn Theory• Increase capacity to adapt to change by  encouraging  – learning networks  – marketing netw...
4. Institutional componentsIn Theory• Devolve authority – encourage local decision-making• Avoid simple top-down prescript...
In short, resilience requires• Multiple species (site and/or landscape)• Avoiding reliance on single product or services  ...
Case Study 1: Storm damage, China• Severe ice storm (Hunan, latitude 27S)• Anecdotal evidence that exotics and  monocultur...
Case Study 2: Minesites, Australia• Post mining rehabilitation originally done with exotic  monocultures but unstable• Now...
Importance of Context• Production areas   – Close to markets   – Distant from markets   – Smallholder or Corporate• Protec...
Raises important questions1.    How to predict the ecological and economic risks at particular locations?         how seve...
17
1. How to predict the ecological and    economic risks at particular             locations? • how severe might they be? • ...
2. What is an appropriate balancebetween increasing resilience and    increasing productivity?• How many and what type of ...
3. Are there trade-offs betweenecological and economic or social            resilience?• Which species (for markets? For  ...
4. How much (and what type of)     resilience is needed• what are the key stressors?• how to build social capital?• what a...
One approach –           Ecological Restoration• Ecological restoration      • Re-establish native species      • Seek to ...
A second approach -          Mono-cultural plantingsUse single speciesthat is:• Productive• Commercially valuable• Has rea...
Advantages and DisadvantagesADVANTAGES• Can be financially profitable• Hence attractive to landholders   – Widely implemen...
Difficult to restore degraded lands• Ecological problems  – Finding species able to tolerate changed conditions  – Working...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Increasing resilience when undertaking restoration

927 views

Published on

Presentation by David Lamb on increasing resilience when undertaking restoration. This was presented at the SER Conference Mexico, August 2011

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Increasing resilience when undertaking restoration

  1. 1. Increasing resilience when undertaking restoration David Lamb University of Queensland Australia 1
  2. 2. Several approaches to reforesting degraded landsMonoculture plantations Ecological RestorationUse well-known species Natural regeneration or plantingSimple to establish and manage Restores biodiversity includingVery productive rare and threatened speciesHence commercially attractive Monoculture Ecological Restoration Biomass or Structure plantation Degraded state Biological Diversity 19 2
  3. 3. Each has disadvantages• Monocultures – Supplies limited only range of goods and services – Vulnerable to pests, diseases and market changes• Ecological Restoration – Not always ecologically possible – Expensive if planted – Fewer financial benefits (to landholder) so less attractive 3
  4. 4. Third approach• Use some but not all original species• Perhaps include exotics Monoculture ‘Rehabilitation’ Ecological Restoration Biomass or Structure plantation• Provide financial plus some functional and conservation benefits• BUT – – What are design rules? – Will they be attractive to Degraded state landholders? – How resilient will these Biological Diversity 16 ecosystems be? 4
  5. 5. Building resilience• Definition of resilience – Capacity to tolerate/adapt to disturbances and – remain in same state with same structure, functioning and feedback mechanisms• Avoids a search for – (i) optimal productivity or – (ii) some unattainable former state• But how to achieve this? 5
  6. 6. Some attributes of resilient systems: they have1. Diversity2. Modularity (connectedness)3. Tight feedbacks4. Openness (inflows and outflows)5. Reserves (e.g. seedbanks, social memories)6. Overlapping institutions (polycentric governance)7. Are adaptively managed 6
  7. 7. In the case of restorationresilience has four components • Ecological resilience • Economic resilience • Social resilience • Institutional resilience 7
  8. 8. 1. Ecological componentIn Theory• Use more species Monoculture ‘Rehabilitation’ Ecological Restoration Biomass or Structure plantation• Use diversity of functional types• Work at local and landscape scales• Protect residual forests (seed sources, etc.) Degraded state Biological Diversity 16But in Practice• How many species to get more resilience?• What types of species (longevity, shade tolerance, fire tolerance, N-fixing?)• Are landscape patterns more important than what happens at a particular site? 8
  9. 9. 2. Economic componentIn Theory• Use >1 species providing multiple goods• Look for multiple markets – goods and services – Local, national and international• Supportive local and national institutions (e.g. finances, market access, market knowledge)But in practice• What are these species?• How to foster new markets if not already present?• How to trade off diversity vs production?• Uncertain land tenure? 9
  10. 10. 3. Social componentsIn Theory• Increase capacity to adapt to change by encouraging – learning networks – marketing networksBut in Practice• Many landholders lack capacity for adaption – don’t have formal land tenure – are unaware of technology – are unaware of markets• There are limited social memories about restoration 10
  11. 11. 4. Institutional componentsIn Theory• Devolve authority – encourage local decision-making• Avoid simple top-down prescriptions – foster experimentation by landholders - more technical self- sufficiency (generates social ‘memory”)• Develop means of monitoring changes – seek feedback• Practice adaptive management• Financial and legal supportBut in Practice• Government policies and institutions are often not supportive• Prefer top-down control• Conflicts between different levels of government• Laws un-enforced• Often limited institutional memories about restoration• Limited financial support 11
  12. 12. In short, resilience requires• Multiple species (site and/or landscape)• Avoiding reliance on single product or services (e.g. just timber)• Avoiding dependence on single market• Social networks and organisation – learning (silviculture, markets) – marketing• Monitoring to promote – innovation – adaptive management• Improving access to financial support in times of stress 12
  13. 13. Case Study 1: Storm damage, China• Severe ice storm (Hunan, latitude 27S)• Anecdotal evidence that exotics and monocultures more affectedDamaged areas – lose tops or Now planting mixed-species forestswhole trees 13
  14. 14. Case Study 2: Minesites, Australia• Post mining rehabilitation originally done with exotic monocultures but unstable• Now use multi-species plantings of natives 14
  15. 15. Importance of Context• Production areas – Close to markets – Distant from markets – Smallholder or Corporate• Protection areas• Extent of degradation – severe – less-severe• Short term risks vs long term risks 15
  16. 16. Raises important questions1. How to predict the ecological and economic risks at particular locations? how severe might they be? how long might they take to appear?2. What is an appropriate balance between increasing resilience and increasing productivity? how many and which species? how far are they compatible and when do they diverge? Scale - sites vs landscapes3. Are there trade-offs between ecological and economic or social resilience? are win-win solutions possible? building social capital?4. Hence, how much (and what type of) resilience needed? what are the key stressors? what are they necessary institutional arrangements? 16
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. 1. How to predict the ecological and economic risks at particular locations? • how severe might they be? • how long might they take to appear? Land use history? Ecological trends? Institutional framework? 18
  19. 19. 2. What is an appropriate balancebetween increasing resilience and increasing productivity?• How many and what type of species?• does context matter? (‘close to’ or ‘distant from’ markets?)• how far do they go together and when do they diverge?• Sites vs landscape scales 19
  20. 20. 3. Are there trade-offs betweenecological and economic or social resilience?• Which species (for markets? For ecological functioning?)• are win-win solutions possible?• Nurturing markets as well as ecosystems? 20
  21. 21. 4. How much (and what type of) resilience is needed• what are the key stressors?• how to build social capital?• what are the necessary institutional arrangements? 21
  22. 22. One approach – Ecological Restoration• Ecological restoration • Re-establish native species • Seek to re-establish presumed original ecosystems Monoculture ‘Rehabilitation’ Ecological Restoration Biomass or Structure plantation• Advantages • Variety of functional types • Buffered against change• Disadvantage Degraded state • Not always ecologically possible Biological Diversity • In absence of PES not economically attractive to many landholders (high opportunity costs) • Hence often (though not always) used on small areas 22
  23. 23. A second approach - Mono-cultural plantingsUse single speciesthat is:• Productive• Commercially valuable• Has readily available seedlings Monoculture ‘Rehabilitation’ Ecological Restoration• Has a known silviculture Biomass or Structure plantationSeek to maximiseproductivity and efficiency Degraded state 23 Biological Diversity
  24. 24. Advantages and DisadvantagesADVANTAGES• Can be financially profitable• Hence attractive to landholders – Widely implemented (agriculture, forestry)DISADVANTAGES• Monocultures risky over longer term• Sensitive to changes in circumstances – Ecological (pests, disease, storms, etc) – Economic (market changes)• i.e. Lacks resilience 24
  25. 25. Difficult to restore degraded lands• Ecological problems – Finding species able to tolerate changed conditions – Working out • how and sequencing of re-establishment, • the relative proportions of each species to use, • managing inter-actions, etc• Economic and social problems – who pays for restoration? – Overcoming opportunity costs – Scaling up to cover ecologically significant areas 25

×