Sustainable Agriculture: Community based On-farm Conservation of Crop and Varietal Diversity for Sustaining Small Millets Cropping Systems in India
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Sustainable Agriculture: Community based On-farm Conservation of Crop and Varietal Diversity for Sustaining Small Millets Cropping Systems in India

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Sustainable Agriculture: Community based On-farm Conservation of Crop and Varietal Diversity for Sustaining Small Millets Cropping Systems in India Sustainable Agriculture: Community based On-farm Conservation of Crop and Varietal Diversity for Sustaining Small Millets Cropping Systems in India Presentation Transcript

  • Community Based On-farm Conservation of Crop And Varietal Diversity for Sustaining Small Millets Cropping Systems in India KARTHIKEYAN, M, PATIL, C. S. P, PALANISAMY, M, SEETHARAM, A, NANJA REDDY, NIRMALAKUMARI, A, BIJAY, K.N., VEDIAPPAN, V. & NADHIYA, M. Sponsored By: Hosted By: Presented at the International Food Security Dialogue 2014 “Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World.”
  • Topics covered 1. Need for the study 2. Methodology 3. Results and discussion 4. Conclusion and next steps 5. Policy support needed
  • Need for the study…  Rich crop and varietal diversity of SM, which has been one of the key elements in sustaining them has been declining very fast  Lack of site specific improved varieties and lack of timely supply of quality seeds has led to low productivity and so replacement by other crops
  • Need for the study…  On-farm conservation and varietal selection can be an effective means for enhancing the resilience of SMCS and sustaining them  With this objective on-farm conservation and varietal selection of SMs is being attempted since 2011 in India under an action research project -'Revalorising Small millets in Rainfed Regions South Asia (RESMISA)‘
  • Methodology  Farmer-led research-for-development that builds on indigenous knowledge systems and complemented by gender sensitive scientific and participatory methods  Embed in the contextually relevant community organisations and public institutions
  • Conceptual framework
  • Study area covering Tamil Nadu (3), Jharkhand (1) and Odisha (1) in India
  • Results and discussion Existing status of varietal diversity  In all the sites CBR indicated that many SM crops/varieties have vanished in the last two decades (Eg: FM-21& LM-10 in Odisha site)  Less varietal diversity at farm level (90 % farmers use one variety), at hamlet level and at location level  Some of the existing local varieties may disappear soon  Many of the local varieties show impurity
  • Status of varietal diversity at location level Site Finger millet Little millet Kodo millet Barnyard millet Present Popular Present Popular Present Popular Present Popular LV RV LV RV LV RV LV RV LV RV LV RV LV RV LV RV SG 19 2 4 8 2 1 Be 4 2 Ac 2 2 2 JH 2 1 9 3 Pe 3 2 2 1 LV- Local variety; RV- Released variety
  • Status of varietal diversity at hamlet level Site Crop Hamlet s studie d Share of hamlets with different number of varieties (%) 1 2 3 4 5 Semili Guda FM 40 40 28 20 10 3 LM 20 95 5 0 0 0 Bero FM 32 69 31 0 0 0 Jawadhu Hills LM 36 31 47 14 8 0 FM 33 45 45 9 0 0 Anchetty FM 29 62 24 14 0 0 Peraiyur BM 10 70 30 0 0 0
  • Creating awareness on local varieties and facilitating conservation in sites  Biodiversity blocks established in the sites and local farmers are systematically exposed to them  Interested farmers are being identified for conserving local varieties on-farm  Biodiversity fund was created in the women/ farmer federation/ associations for supporting conservation efforts, even beyond the project period
  • Biodiversity block in Semiliguda
  • Conservation through relevant institutions  The collected germplasm was shared to gene bank of All India Coordinated Small Millets Project of ICAR and TNAU for purification, characterization and nutrient analysis Morphological characterisation completed and publication is in progress Nutrient-rich varieties identified
  • Conservation through Participatory Varietal Selection (PVS)  Promising varieties included in PVS for evaluation along with released/ pre-release varieties  In the three cycles of PVS trials 130 varieties were tested with the involvement of 1435 men and 773 women farmers were involved
  • Participatory Varietal Selection- Mother trial
  • Participatory Varietal Selection- Preference analysis
  • Participatory Varietal Selection- Baby trial
  • Results of PVS trials- 2011-2013 Site Crop No. of varieties included No. of varieties selected Local Rele Pre-R Local Rele Pre-R Total SG F. Millet 18 6 1 1 1 2 L. Millet 10 6 Be Finger millet 4 6 1 3 1 4 JH L. Millet 8 5 2 2 4 F. Millet 5 6 1 1 1 1 3 An F.Millet 7 14 1 1 2 1 4 Pe BY. Millet 12 3 5 2 1 3 K.Millet 5 2 4 1 1 Total 69 48 13 6 10 5
  • Conservation through Participatory Varietal Selection (PVS)…  Identified 1 to 4 additional varieties for each crop in each of the five sites based on many site specific parameters  15 to 20% increased productivity observed  Increase choices to farmers  Two local varieties have entered IVT in AICSIMP
  • Reintroduction of small millet crops/ varieties  Proso and foxtail millets were reintroduced in three sites and little and kodo millets were reintroduced in one site based on demand.  In 3 sites, 2 declining traditional local varieties of finger millet were promoted and in one site 4 rare varieties of little millet were promoted.  About 320 farmers involved  Foxtail millet was introduced both as mixed crop and as sole crop  Proso and foxtail millets were well received in two sites
  • Community based seed production  RESMISA Research Coordination Committee formed  Interested farmers from the local community organisations were identified for seed production and training was given  About 7000 kg of seed of identified farmer preferred varieties was procured from these farmers for dissemination through group network. 
  • Conclusion and next steps The integrated approach is effective and can be attempted to any NUS Next steps: 1. Conservation of vanishing local varieties by supporting custodian farmers 2. On-site purification of potential local varieties 3. Strengthening community-based seed systems for promotion of the identified potential varieties as well as the existing popular ones at each site 1. Promotion of nutrient-rich varieties 2. Linking with the Govt. Schemes for seed production
  • Policy support needed  Support for establishing community-based integrated conservation initiatives  Recognising and supporting custodian farmers  Inclusion of potential local varieties in the State formal seed system and other production support schemes- Presently it is not the case (ASA-PB case in Brazil, Peterson et al, 2014)  Recognition of farmers’ rights and secure
  • Policy support needed… NARS : 1. Make PVS mandatory for regional research stations (RRS) 2. Exploit the potential local varieties in the breeding efforts in RRS
  • Thank you