Cropping systems in vegetables


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this materials gives a detail of cropping system in vegetables which are mainly practice for increasing yields.

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Cropping systems in vegetables

  1. 1. Cropping system The cropping patterns used on a farm and their interaction with farm resources, other farm enterprises, and available technology which determine their make up. Cropping pattern The yearly sequence and spatial arrangement of crops and fallow on a given area. Cropping system comprises all components required for the production of a particular crop and the interrelationships between them and environment. In the cropping systems, sometimes a number of crops are grown together or they are grown separately at short intervals in the same field.
  2. 2. Choose crops that complement each other Choose crops and a cropping rotation which utilize available resources efficiently Choose crops and a cropping that maintain and enhance soil fertility Choose crops which have a diversity of growth cycle Choose a diverse species of crops Keep the soil covered Strategically plan and modify the cropping system as needed
  3. 3. Maintain and enhance soil fertility Enhance crop growth Minimize spread of disease Control weeds Inhibit insect and pest growth Increase soil cover Reduce risk for crop failure Use resources more efficiently efficient utilization of all resources viz. land, water, and solar radiation maintaining stability in production and obtaining higher net returns. The efficiency is measured by the quantity of produce obtained per unit resource in a unit time
  4. 4. Depending on the resources and technology available, different types of cropping systems are adopted on farms, which are as below  Sole cropping (monoculture)  Intensive cropping: Multiple cropping Intercropping  Sequential cropping  Crop rotation
  5. 5. Monocropping This is where the field is used to grow only one crop season after season . Also known as solid planting it is difficult to maintain cover on the soil it encourages pests, diseases and weeds it can reduce the soil fertility and damage the soil structure.
  6. 6. Intensive cropping: Growing number of crops on the same piece of land during the given period of time. Cropping systems has to be evolved based on climate, soil and water availability for efficient use of available natural resources. The increase in population has put pressure on land to increase productivity per unit area, unit time and for unit resource used. Number of crops cultivated in a piece of land per annum is cropping intensity. In Punjab and Tamil Nadu, the cropping intensity is more than 100% (i.e. around 140-150%). In Rajasthan, the cropping intensity is less.
  7. 7. Multiple cropping: Growing two or more crops on the same field in a year. Annual and perennial plants can be organized in fields together. It is a form of polyculture tomatoes + onions + marigold; the marigolds repel some tomato pests.
  8. 8. Intercropping: Growing two or more crops simultaneously on the same field. There is intercrop competition during all or part of crop growth. It is further sub-divided as (a) Mixed intercropping: (b) Row intercropping: (c) Strip intercropping: (d) Relay intercropping:
  9. 9. Mixed intercropping: Growing two or more crops simultaneously with no distinct row arrangement. Also referred to as mixed cropping. Strip intercropping: Growing two or more crops simultaneously in strips wide enough to permit independent cultivation but narrow enough for the crops to interact Alternating 15-inch rows of radish and oats.
  10. 10. Row intercropping: Growing two or more crops simultaneously where one or more crops are planted in rows. Often simply referred to as intercropping. Relay intercropping: Growing two or more crops simultaneously during the part of the life cycle of each. A second crop is planted after the first crop has reached its reproductive stage of growth, but, before it is ready for harvest. Often simply referred to as relay cropping.
  11. 11. FAVORITE COMBINATIONS FOR INTERCROPPING VEGETABLE SUGGESTED LOCATION ARUGULA between tomatoes under pole beans or trellised cucumbers BASIL between tomatoes BUSH BEANS between tomatoes, peppers, or eggplant BEETS between brassicas (broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower), onions, leeks, or zucchini CARROTS between bush beans, leeks, or tomatoes CILANTRO between leeks LETTUCE under corn, pole beans, or tomatoes; between celery, celeriac, leeks, or brassicas ONIONS between cabbage plants (or any other member of the brassica family) PARSLEY between tomatoes RADISHES everywhere (they’re said to help repel pests when planted with cucumbers or squash) SPINACH under pole beans or trellised cucumbers and between leeks, turnips, and brassicas WINTER SQUASH under corn
  12. 12. Better use of growth resources including light, nutrients and water Suppression of weeds Yield stability; even if one crop fails due to unforeseen situations, another crop will yield and gives income Successful intercropping gives higher equivalent yields (yield of base crop + yield of intercrop), higher cropping intensity Reduced pest and disease incidences Improvement of soil health and agro-eco system
  13. 13. Sequential cropping  Growing two or more crops in sequence on the same field in a farming year. The succeeding crop is planted after the preceding crop has been harvested. Crop intensification is only in time dimension. There is no intercrop competition. (a) Double, triple and quadruple cropping: Growing two, three and four crops, respectively, on the same land in a year in sequence. Quadruple cropping: Tomato: ridge gourd: Amaranthus greens: baby corn Examples Triple cropping: garlic and shallots are drying off and will soon be ready to lift, a succession of broad beans and peas are scheduled to be harvested before August and the early potatoes will all be gone by mid July.
  14. 14. Fennel resprouts from the stump! Cut the main bulb high, and then harvest baby sprouts a few weeks later. first cabbage, broccoli head, or whatever, which leaves behind plenty of opportunities for latent basal buds to mobilize and start growing. (b) Ratoon cropping: The cultivation of crop re-growth after harvest, although not necessarily for grain. Ex.Fennel:ratoon; Broccoli: ratoon
  15. 15. Crops with tap roots should be followed by crops with a fibrous root system as this helps in the proper and uniform use of nutrients from the soil. In addition, roots do not compete with each other for the uptake of nutrients  Legumes should be grown after non legumes as they fix atmospheric nitrogen into the soil and add more organic matter to the soil Exhaustive crops (crops which need more inputs like more fertilizer, irrigation, insecticide etc.) should be followed by less exhaustive crops, which require less care (i.e., Potato should be followed by leguminous crops) Selection of crop should be demand-based (that is, crops needed by the market should be chosen as it can be sold at a higher price) Crop selection also depends on land type, irrigation facilities, soil and climatic considerations. Financial constraints of the farmer should also be kept in mind. Crop Rotation changing the type of crops grown in the field each season or each year (or changing from crops to fallow).
  16. 16. In crop rotation, different types of plants are alternated through the same bed over time. There are different types of crop rotation, such as: rotation by plant type: legume (peas and beans) fruiting vegetable (eg, capsicum) leafy green vegetable (eg. lettuce, cabbage) finally, root crop (eg. potato)  rotation by plant family: set up eight beds with these plant families: Brassicaceae (cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, brussels sprouts, kohlrabi, radish, , turnip, mustard greens) Solanaceae (tomato, capsicum, potato, eggplant) Fabacace (broad bean, bean, peas) Cucurbitaceae (cucumber, squash, pumpkin, watermelon, rockmelon) Apiaceae (carrot, celery, coriander, dill, parsley) Chenopodiaceae (silver beet, beetroot, spinach) Asteraceae (lettuce, globe artichoke, jerusalem artichoke, ) Alliceae(onion, shallot, leek). Crop rotation Types
  17. 17. Example of a Four Year Crop Rotation
  18. 18. Fig: Example of a 6 Year crop rotation
  19. 19. Any cropping pattern, if followed correctly, will have several advantages. These advantages are: Agricultural operations can be done on time, for all the crops because of less competition, Soil fertility is restored by fixing atmospheric nitrogen, encouraging microbial activity. Weeds, disease and insects can often be more easily managed Proper utilization of all resources and inputs is made as the farmer, his labour, power, equipment and machines are well employed throughout the year Growing crops of different nature ensures best utilization of residual moisture, fertility and organic residues. It also improves percolation, soil structure and reduces chances of creation of hard pan in sub-soil zone.
  20. 20. THANK you