Prof. Ginandjar Kartasasmita     Program Doktor Bidang Ilmu Sosial           Universitas Pasundan                 Bandung ...
    PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIVE CULTURE IS CHANGING TO     BE MORE FLEXIBLE, INNOVATIVE, PROBLEM     SOLVING, ENTREPRENEURIAL, ...
     THE CURRENT PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION DEBATE        PLACES A NEW EMPHASIS ON ‘WHAT MATTERS IS        NOT WHAT WE DO, BUT...
     THE CENTRAL FORCE BEHIND THE MULTIPLE CHANGES AND      TRANSFORMATION WE ARE WITNESSING AROUND US IS      GLOBALIZAT...
• PARADIGM SHIFT               GLOBAL                            POLITICAL               NATIONAL                      ...
GLOBALIZATION                UNDERMINE TRADITIONAL DOMESTIC                                      POLITICAL AUTHORITY      ...
     TECHNOLOGY IS THE DRIVING FORCE BEHIND INNOVATION.      BUT WHAT IS UNDERSTOOD AS INNOVATION CAN BE A      MATTER OF...
     FROM GOVERNMENT TO GOVERNANCE. RELATIVELY      RECENTLY THERE IS DISTINCT DIRECTION IN PUBLIC SECTOR      INNOVATION...
     MANAGERIALISM. RECENTLY EMERGING IN INNOVATIONS      ARE THE OFFSHOOT OF THE MANAGERIAL APPROACH IN      PUBLIC ADMI...
     THE MOST FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE OF THE      CONTEMPORARY MANAGERIALIST APPROACHES IS      “LET THE MANAGERS MANAGE.” ...
     PARTICIPATORY GOVERNMENT. AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE      MARKET-BASED APPROACH TO MANAGING THE PUBLIC      SECTOR HAS BE...
     PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT. A SHIFT TO PERFORMANCE      MANAGEMENT HAS GAINED GROUND RECENTLY, AS      CITIZENS DEMAND A...
     STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT. ONE OF THE MOST CITED      NEGATIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF GOVERNMENT IS THE      FRAGMENTATION OF ...
1. THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION          2. REINVENTING (ENTREPRENEURIAL)             GOVERNMENT          3. THE NEW PUBL...
         THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION WAS A                MOVEMENT OF REFORM MINDED YOUNG                SCHOLARS OF PU...
 THE FOCUS OF THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION    WAS DISINCLINED TO EXAMINE SUCH TRADITIONAL    PHENOMENA AS EFFICIENCY, EF...
   MAIN ARGUEMENTS OF THE NEW PUBLIC    ADMINISTRATION:          1) PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS AND PUBLIC AGENCIES ARE        ...
5) COOPERATION, CONSENSUS, AND DEMOCRATIC      ADMINISTRATION ARE MORE LIKELY THAN THE SIMPLE      EXERCISE OF ADMINISTRAT...
   MOST GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS PERFORM    INCREASINGLY COMPLEX TASKS, IN COMPETITIVE,    RAPIDLY CHANGING ENVIRONMENTS, ...
1.     CATALYTIC GOVERNMENT:                STEERING RATHER THAN ROWING.   2.     COMMUNITY OWNED GOVERNMENT:             ...
6.     CUSTOMER-DRIVEN GOVERNMENT:                MEETING THE NEEDS OF THE CUSTOMER, NOT THE                BUREAUCRACY.  ...
   IN THE EARLY 1990s, A NEW MANAGERIAL APPROACH TO PUBLIC    ADMINISTRATION BEGAN TO TAKE HOLD. LIKE THE TRADITIONAL    ...
   IT CALLED FOR AMONG OTHERS: PUTTING CUSTOMERS    FIRST, MAKING SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS COMPETE,    CREATING MARKET DYNAM...
   TODAY, THE NPM IS BECOMING THE DOMINANT      MANAGERIAL APPROACH.     ITS KEY CONCEPTS-SOMEWHAT EVOLUTIONARY A      D...
APPROACH       DATE SELECTED FEATURES CLASSICAL      1900   ORGANIZATIONS PERCEIVED AS CLOSED SYSTEMS;                    ...
APPROACH          DATE     SELECTED FEATURESOPEN SYSTEM/      1965   ORGANIZATIONS SEEN AS SYSTEMS OF INTERRELATED PARTSCO...
   IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, HIERARCHICAL    GOVERNMENT BUREAUCRACY WAS THE PREDOMINANT    ORGANIZATIONAL MODEL USED TO D...
   QUESTION: DO GOVERNMENTS KNOW WHAT THEY    ARE DOING? WHY SHOULD WE TRUST THEM?   THE DEMAND FOR GOOD GOVERNMENT HAS ...
POLITICAL                DEMOCRACY                                                 STRUCTURE AND           SOCIETAL       ...
CORE VALUES OF                          ?              VALUES & NEEDS OF        PUBLIC                            SOCIETY ...
?                  ABSORB   SCALE AND  COMPLEXITY      PROCESS                 PUBLIC   OF MODERN    EFFECTIVELY          ...
SOCIAL           PARTICIPATION             CHALENGE THE  VALUES           DEMOCRACY                STRUCTURES OF        ...
CORE VALUES      ><   SOCIAL VALUES                                                      ETHICS  CENTRALIZED,    OPEN     ...
     NETWORK         STRUCTURE                                         STAKEHOLDERS         HIERARCHY                 ...
MODELS OF GOVERNMENTS                                               High                Public private collaboration      ...
GOOD GOVERNANCE   IN MANY COUNTRIES GOOD GOVERNANCE IS VERY    MUCH A CURRENT TOPIC, AS PART OF THE AGENDA OF    THE REFO...
   UNIVERSALLY ‘GOOD GOVERNANCE’ RAISES SUCH    ISSUES AS:     STAKEHOLDERS ENGAGEMENT;     TRANSPARENCY;     THE EQUA...
0,06          Per capita income growth, 1982-2002 (residual)                                                           0,0...
 WHEREAS   THE GOVERNANCE DISCUSSIONS IN THE     PUBLIC SECTORS IS RELATIVELY RECENT, THE TERM     GOVERNANCE IS MUCH MOR...
   ANOTHER DEVELOPMENT IS THE GLOBALIZATION OF THE    ECONOMY AND THE GROWING IMPORTANCE OF    TRANSNATIONAL POLITICAL IN...
THE DIFFUSION OF GOVERNANCE IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY                    Private sector       Public sector       Third ...
THE CHALLENGES   THE ACCOUNTABILITY PROBLEM PRESENTS NETWORKED    GOVERNMENT WITH ITS MOST DIFFICULT CHALLENGE.   WHEN A...
   HOW DO NETWORK MANAGERS BALANCE THE NEED FOR    ACCOUNTABILITY AGAINST THE BENEFITS OF FLEXIBILITY?   GOVERNMENTS HAV...
   INFORMATION IS A CENTRAL RESOURCE FOR ALL    ACTIVITIES.   IN PURSUING THE DEMOCRATIC/POLITICAL PROCESSES,    IN MANA...
THE START OF SOMETHING BIG?      OVER THE NEXT TEN TO FIFTEEN YEARS, THE       EXPANSION OF NETWORK-BASED       COMMUNICA...
THE ROLE OF THE INTERNET      THE INTERNET IS A NETWORK OR NETWORKS OF ONE-TO-       ONE, ONE-TO-MANY, MANY-TO-MANY, AND ...
CONVERGENCE     GROWTH IN THE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION      TECHNOLOGY (ICT) SECTOR HAS EXPLODED OVER THE      PAST ...
OPPORTUNITIES AND RISKS     MANAGEMENT IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR IS BEING ALTERED,      AND MAY BE ALTERED EVEN MORE FUNDAMENT...
THE EVOLUTION OF DEMOCRACY  DIRECT               REPRESENTATIVE               PARTICIPATORY     DIRECTDEMOCRACY           ...
STRONG                                  TRADITIONAL                          PARTICIPATORY                                ...
 FACEBOOK                BUAYA VS CICAK     WIKILEAKS     ARAB SPRINGS3-Unpas_2012    www.ginandjar.com   52
CIVIL SOCIETY/MEDIA                                           JUDICIARY                                          LEGISLATI...
S3-Unpas_2012   www.ginandjar.com   54
Development Administration chapter 4 (UNPAS 2012)
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Development Administration chapter 4 (UNPAS 2012)

  1. 1. Prof. Ginandjar Kartasasmita Program Doktor Bidang Ilmu Sosial Universitas Pasundan Bandung 2012
  2. 2.  PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIVE CULTURE IS CHANGING TO BE MORE FLEXIBLE, INNOVATIVE, PROBLEM SOLVING, ENTREPRENEURIAL, AND ENTERPRISING AS OPPOSED TO RULE-BOUND, PROCESS-ORIENTED, AND FOCUSED ON INPUTS RATHER THAN RESULTS.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 2
  3. 3.  THE CURRENT PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION DEBATE PLACES A NEW EMPHASIS ON ‘WHAT MATTERS IS NOT WHAT WE DO, BUT HOW PEOPLE FEEL ABOUT WHAT WE DO’ AND THAT ‘PROCESSES MATTER’ OR PUT DIFFERENTLY, ‘THE ENDS DO NOT JUSTIFY THE MEANS’.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 3
  4. 4.  THE CENTRAL FORCE BEHIND THE MULTIPLE CHANGES AND TRANSFORMATION WE ARE WITNESSING AROUND US IS GLOBALIZATION OF CAPITAL, KNOWLEDGE AND IDEAS, A PROCESS THAT TRANSCENDS NATION-STATES, ECONOMIES, MARKETS, INSTITUTIONS, AND CULTURES. THE GLOBALIZATION PROCESS IS ACCELERATED BY A NUMBER OF CONTRIBUTING FACTORS, SUCH AS TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS, POST COLD-WAR DEIDEOLOGISATION, DECLINING ECONOMIC POWER OF INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES, AND RISING CITIZENS’ HORIZON AND EXPECTATIONS.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 4
  5. 5. • PARADIGM SHIFT  GLOBAL  POLITICAL  NATIONAL  ECONOMIC  LOCAL  CULTURE/ VALUES)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 5
  6. 6. GLOBALIZATION UNDERMINE TRADITIONAL DOMESTIC POLITICAL AUTHORITY GLOBAL ECONOMY, MARKET, CAPITAL PRIVATIZATION HOLLOWING OUT OF THE STATE OVERIDE THE ABILITY OF NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS TO SOLVE THEIR OWN PROBLEMS ACCOUNTABILITY TO THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET AND STANDARD x TRADITIONAL LINES OF ACCOUNTABILITYS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 6
  7. 7.  TECHNOLOGY IS THE DRIVING FORCE BEHIND INNOVATION. BUT WHAT IS UNDERSTOOD AS INNOVATION CAN BE A MATTER OF TIME OR PLACE. WHAT WAS IDENTIFIED AS INNOVATION TEN YEARS AGO HAS NOW BECOME A ROUTINE PRACTICE. SIMILARLY, IN TERMS OF PLACE, WHAT IS ROUTINE IN DEVELOPED SOCIETIES MAY STILL BE CONSIDERED A NOVEL OR INNOVATIVE WAY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, WHO ARE STRAPPED TO THEIR TRADITIONAL WAYS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 7
  8. 8.  FROM GOVERNMENT TO GOVERNANCE. RELATIVELY RECENTLY THERE IS DISTINCT DIRECTION IN PUBLIC SECTOR INNOVATIONS THAT IS GAINING GROUND: "INNOVATIONS IN GOVERNANCE." THESE INNOVATIONS DIFFER FROM STANDARD INTRAORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATIONS IN PRODUCTS, SERVICES AND PROCESSES IN THE TRADIONAL MODE OF GOVERNMENT. INNOVATIONS IN GOVERNANCE ARE CONCEIVED ABOVE A PARTICULAR LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 8
  9. 9.  MANAGERIALISM. RECENTLY EMERGING IN INNOVATIONS ARE THE OFFSHOOT OF THE MANAGERIAL APPROACH IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. WHEREAS PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION HAD BEEN CONSIDERED TO BE SUBSTANTIALLY DIFFERENT FROM BUSINESS MANAGEMENT, THE MANAGERIALIST STRAIN OF THINKING ARGUES THAT "MANAGEMENT IS MANAGEMENT." THE GENERIC MANAGEMENT IS GUIDED BY ASSUMPTION THAT THE SAME PRINCIPLES THAT MOTIVATE EMPLOYEES TO DO THEIR JOBS EFFICIENTLY IN BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS WILL ALSO MOTIVATE INDIVIDUALS TO PERFORM WELL IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR. THIS VIEW OF MANAGEMENT TAKES THE PRIVATE SECTOR MODEL OF GOOD MANAGEMENT AND EXTEND ITS IDEAS INTO GOVERNMENT [PETERS, IBID].S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 9
  10. 10.  THE MOST FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE OF THE CONTEMPORARY MANAGERIALIST APPROACHES IS “LET THE MANAGERS MANAGE.” THE ASSUMPTION IS THAT IF GOVERNMENT CAN RECRUIT OR RETAIN HIGH QUALITY MANAGERS, AND IF THOSE MANAGERS ARE GIVEN THE TRUST AND RESPONSIBILITY TO DIRECT OPERATIONS WITHIN THEIR SPEHERE OF RESPONSIBILITY FREE FORM POLITICAL CONSTRAINS AND TRADITIONAL BUREAUCRATIC ADMINISTRATION THEN THE PUBLIC SECTOR WILL PERFORM BETTER.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 10
  11. 11.  PARTICIPATORY GOVERNMENT. AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE MARKET-BASED APPROACH TO MANAGING THE PUBLIC SECTOR HAS BEEN A MORE PARTICIPATORY CONCEPT OF GOVERNING. WHEREAS THE MARKET BASED APPROACH ASSUMES THAT THE PRINCIPLE ROOT OF THE PROBLEMS IN GOVERNMENT IS THE MONOPOLY OF THE PUBLIC SECTOR OVER MANY GOODS AND SERVICES, ADVOCATES OF THIS APPROACH ARGUE THAT THE PRINCIPAL PROBLEM IS HIERARCHY.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 11
  12. 12.  PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT. A SHIFT TO PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT HAS GAINED GROUND RECENTLY, AS CITIZENS DEMAND AND EXPECTATIONS ARE RISING WHILE RESOURCES ARE CONSTRAINED. BASICALLY IT WAS A SHIFT FROM "LET THE MANAGERS MANAGE", TO "MAKE THE MANAGERS MANAGE.” WHEREAS MUCH OF THE EARLY REFORM WAS CONCERNED WITH MANAGERIAL FREEDOM THE SUBSEQUENT REFORMS HAS BEEN CONCERNED WITH HOW WELL THEY PRODUCE OUTPUTS AND OUTCOMES AS AGAINST THE RESOURCES THAT HAS BEEN CONSUMED.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 12
  13. 13.  STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT. ONE OF THE MOST CITED NEGATIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF GOVERNMENT IS THE FRAGMENTATION OF THE PUBLIC SECTOR AND CONSEQUENTLY DIFFICULTIES IN COORDINATION. THERE IS A REAL NEED FOR GOVERNMENTS TO MOVE BEYOND “REACTIVE” COORDINATION TO MORE “PROACTIVE” FORMS OF COLLABORATION, AND HENCE THE NEED FOR STRATEGIC POLICY CHOICES. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT INVOLVES LINKING THE BROAD SYSTEM GOALS THAT ENVELOP THE WHOLE SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT—FROM THE CENTRAL TO THE MORE SPECIFIC GOALS OF INDIVIDUAL AGENCIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 13
  14. 14. 1. THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 2. REINVENTING (ENTREPRENEURIAL) GOVERNMENT 3. THE NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM) 4. NEW PUBLIC SERVICE 5. POST MODERNISM 6. GOVERNANCES3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 14
  15. 15.  THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION WAS A MOVEMENT OF REFORM MINDED YOUNG SCHOLARS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN LATE 1960’S AND 1970’S, SUCH AS DWIGHT WALDO AND GEORGE H. FREDERICKSON.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 15
  16. 16.  THE FOCUS OF THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION WAS DISINCLINED TO EXAMINE SUCH TRADITIONAL PHENOMENA AS EFFICIENCY, EFFECTIVENESS, BUDGETING, AND ADMINISTRATIVE TECHNIQUES.  THE QUESTIONS IT RAISED DEALT WITH VALUES, ETHICS, THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INDIVIDUAL MEMBER IN THE ORGANIZATION, THE RELATION OF THE CLIENT WITH THE BUREAUCRACY, AND THE BROAD PROBLEMS OF URBANISM, TECHNOLOGY, AND SOCIAL CONFLICTS.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 16
  17. 17.  MAIN ARGUEMENTS OF THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: 1) PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS AND PUBLIC AGENCIES ARE NOT AND CANNOT BE EITHER NEUTRAL OR OBJECTIVE. 2) TECHNOLOGY IS OFTEN DEHUMANIZING. 3) BUREAUCRATIC HIERARCHY IS OFTEN INEFFECTIVE AS AN ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY. 4) BUREAUCRACIES TEND TOWARD GOAL DISPLACEMENT AND SURVIVAL.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 17
  18. 18. 5) COOPERATION, CONSENSUS, AND DEMOCRATIC ADMINISTRATION ARE MORE LIKELY THAN THE SIMPLE EXERCISE OF ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY TO RESULT IN ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS. 6) MODERN CONCEPTS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION MUST BE BUILT ON POSTBEHAV­IORAL AND POSTPOSITIVIST LOGIC-MORE DEMOCRATIC, MORE ADAPTABLE, MORE RESPONSIVE TO CHANGING SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, AND POLITICAL CIRCUMSTANCES. (MARINI 1971)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 18
  19. 19.  MOST GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS PERFORM INCREASINGLY COMPLEX TASKS, IN COMPETITIVE, RAPIDLY CHANGING ENVIRONMENTS, WITH “CUSTOMERS” WHO WANT QUALITY AND CHOICE.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 20
  20. 20. 1. CATALYTIC GOVERNMENT: STEERING RATHER THAN ROWING. 2. COMMUNITY OWNED GOVERNMENT: EMPOWERING RATHER THAN SERVING. 3. COMPETITIVE GOVERNMENT: INJECTING COMPETITION INTO SERVICE DELIVERY. 4. MISSION-DRIVEN GOVERNMENT: TRANSFORMING RULE-DRIVEN ORGANIZATIONS 5. RESULTS-ORIENTED GOVERNMENT: FUNDING OUTCOMES, NOT INPUTS.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 21
  21. 21. 6. CUSTOMER-DRIVEN GOVERNMENT: MEETING THE NEEDS OF THE CUSTOMER, NOT THE BUREAUCRACY. 7. ENTERPRISING GOVERNMENT: ERANING RATHER THAN SPENDING. 8. ANTICIPATORY GOVERNMENT: PREVENTION RATHER THAN CURE. 9. DECENTRELAIZED GOVERNMENT: FROM HIERARCHY TO PARTICIPATION AND TEAMWORK. 10. MARKET-ORIENTED GOVERNMENT: LEVERAGING CHANGE THROUGH THE MARKET. (OSBORNE AND GAEBLER, 1993)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 22
  22. 22.  IN THE EARLY 1990s, A NEW MANAGERIAL APPROACH TO PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION BEGAN TO TAKE HOLD. LIKE THE TRADITIONAL MANAGERIAL APPROACH AT ITS INCEPTION, THE NEW APPROACH IS REFORM-ORIENTED AND SEEKS TO IMPROVE PUBLIC SECTOR PERFORMANCE IT STARTS FROM THE PREMISE THAT TRADITIONAL, BUREAUCRATICALLY ORGANIZED PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IS "BROKE" AND "BROKEN“, AND CONSEQUENTLY THE PUBLIC HAS LOST FAITH IN GOVERNMENT. MANAGERIALISM REFERS TO AN ENTREPRENEURIAL APPROACH TO PUBLIC MANAGEMENT, ONE THAT EMPHASIZES THE RIGHTS OF MANAGERS TO RUN THE ORGANIZATION AND THE APPLICATION OF REINVIGORATED SCIENTIFIC­MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES. (LEMAY, 2002) S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 23
  23. 23.  IT CALLED FOR AMONG OTHERS: PUTTING CUSTOMERS FIRST, MAKING SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS COMPETE, CREATING MARKET DYNAMICS, USING MARKET MECHANISMS TO SOLVE PROBLEMS, EMPOWERING EMPLOYEES TO GET RESULTS, DECENTRALIZATION DECISION MAKING POWER, STREAMLINING THE BUDGET PROCESS, DECENTRALIZATION PERSONNEL POLICY, AND STREAMLINING PROCUREMENT.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 24
  24. 24.  TODAY, THE NPM IS BECOMING THE DOMINANT MANAGERIAL APPROACH.  ITS KEY CONCEPTS-SOMEWHAT EVOLUTIONARY A DECADE AGO- ARE NOW THE STANDARD LANGUAGE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION.  TERMS SUCH AS "RESULTS ORIENTED", "CUSTOMERS FOCUSED", "EMPLOYEE EMPOWERMENT", "ENTREPRENEURSHIP", AND "OUTSOURCING", HAVE DOMINATED THE MAINSTREAM.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 25
  25. 25. APPROACH DATE SELECTED FEATURES CLASSICAL 1900 ORGANIZATIONS PERCEIVED AS CLOSED SYSTEMS; STRESS ON EFFICIENCY, CONTROL AND THE BUREAUCRATIC FORM BEHAVIORAL/ 1930 EMPHASIS ON PEOPLE RATHER THAN MACHINES; HUMAN CLOSE ATTENTION TO FACTORS SUCH AS GROUP RELATIONS DYNAMICS, COMMUNICATION, MOTIVATION, LEADERSHIP AND PARTICIPATION QUANTITATIVE 1940 PROVISION OF QUANTITATIVE TOOLS TO SUPPORT MANAGERIAL DECISION-MAKING; FOUND IN MANAGEMENT SCIENCE, OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT AND MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMSS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 26
  26. 26. APPROACH DATE SELECTED FEATURESOPEN SYSTEM/ 1965 ORGANIZATIONS SEEN AS SYSTEMS OF INTERRELATED PARTSCONTIGENCY WHICH RELATE TO THE ENVIRONMENT; EMPHASIS ON FITTING ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE TO THE SPECIFIC ENVIRONMENT OF THE ORGANIZATIONPOWER/ POLITICS 1965 ORGANIZATIONAL DECISION-MAKING IS NOT GUIDED BY TECHNICAL RATIONALITY BUT IS DETERMINED BY POLITICAL PROCESSES; A DOMINANT COALITION WILL BE THE MAJOR LOCUS OF ORGANIZATIONAL POWERQUALITY 1955 STRONGLY PURSUED IN JAPANESE POSTWAR INDUSTRIALMOVEMENTS DEVELOPMENT AND MUCH LATER ADOPTED ELSEWHERE; CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT BY WORKING TOGETHER AND CLIENT FOCUS; TYPIFIED IN TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT, BENCHMARKING, QUALITY CIRCLES AND ISO 9000MANAGERIALISM 1980 ADOPTION BY THE PUBLIC SECTOR OF PRIVATE SECTOR MANAGEMENT PRACTICES; APPLICATION OF PUBLIC CHOICE THEORY AND NEO-CLASSICAL ECONOMICS TO PUBLIC SECTOR MANAGEMENT (TURNER AND HULME, 1997)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 27
  27. 27.  IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, HIERARCHICAL GOVERNMENT BUREAUCRACY WAS THE PREDOMINANT ORGANIZATIONAL MODEL USED TO DELIVER PUBLIC SERVICES AND FULFILL PUBLIC POLICY GOALS. PUBLIC MANAGERS WON ACCLAIM BY ORDERING THOSE UNDER THEM TO ACCOMPLISH HIGHLY ROUTINE, ALBEIT PROFESSIONAL, TASKS WITH UNIFORMITY BUT WITHOUT DISCRETION. TODAY, INCREASINGLY COMPLEX SOCIETIES FORCE PUBLIC OFFICIALS TO DEVELOP NEW MODELS OF GOVERNANCE.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 28
  28. 28.  QUESTION: DO GOVERNMENTS KNOW WHAT THEY ARE DOING? WHY SHOULD WE TRUST THEM? THE DEMAND FOR GOOD GOVERNMENT HAS A LONG HISTORY. BUT SELDOM HAVE THE FORMS OF GOVERNMENT BEEN UNDER GREATER CHALLENGE. DISSATISFACTION AND DISILLUSIONMENT ABOUT POLITICAL SOLUTIONS ARE RIFE.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 29
  29. 29. POLITICAL DEMOCRACY STRUCTURE AND SOCIETAL VALUES OF TRANSFORMATION PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESSS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 30
  30. 30. CORE VALUES OF ? VALUES & NEEDS OF PUBLIC SOCIETY AT LARGE ADMINISTRATIONS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 31
  31. 31. ? ABSORB SCALE AND COMPLEXITY PROCESS PUBLIC OF MODERN EFFECTIVELY ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENT ACCOMPLISHS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 32
  32. 32. SOCIAL  PARTICIPATION CHALENGE THE VALUES  DEMOCRACY STRUCTURES OF AUTHORITY AND CONTROL BASIC VALUES OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 33
  33. 33. CORE VALUES >< SOCIAL VALUES ETHICS CENTRALIZED, OPEN PARTICIPATION/DEMOCRACY CLOSED SYSTEM SYSTEM TRANSPARANCY ACCOUNTABILITYS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 34
  34. 34.  NETWORK  STRUCTURE  STAKEHOLDERS  HIERARCHY PARTICIPATIONS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 35
  35. 35. MODELS OF GOVERNMENTS High Public private collaboration Outsourced Networking government government Hierarchical Joined-up government government Low Low High Network management capabilities (GOLDSMITH AND EGGERS, 2004)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 36
  36. 36. GOOD GOVERNANCE IN MANY COUNTRIES GOOD GOVERNANCE IS VERY MUCH A CURRENT TOPIC, AS PART OF THE AGENDA OF THE REFORM MOVEMENT. IT IS CONCERNED WITH SUCH ISSUES AS CORRUPTION, HUMAN RIGHTS, SOCIAL JUSTICE, EQUITY, RULE OF LAW.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 37
  37. 37.  UNIVERSALLY ‘GOOD GOVERNANCE’ RAISES SUCH ISSUES AS:  STAKEHOLDERS ENGAGEMENT;  TRANSPARENCY;  THE EQUALITIES AGENDA (GENDER, ETHNIC GROUP, AGE, RELIGION, ETC);  ETHICAL AND HONEST BEHAVIOR;  ACCOUNTABILITY;  SUSTAINABILITY.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 38
  38. 38. 0,06 Per capita income growth, 1982-2002 (residual) 0,04 0,02 0 -0,02 -0,04 -0,06 -0,08 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 Initial Governance, 1982 Source: Steve Knack, unpublished note 2005 (In Levy, 2007)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 39
  39. 39.  WHEREAS THE GOVERNANCE DISCUSSIONS IN THE PUBLIC SECTORS IS RELATIVELY RECENT, THE TERM GOVERNANCE IS MUCH MORE COMMON IN THE PRIVATE SECTOR WHERE A DEBATE ABOUT CORPORATE GOVERNANCE HAS BEEN GOING ON FOR QUITE SOME TIME.  COORPORATE GOVERNANCE REFERS TO ISSUES OF CONTROL AND DECISION-MAKING POWERS WITHIN THE PRIVATE (CORPORATE) ORGANIZATIONS.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 40
  40. 40.  ANOTHER DEVELOPMENT IS THE GLOBALIZATION OF THE ECONOMY AND THE GROWING IMPORTANCE OF TRANSNATIONAL POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS LIKE THE UNITED NATIONS (UN), EUROPEAN UNION (EU), WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO), ASSOCIATION OF SOUTH EAST ASIAN NATIONS (ASEAN), AND NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT (NAFTA).S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 41
  41. 41. THE DIFFUSION OF GOVERNANCE IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY Private sector Public sector Third sector Supranational Transnational Intergovernmental Nongovernmental corporations organization organization level National National Twentieth-century National level corporations model nonprofits Subnational Local State and local Local level business government Non-profit (KAMARACK AND NYE JR., 2002) S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 42
  42. 42. THE CHALLENGES THE ACCOUNTABILITY PROBLEM PRESENTS NETWORKED GOVERNMENT WITH ITS MOST DIFFICULT CHALLENGE. WHEN AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY ARE PARCELED OUT ACROSS THE NETWORK, WHO IS TO BLAME WHEN SOMETHING GOES WRONG? HOW DOES GOVERNMENT RELINQUISH SOME CONTROL AND STILL ENSURE RESULTS?S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 43
  43. 43.  HOW DO NETWORK MANAGERS BALANCE THE NEED FOR ACCOUNTABILITY AGAINST THE BENEFITS OF FLEXIBILITY? GOVERNMENTS HAVE TRADITIONALLY TRIED TO ADDRESS MOST OF THESE ISSUES OF GOVERNANCE AND ACCOUNTABILITY THROUGH NARROW AUDIT AND CONTROL MECHANISMS. ALTHOUGH SUCH TOOLS HELP, THEY SHOULD NOT CONSTITUTE THE GREATER PART OF AN ACCOUNTABILITY REGIME.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 44
  44. 44.  INFORMATION IS A CENTRAL RESOURCE FOR ALL ACTIVITIES. IN PURSUING THE DEMOCRATIC/POLITICAL PROCESSES, IN MANAGING RESOURCES, EXECUTING FUNCTIONS, MEASURING PERFORMANCE AND IN SERVICE DELIVERY, INFORMATION IS THE BASIC INGREDIENT (ISAAC-HENRY 1997: I 32).S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 45
  45. 45. THE START OF SOMETHING BIG?  OVER THE NEXT TEN TO FIFTEEN YEARS, THE EXPANSION OF NETWORK-BASED COMMUNICATIONS SHOULD EXERT A STRONG INFLUENCE ON HOW COMMUNITIES ARE FORMED AND GOVERNED.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 46
  46. 46. THE ROLE OF THE INTERNET  THE INTERNET IS A NETWORK OR NETWORKS OF ONE-TO- ONE, ONE-TO-MANY, MANY-TO-MANY, AND MANY-TO-ONE, LOCAL, NATIONAL, AND GLOBAL INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES WITH RELATIVELY OPEN STANDARDS AND PROTOCOLS AND COMPARATIVELY LOW BARRIERS TO ENTRY.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 47
  47. 47. CONVERGENCE GROWTH IN THE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) SECTOR HAS EXPLODED OVER THE PAST 20 YEARS. CONTINUOUS DYNAMIC MARKET AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS IN THIS SECTOR HAVE LED TO A PHENOMENON KNOWN AS CONVERGENCE, WHICH IS DEFINED AS THE EROSION OF BOUNDARIES BETWEEN PREVIOUSLY SEPARATE ICT SERVICES, NETWORKS, AND BUSINESS PRACTICES. SOME EXAMPLES INCLUDE CABLE TELEVISION NETWORKS THAT OFFER PHONE SERVICE, INTERNET TELEVISION, AND MERGERS BETWEEN MEDIA AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS FIRMS. (THE WORLD BANK, 2010)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 48
  48. 48. OPPORTUNITIES AND RISKS MANAGEMENT IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR IS BEING ALTERED, AND MAY BE ALTERED EVEN MORE FUNDAMENTALLY IN THE FUTURE BY RAPID ADVANCED OF TECHNOLOGY, IN PARTICULAR INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY [ICT]. THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN GOVERNMENT HAS BEEN INCREASING FOR DECADES, BUT THE PACE OF CHANGE HAS BEEN ACCELERATING OVER THE QUARTER OF THE LAST CENTURY.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 49
  49. 49. THE EVOLUTION OF DEMOCRACY DIRECT REPRESENTATIVE PARTICIPATORY DIRECTDEMOCRACY DEMOCRACY DEMOCRACY DEMOCRACYDARI MARY REID, “WHO NEEDS ELECTED REPRESENTATIVE?” (2005)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 50
  50. 50. STRONG TRADITIONAL PARTICIPATORY REPRESENTATIVE REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY DEMOCRACY CITIZEN PARTICIPATORY STRONG WEAK DOMINANCE BY THE LOUDEST DIRECT WEAK DEMOCRACY ELECTED REPRESENTATIVES MARY REID, IBID.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 51
  51. 51.  FACEBOOK BUAYA VS CICAK  WIKILEAKS  ARAB SPRINGS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 52
  52. 52. CIVIL SOCIETY/MEDIA JUDICIARY LEGISLATIVE SUBNATIONAL GOVERNMENTS AND AUTONOMOUS OVERSIGHT AGENCIES EXECUTIVE Source: Levy, 2007S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 53
  53. 53. S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 54
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