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Development Administration chapter 1 dan 2 (UNPAS 2012)
 

Development Administration chapter 1 dan 2 (UNPAS 2012)

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    Development Administration chapter 1 dan 2 (UNPAS 2012) Development Administration chapter 1 dan 2 (UNPAS 2012) Presentation Transcript

    • Prof. Ginandjar Kartasasmita Program Doktor Bidang Ilmu Sosial Universitas Pasundan Bandung 2012
    •  PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IS A SPECIES BELONGING TO THE GENUS ADMINISTRATION, WHICH GENUS IN TURN BELONGS TO A FAMILY WHICH WE MAY CALL COOPERATIVE HUMAN ACTION (WALDO, 1955)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 2
    • LAW SOCIOLOGY ECONOMICS ADMINISTRATION POLITICS BUSINESS PHILOSOPHY PSYCHOLOGYS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 3
    • Program Doktor Bidang Ilmu Sosial Universitas Pasundan Bandung 2012
    •  ADMINISTRATION IS A TYPE OF COOPERATIVE HUMAN EFFORT THAT HAS A HIGH DEGREE OF RATIONALITY HUMAN ACTION IS COOPERATIVE IF IT HAS EFFECTS THAT WOULD BE ABSENT IF THE COOPERATION DID NOT TAKE PLACE (WALDO, 1955)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 5
    • WHAT IS ADMINISTRATION?  THE SIGNIFICANCE OF HIGH DEGREE OF RATIONALITY LIES IN THE FACT THAT HUMAN COOPERATION VARIES IN EFFECTIVENESS OF GOAL ATTAINMENT, WHETHER WE THINK IN TERMS OF FORMAL GOALS, THE GOALS OF LEADERS, OR OF ALL WHO COOPERATE (WALDO, 1955)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 6
    • WHAT IS ADMINISTRATION?  ADMINISTRATION IS A PLANNED APPROACH TO THE SOLVING OF ALL KINDS OF PROBLEMS IN ALMOST EVERY INDIVIDUAL OR GROUP ACTIVITY, BOTH PUBLIC AND PRIVATE (DIMOCK, DIMOCK, AND KOENIG, 1960)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 7
    • WHAT IS ADMINISTRATION? IN ITS BROADEST SENSE ADMINISTRATION CAN BE DEFINED AS THE ACTIVITIES OF GROUPS COOPERATING TO ACCOMPLISH COMMON GOALS (SIMON, 1991)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 8
    • FAMILY HAVE SOME DECIDE TO MONEY BUY LOTTERIES RESULTS WIN LOSE RICHER OR POORER OR BETTER LIFE WORSE LIFES3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 9
    • ILLUSTRATION… FAMILY DECIDE TO USE THE HAVE SOME MONEY AS CAPITAL MONEY TO ESTABLISH A SHOP WORKING TOGETHER IN THE OPERATION RESULTS OF THE SHOP SUCCESFUL FAILURE BETTER LIFE FIND WAYS TO START AGAINS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 10
    • WHAT IS ADMINISTRATION?S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 11
    • WHAT IS ADMINISTRATION?S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 12
    • WHAT IS ADMINISTRATION?THE STUDY OF ADMINISTRATION IS CONCERNED WITHQUESTIONS SUCH AS: 1. HOW THE METHOD WAS CHOOSEN, 2. HOW THE MEN (OR WOMEN) WERE SELECTED AND INDUCED TO COOPERATE IN CARRYING OUT SUCH A TASK, 3. HOW THE TASK WAS DIVIDED BETWEEN THEM, 4. HOW EACH ONE LEARNED WHAT HIS PARTICULAR JOB WAS IN THE TOTAL PATTERN, 5. HOW HE LEARNED TO PERFORM IT, 6. HOW HIS EFFORTS ARE COORDINATED WITH THE EFFORTS OF THE OTHER (SIMON, 1991) S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 13
    • WHAT IS ADMINISTRATION?ADMINISTRASI = TATA USAHA DALAM ARTI URUSAN : ⇨SURAT MENYURAT SEMPIT ⇨KEPEGAWAIAN ⇨KEUANGAN ⇨LOGISTIK STAF ADMINISTRASIS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 14
    •  SINCE ADMINISTRATION IS CONCERNED WITH ALL PATTERNS OF COOPERATIVE BEHAVIOR, IT IS OBVIOUS THAT ANY PERSON ENGAGED IN AN ACTIVITY IN COOPERATION WITH OTHER PERSONS IS ENGAGED IN ADMINISTRATION  SINCE EVERYONE HAS COOPERATED WITH OTHERS THROUGHOUT HIS LIFE, HE HAS SOME BASIC FAMILIARITY WITH ADMINISTRATION AND SOME OF ITS PROBLEMS (SIMON, 1991)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 15
    • THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ADMINISTRATION ARE BEST SUBSUMED UNDER THE TWO TERMS ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT (WALDO, 1955) ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT ARE THE TWO FACES OF THE SAME COIN.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 16
    • CHARACTERISTICS OF ADMINISTRATION  ORGANIZATION IS THE ANATOMY, MANAGEMENT THE PHYSIOLOGY, OF ADMINISTRATION  ORGANIZATION IS THE STRUCTURE; MANAGEMENT IS THE FUNCTIONING OF ADMINISTRATION (WALDO, 1955)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 17
    • UNPAS_2009 www.ginandjar.com 18
    • ORGANIZATION Directorate General Directorate/Bureau Division SectionS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 19
    • MANAGEMENT MANAGER PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION CONTROLLINGS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 20
    •  THE STRUCTURE OF AUTHORITATIVE AND HABITUAL PERSONAL INTERRELATIONS IN AN ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM (WALDO, 1955)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 21
    •  IN GENERAL, ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY IS “GENERIC” IN THE SENSE THAT IT DOES NOT MAKE DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS (BOZEMAN, 1987)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 22
    • 1. STAFF ORGANIZATION 2. LINE ORGANIZATION 3. LINE AND STAFF ORGANIZATIONS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 23
    • ORGANIZATION MINISTER ASSISTANT MINISTERDIRECTOR DIRECTOR SECRETARY INSPECTORGENERAL GENERAL GENERAL GENERAL DIRECTOR DIRECTOR BUREAU INSPECTORTECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION UNIT STAF LINES3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 24
    • LINE AND STAFF ORGANIZATION SALES MANAGER MARKET FORECASTOR MARKET FORECASTOR TRAINING DIRECTOR REGION A SALES REGION B SALES REGION C SALES MANAGER MANAGER MANAGER SALES PEOPLE SALES PEOPLE SALES PEOPLES3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 25
    •  THE TERM "MANAGEMENT" APPEARED EARLY IN THE DISCUSSION OF STATE ADMINISTRATION AS VIRTUALLY SYNONYMOUS WITH ADMINISTRATION. MANAGEMENT AS A DISTINCTIVE IDEA DID NOT BEGIN TO EMERGE UNTIL THE NINETEENTH CENTURY, WITH “EXPLICIT THEORIZING…PERHAPS MOST NOTICEABLE IN THE US, WHICH INDUSTRIALIZED LATER AND EVEN FASTER THAN GERMANY OR THE UK.” (POLLITT, 1990)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 26
    •  GETTING THINGS DONE THROUGH THE EFFORTS OF OTHER PEOPLE (TAYLOR, 1912). ACTION INTENDED TO ACHIEVE RATIONAL COOPERATION IN AN ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM (WALDO, 1955). MANAGEMENT REFERS TO THE PROCESS OF RUNNING AN ORGANIZATION AND THE USE OF RESOURCES TO ACCOMPLISH ITS GOALS. THE TERM ALSO REFERS TO THOSE INDIVIDUALS WHO ARE FORMALLY AUTHORIZED TO RUN THE ORGANIZATION (LEMAY, 2002).S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 27
    •  CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS :  PLANNING  ORGANIZING  STAFFING  DIRECTING  COORDINATING  REPORTING  BUDGETING (LUTHER GULICK AND LYNDALL URWICK, 1932)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 28
    •  ALTHOUGH THE SERIOUS STUDY OF LEADERSHIP IS ONLY ABOUT 100 YEARS OLD, INTEREST IN LEADERS AND LEADERSHIP DATES BACK THOUSANDS OF YEARS.  IN ADDITION TO THE ENORMOUS POWER THAT LEADERS HAVE HAD OVER THEIR PEOPLE- LITERALLY LIFE AND DEATH-LEADERS OFTEN ATTAINED GODLIKE STATUS THEMSELVES. (MONTGOMERY VAN WART, 2008)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 29
    • TYPES OF WORK EXECUTION POLICY NEW IDEAS EMPLOYEES MANAGERS EXECUTIVES WITH TRANSFORMATION POLICY LEADERS RESPONSIBILITIESTYPES OF FOLLOWERS CONSTITUENTS COMMUNITY LEGISLATORS AND LOBBYISTS AND LEADERS OF ADVISORY BOARD POLICY VOLUNTEER MEMBERS ENTREPRENEURS GROUPS ADHERENTS SMALL GROUP LEADERS OF SOCIAL PHILOSOPHICAL LEADERS MOVEMENTS ZEALOTS AND SOCIAL TREND SETTERS -ibid- S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 30
    • INTERMEDIATE ULTIMATE MEN ORGANIZATION GOAL GOAL GOAL GOALS MANAGEMENTMATERIALSS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 31
    •  THE CLASSIC MEANING OF PUBLIC DERIVES FROM TWO SOURCES. THE FIRST IS THE GREEK WORD PUBES, OR "MATURITY," WHICH IN THE GREEK SENSE MEANS IN THE BOTH PHYSICAL AND EMOTIONAL OR INTELLECTUAL MATURITY AND EMPHASIZE MOVING FROM THE SELFISH CONCERNS OR PERSONAL SELF-INTEREST TO SEEING BEYOND ONES SELF TO UNDERSTAND THE INTEREST OF OTHERS IT IMPLIES AN ABILITY TO UNDERSTAND THE CONSEQUENCES OF ONES INDIVIDUAL ACTIONS ON OTHER PEOPLES3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 32
    • WHAT IS PUBLIC? FREDERICKSON’S FIVE PERSPECTIVES OF PUBLIC IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: 1) THE PUBLIC AS INTEREST GROUPS (THE PLURALIST PERSPECTIVE) 2) THE PUBLIC AS RATIONAL CHOOSER (THE PUBLIC CHOICE PERSPECTIVE) 3) THE PUBLIC AS REPRESENTED (THE LEGISLATIVE PERSPECTIVE) 4) THE PUBLIC AS CUSTOMER (THE SERVICE-PROVIDING PERSPECTIVE) 5) THE PUBLIC AS CITIZENS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 33
    •  THE ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF MEN AND MATERIALS TO ACHIEVE THE PURPOSES OF GOVERNMENT THE ART AND SCIENCE OF MANAGEMENT AS APPLIED TO AFFAIRS OF STATE (WALDO, 1955)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 34
    •  THE ADMINISTRATION OR MANAGEMENT OF MATTERS WHICH HAVE PRINCIPALLY TO DO WITH THE SOCIETY, POLITY, AND ITS SUBPARTS WHICH ARE NOT ESSENTIALLY PRIVATE, FAMILIAL, COMMERCIAL, OR INDIVIDUALISTIC. DISCIPLINED STUDY OF SUCH MATTERS.  IN ITS SIMPLEST MEANING, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION HAS TO DO WITH MANAGING THE REALM OF GOVERNMENTAL AND OTHER PUBLIC ACTIVITIES (MARTINI, 1998)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 35
    • ADMINISTRATION = GOVERNMENT OBAMA ADMINISTRATION S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 36
    • PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION OCUPATION/ ACADEMIC FIELD PROFESSION TEACHING RESEARCHS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 37
    • 1. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND THE BEHAVIOR OF PEOPLE IN PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS; 2. THE TECHNOLOGY OF MANAGEMENT AND THE INSTITUTIONS OF POLICY IMPLEMENTATION; 3. THE PUBLIC INTEREST AS IT RELATES TO INDIVIDUAL ETHICAL CHOICE AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS. (BAILEY, 1968)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 38
    • GOAL GOODS NATIONAL ORGANIZE ULTIMATE II PUBLIC GOAL RESOURCES GOALS MANAGE SERVICES GOAL– NATURAL – EMPLOYMENT – SOCIAL RESOURCES – POVERTY JUSTICE– HUMAN – EDUCATION – INDIVIDUAL RESOURCES – HEALTH RIGHTS– RELIGION, – JUSTICE – FREEDOM ETHICS – DEMOCRACY– CULTURE, – ENVIRONMENT HERITAGE, – SECURITY TRADITION S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 39
    •  MANAGERIAL  POLITICAL  LEGALS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 40
    • APPROACHES TO PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION MANAGERIAL APPROACH PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IS GEARED TOWARD THE MAXIMIZATION OF EFFECTIVENESS, EFFICIENCY, AND ECONOMY (ROSENBLOOM, 2005)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 41
    • PLANING PROCESS PLANNING BUDGETING ADMINISTRATION STRUCTURES PRIVATE ORGANIZING PROCEDURES PUBLIC HUMAN RESOURCES GOALS STANDARD OPERATING IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES MONITORING CONTROLLING EVALUATION FEED BACKS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 42
    •  THE PROCESS OF ENSURING THAT THE ALLOCATION AND USE OF RESOURCES AVAILABLE TO THE GOVERNMENT ARE DIRECTED TOWARD THE ACHIEVEMENT OF LAWFUL PUBLIC POLICY GOALS.  THIS DEFINITION SEES THE PUBLIC MANAGER AS BOTH CREATURE-OF POLITICS, LAW, STRUCTURES, AND ROLES— AND CREATOR—OF STRATEGIES, CAPACITY, AND RESULTS.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 43
    • APPROACHES TO PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION POLITICAL APPROACH POWER, AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY RELATIONSHIP. RESPONSIBILITY AND RESPONSIVENESS OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES AND THE BUREAUCRACIES TO THE ELECTED OFFICIALS (THE CHIEF EXECUTIVES, THE LEGISLATORS). IT IS OF CENTRAL IMPORTANCE IN A GOVERNMENT BASED INCREASINGLY ON THE EXERCISE OF DISCRETIONARY POWER BY THE AGENCIES OF ADMINISTRATION. (ROSENBLOOM, 2005) S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 44
    • APPROACHES TO PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION LEGAL APPROACH AN ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCY IS A GOVERNMENTAL AUTHORITY, OTHER THAN A COURT AND OTHER THAN A LEGISLATIVE BODY, WHICH AFFECTS THE RIGHTS OF PRIVATE PARTIES THROUGH EITHER ADJUDICATION, RULE MAKING, INVESTIGATING, PROSECUTING, NEGOTIATING, SETTLING, OR INFORMALLY ACTING. THE LEGAL APPROACH TO PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION EMPHASIZES THE RULE OF LAW. (ROSENBLOOM, 2005)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 45
    •  ADMINISTRATIVE LAW REFERS TO THOSE LAWS AND REGULATIONS THAT ARE CREATED BY THE ACTIVITIES OF GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES THAT MAKE RULES AND ADJUDICATE CASES CONCERNING PRIVATE RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS AND THE LIMITS NEEDED TO CONTROL SUCH AGENCIES. INCLUDED IN THE BODY OF LAWS (OR RULES AND REGULATIONS) OF ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES THAT COLLECTIVELY MAKE UP ADMINISTRATIVE LAW ARE INTERPRETATIVE RULES—THOSE RULES THAT SPECIFY AN AGENCYS VIEWS OF THE MEANING OF ITS REGULATIONS OR OF THE STATUTES IT ADMINISTERS.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 46
    • A COMMON USAGE OF ‘PUBLIC’ IS TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN THE ‘PUBLIC SECTOR’ AND THE ‘PRIVATE SECTOR’, WHICH ESSENTIALLY REVOLVES AROUND DIFFERENCE OF OWNERSHIP (COLLECTIVE OWNERSHIP, IN THE NAME OF ALL CITIZEN, VERSUS INDIVIDUAL OWNERSHIP) AND MOTIVE ( SOCIAL PURPOSE VERSUS PROFIT). (BOVAIRD AND LöFFER , 2003)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 47
    • PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION1. SERVICE DELIVERY 1. PROFIT MOTIVATION2. POLITICAL PROCESS 2. BUSINESS ACTIVITIES3. LEGALISTIC APPROACH 3. PROFIT APPROACH4. BUREAUCRACY 4. EGALITER5. EFFECTIVE 5. EFFICIENT6. NO COMPETITION 6. FREE COMPETITION7. SOCIAL WELFARE GOALS 7. INDIVIDUL WELFARE TARGETSS3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 48
    • PUBLIC GOODS THE REMOTENESS OF MARKET FORCES FROM PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION ENABLES THE GOVERNMENT TO PROVIDE SERVICES AND PRODUCTS THAT COULD NOT PROFITABLY BE OFFERED BY PRIVATE FIRMS. SOME OF THESE SERVICES AND PRODUCTS ARE REFFERED TO AS PUBLIC GOODS OR QUASI-PUBLIC GOODS.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 49
    • PUBLIC GOODS WHEN UNIVERSAL ACCESS TO A GOOD, SUCH AS HEALTH CARE OR EDUCATION, SECURITY OR SAFETY BECOMES VIEWED AS AN ESSENTIAL INGREDIENT OF THE KIND OF SOCIETY THE POLITICAL SYSTEM WANTS TO FOSTER, IT IS LIKELY TO BE CONSIDERED A PUBLIC GOOD.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 50
    • PUBLIC GOODS BROADLY SPEAKING, THESE ARE GOODS, THAT INDIVIDUALS CANNOT BE EXCLUDED FROM ENJOYING, THAT ARE NOT EXHAUSTED OR SIGNIFICANTLY DIMINISHED AS MORE INDIVIDUALS USE THEM, AND FOR WHICH INDIVIDUALS DO NOT COMPETE.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 51
    • PUBLIC GOODS PRIVATE FIRMS TYPICALLY FACE MARKETS IN A FAR MORE DIRECT FASHION. UNDER FREE-MARKET CONDITIONS, IF THEY FAIL TO PRODUCE PRODUCTS OR SERVICES AT COMPETITIVE PRICES, CONSUMERS TURN TO OTHER SOURCES AND A COMPANYS INCOME DECLINES. IN BETWEEN THE TYPICAL PUBLIC AGENCY AND THE PRIVATE FIRM IS A GRAY AREA IN WHICH NOT-FOR-PROFIT ORGANIZATION AND HIGHLY REGULATED INDUSTRIES, SUCH AS MANY UTILITIES, OPERATE.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 52
    • PUBLIC POLICY FOR MANY YEARS, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATORS WERE SEEN AS NEUTRAL IMPLEMENTORS OF PUBLIC POLICIES SHAPED AND DESIGNED ELSEWHERE IN THE DEMOCRATIC PROCESS. SINCE THE 1960s, WITH THE GROWTH OF PUBLIC POLICY ANALYSIS, BOTH THE POLICY PROCESS IT SELF AND THE ROLE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN IT HAVE BEEN REEVALUATED.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 53
    • PUBLIC POLICY  PROCEEDING FROM THE PREMISE THAT POLITICS IS MESSY AND IMPRECISE, PROPONENTS OF PUBLIC POLICY ANALYSIS ARGUE THAT THE INTRODUCTION OF RIGOROUS ANALYTICAL METHODOLOGIES AND DECISION TOOLS WILL DRAMATICALLY IMPROVE BOTH THE DEFINITION OF PUBLIC PROBLEMS AND THE IDENTIFICATION OF ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS TO THEM.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 54
    • PUBLIC POLICY FURTHER, IT IS ARGUED THAT MORE RATIONAL DECISION PROCESSES WILL NOT ONLY BE MORE EFFICIENT, BUT ALSO MORE RESPONSIVE TO CITIZEN NEEDS AND PREFERENCES. THIS VERSION OF PUBLIC POLICY ANALYSIS VALUES OBJECTIVITY AND NEUTRALITY; IT IS BASED ON AN ABIDING BELIEF IN TECHNICAL ANALYSIS AND ABILITIES.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 55
    • PUBLIC POLICY IT MAKES USE OF TECHNIQUES DEVELOPED IN THE FIELDS OF ECONOMICS, MATHEMATICS, STATISTICS, OPERATIONS RESEARCH, AND SYSTEMS DYNAMICS, AMONG OTHERS, TO PROVIDE DECISION MAKERS WITH ADVICE IN THE FORMULATION OF PUBLIC POLICY. IN APPLYING THOSE TECHNIQUES, THE ANALYST MAY ALSO DRAW ON KNOWLEDGE FROM FIELDS SUCH AS SOCIOLOGY, POLITICAL SCIENCE, WELFARE ECONOMICS, LAW, ORGANIZATION - THEORY, THE PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, AND ELSEWHERE. POLICY ANALYSIS MUST TAKE THE ANALYST WHEREVER THE POLICY ISSUE LEADS, MAKING ANALYSIS THE MULTI DISIPLINARY ACTIVITY PAR EXCELLENCE.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 56
    • PUBLIC POLICY POLICY ANALYSIS INCLUDES: 1) IDENTIFYING THE “PROBLEM” TO BE RESOLVED, 2) SPECIFYING THE GOAL(S) TO BE SOUGHT THROUGH PUBLIC POLICY, 3) IDENTIFYING OR INVENTING THE AVAILABLE POLICY ALTERNATIVES, 4) ESTIMATING THE EFFECTS OF EACH OF THE ALTERNATIVES, BOTH FAVORABLE AND UNFAVORABLE, 5) IMPUTING VALUES IN A SINGLE, COMMENSURABLE MATRIX TO THOSE EFFECTS, AND 6) CHOOSING THE “BEST” POLICY ALTERNATIVE ACCORDING TO AN EXPLICIT DECISION RULE.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 57
    • PUBLIC CHOICE  IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE LAST CENTURY, THE DISCIPLINE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION DEVELOPED WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK SET BY WILSON. THE ENDS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION WERE SEEN AS THE "MANAGEMENT OF MEN AND MATERIAL IN THE ACCOMPLISHMENT OF THE PURPOSES OF THE STATE."S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 58
    • PUBLIC CHOICE IN HIS BOOK: ADMINISTRATIVE BEHAVIOR (1945), HERBERT SIMON, SUSTAINED A DEVASTATING CRITIQUE OF THE THEORY IMPLICIT IN THE TRADITIONAL STUDY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. SIMON ELUCIDATED SOME OF THE ACCEPTED ADMINISTRATIVE PRINCIPLES AND DEMONSTRATED THE LACK OF LOGICAL COHERENCE AMONG THEM.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 59
    • PUBLIC CHOICE DURING THE PERIOD FOLLOWING SIMONS CHALLENGE, ANOTHER COMMUNITY OF SCHOLARS HAS GRAPPLED WITH MANY OF THESE SAME INTELLECTUAL ISSUES. THIS COMMUNITY OF SCHOLARS COMPOSED PREDOMINANTLY OF POLITICAL ECONOMISTS HAVE BEEN CONCERNED WITH PUBLIC INVESTMENT AND PUBLIC EXPENDITURE DECISIONS. ONE FACET OF THIS WORK HAS BEEN MANIFEST IN BENEFIT- COST ANALYSIS AND THE DEVELOP­MENT OF THE PLANNING, PROGRAMMING AND BUDGETING (PPB) SYSTEM.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 60
    • PUBLIC CHOICE ONE OF SIMONS CENTRAL CONCERNS WAS TO ESTABLISH THE CRITERION OF EFFICIENCY AS A NORM FOR EVALUATING ALTERNATIVE ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS. SIMON ARGUED THAT THE "CRITERION OF EFFICIENCY DICTATES THAT CHOICE OF ALTERNATIVES WHICH PRODUCE THE LARGEST RESULT FOR THE GIVEN APPLICATION OF RESOURCES." IN ORDER TO UTILIZE THE CRITERION OF EFFICIENCY, THE RESULTS OF ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS MUST BE DEFINED AND MEASURED. CLEAR CONCEPTUAL DEFINITIONS OF OUTPUT ARE NECESSARY BEFORE MEASURES CAN BE DEVELOPED.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 61
    • PUBLIC CHOICE PUBLIC CHOICE REPRESENTS ANOTHER FACET OF WORK IN POLITICAL ECONOMY WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR THE THEORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. MOST POLITICAL ECONOMISTS IN THE PUBLIC CHOICE TRADITION BEGIN WITH THE INDIVIDUAL AS THE BASIC UNIT OF ANALYSIS. THE TRADITIONAL "ECONOMIC MAN" IS THEN REPLACED BY "MAN: THE DECISION MAKER."S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 62
    • PUBLIC CHOICE THE SECOND CONCERN IN THE PUBLIC CHOICE TRADITION IS WITH THE CONCEPTUALIZATION OF PUBLIC GOODS AS THE TYPE OF EVENT ASSOCIATED WITH THE OUTPUT OF PUBLIC AGENCIES. PUBLIC CHOICE THEORY IS ALSO CONCERNED WITH THE EFFECT THAT DIFFERENT DECISION RULES OR DECISION- MAKING ARRANGEMENTS WILL HAVE UPON THE PRODUCTION OF THOSE EVENTS CONCEPTUALIZED AS PUBLIC GOODS AND SERVICES.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 63
    • PUBLIC CHOICEFOUR BASIC ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR ARE NORMALLY MADE: – FIRST, INDIVIDUALS ARE ASSUMED TO BE SELF-INTERESTED (NOT EQUIVALENT TO “SELFISH”). THE ASSUMPTION OF SELF-INTEREST IMPLIES PRIMARILY THAT INDIVIDUALS EACH HAVE THEIR OWN PREFERENCES WHICH AFFECT THE DECISIONS THEY MAKE, AND THAT THOSE PREFERENCES MAY DIFFER FROM INDIVIDUAL TO INDIVIDUAL.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 64
    • PUBLIC CHOICE – SECONDLY, INDIVIDUALS ARE ASSUMED TO BE RATIONAL. RATIONALITY IS DEFINED AS THE ABILITY TO RANK ALL KNOWN ALTERNATIVES AVAILABLE TO THE INDIVIDUAL IN A TRANSITIVE MANNER. – THIRD, INDIVIDUALS ARE ASSUMED TO ADOPT MAXIMIZING STRATEGIES. MAXIMIZATION AS A STRATEGY IMPLIES THE CONSISTENT CHOICE OF THOSE ALTERNATIVES WHICH AN INDIVIDUAL THINKS WILL PROVIDE THE HIGHEST NET BENEFIT AS WEIGHED BY HIS OWN PREFERENCES. AT TIMES THE ASSUMPTION OF MAXIMIZATION IS RELATED TO THAT OF SATISFYING, DEPENDING UPON ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT THE INFORMATION AVAILABLE TO AN INDIVIDUAL IN A DECISION-MAKING SITUATION.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 65
    • PUBLIC CHOICE – FOURTH, AN EXPLICIT ASSUMPTION NEEDS TO BE STATED CONCERNING THE LEVEL OF INFORMATION POSSESSED BY A REPRESENTATIVE INDIVIDUAL. THREE LEVELS HAVE BEEN ANALYTICALLY DEFINED AS INVOLVING CERTAINTY, RISK, AND UNCERTAINTY.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 66
    • PUBLIC CHOICE  THE CONDITION OF CERTAINTY IS DEFINED TO EXIST WHEN: 1) AN INDIVIDUAL KNOWS ALL AVAILABLE STRATEGIES; 2) EACH STRATEGY IS KNOWN TO LEAD INVARIABLY TO ONLY ONE SPECIFIC OUTCOME, AND; 3) THE INDIVIDUAL KNOWS HIS OWN PREFERENCES FOR EACH OUTCOME. GIVEN THIS LEVEL OF INFORMATION, THE DECISION OF A MAXIMIZING INDIVIDUAL IS COMPLETELY DETERMINED.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 67
    • PUBLIC CHOICE  UNDER CONDITIONS OF RISK, THE INDIVIDUAL IS STILL ASSUMED TO KNOW ALL AVAILABLE STRATEGIES. ANY PARTICULAR STRATEGY MAY LEAD TO A NUMBER OF POTENTIAL OUTCOMES, AND THE INDIVIDUAL IS ASSUMED TO KNOW THE PROBABILITY OF EACH OUTCOME. THUS, DECISION MAKING BECOMES WEIGHTING PROCESS WHEREBY HIS PREFERENCES FOR DIFFERENT OUTCOMES ARE COMBINED WITH THE PROBABILITY OF THEIR OCURRENCE PRIOR TO A SELECTION OF A STRATEGY.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 68
    • PUBLIC CHOICE  DECISION MAKING UNDER UNCERTAINTY IS ASSUMED TO OCCUR EITHER WHERE (1) AN INDIVIDUAL HAS A KNOWLEDGE OF ALL STRATEGIES AND OUTCOMES, BUT LACKS KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE PROBABILITIES WITH WHICH A STRATEGY MAY LEAD TO AN OUTCOME, OR (2) AN INDIVIDUAL MAY NOT KNOW ALL STRATEGIES OR ALL OUTCOMES WHICH ACTUALLY EXIST.S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 69
    • PUBLIC CHOICE  UNDER CONDITIONS OF UNCERTAINTY, THE DETERMINATENESS OF SOLUTIONS IS REPLACED BY CONCLUSIONS ABOUT THE RANGE OF POSSIBLE "SOLUTIONS."  ESTIMATIONS ARE MADE ABOUT THE CONSEQUENCES OF STRATEGIES. (VINCENT OSBORNE & ELEANOR OSBORN, 1971)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 70
    • PUBLIC CHOICE  PUBLIC CHOICE IS ONE OF A NUMBER OF MODELS OF DECISION-MAKING IN ADMINISTRATION.  OTHER MODELS INCLUDE: – RATIONAL COMPREHENSIVE MODEL; – BARGAINING MODEL; – INCREMENTAL MODEL; – PARTICIPATIVE MODEL. (LEMAY, 2002)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 71
    • COOPERATIVE HUMAN SOCIETY (SOCIETAL ACTION INSTITUTIONS) ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC PRIVATE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT (STRUCTURE) (FUNCTION)S3-Unpas_2012 www.ginandjar.com 72