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Globalization, Nationalism and Public Administration


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Globalization, Nationalism and Public Administration

  1. 1. Globalization, Nationalism and Public Administration: Challenge and Response by: Leonor Magtolis Briones Reporter: ALEXANDER N. FLORES Doctor of Public Administration Prof. Dr. Jo Bitonio, DPA 102
  2. 2. <ul><li>It is a reality which shapes and directs the lives of people in nearly all countries, whether as active players or objects, and as winners or losers. </li></ul><ul><li>The extent of the impact of globalization in different countries is determined by its interactions with nationalism </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>refers to the increasing the unification of the world's economic order through reduction of such barriers to international trade as tariffs, export fees, and import quotas. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal is to increase material wealth, goods, and services through an international division of labor by efficiencies catalyzed by international relations, specialization and competition. </li></ul><ul><li>It describes the process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through communication, transportation, and trade </li></ul>
  4. 4. Nationalization <ul><li>is a political ideology that involves a strong identification of a group of individuals with a political entity defined in national terms, i.e. a nation . In the 'modernist' image of the nation, it is nationalism that creates national identity. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>emphasizes collective identity - a 'people' must be autonomous, united, and express a single national culture. Integral nationalism is a belief that a nation is an organic unit, with a social hierarchy, co-operation between the different social classes and common political goals. </li></ul>
  6. 6. “ Globalization and Nationalism will be among the most powerful forces which will shape our lives, individually and collectively, in the near and distant future.”
  7. 7. Concepts of Globalization <ul><li>Mainstream Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging Concepts </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mainstream Concepts <ul><li>View globalization as primarily an economic, particularly trade and business phenomenon. In recent times, globalization was accelerated by spectacular advances in science, technology and information. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Macroeconomic – globalization of markets for commodities and factors seems to be one meaning behind globalization i.e. the convergence of prices. The globalization of markets is a continuation of international trade. </li></ul>Alburo 1997:6 best describes the different dimensions of globalization as an economic phenomenon
  10. 10. <ul><li>Firm or Microeconomic Agents – globalization means firm behave differently in terms of suppliers and markets. Different parts of a particular product are produced in different countries and are then assembled in still another country. Suppliers come from one set of countries while financing is generated from still another set of countries. The same goes for markets . </li></ul>
  11. 11. Alburo points out several characteristics of globalization <ul><li>Global Firms today are both small and large, and nimble </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization is changes in nature of investment beyond simple equity purchases </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization is change in location of international production </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Globalization is change in nature of production process and organization </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization is changes in international governance. Globalization involves going beyond legal systems and relying increasingly on private systems of disputes settlements and arbitration. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Globalization at the micro and macroeconomic levels has spurred the transform not only of economic systems but also of political, social and cultural institutions as well While the process might be described as economic in nature, impacts are wide-ranging .
  14. 14. Ofreneo 1997:1 <ul><li>Globalization it is cursed by civil society as a bane as it brings in its wake jobless growth , social and gender inequality, crass global cultural commercialism and environmental despoliation. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Bello 1997:4-5 <ul><li>Globalization has gone hand in hand with income inequality in the South. It has also been accompanied by the growth of inequality in the North, so much so that people are now talking about the erasing of the traditional North-South cleavage and pointing to the rise of the South in the North just as the elites of the South tied to the world economy constituted an emerging North in the South </li></ul>
  16. 16. Policy Analysts <ul><li>Globalization process as a challenge to government policymakers. According to them, government should formulate policies which would result in maximum benefits for the country. Choices have to be made among priority concerns. Policy responses to trends in globalization can range from carefully calibrated but complex policy choices to simple and administratively easy policy decisions.  </li></ul>
  17. 17. Parr 1997:1-2 <ul><li>views the Political transformations occurring in the wake of globalization as opportunities for civil society, according to her civil society takes on an increasingly powerful role in development and in influencing policies. Globalization has meant a retreat in the role of the state as market forces and market actors determine the course of growth. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>This rearrangement of roles between the market, the state and people gives more space for the civil society to take to organize itself to effectively voice the interests of the people and of the common good. It also gives more responsibility to the civil society to take up the interests of the people whose voices would otherwise be overwhelmed and drowned by the powers of business interests and of the politically powerful. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Mainstream Concept <ul><li>Viewed as threatening to human development. Others viewed as opportunity for civil society to play a major role in the development process. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Emerging Concepts Sarah Timson, Resident Representative of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), views international movements, actions and initiatives on democracy, human right, environmental and social development as part of globalization. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Pro-democracy movements and human rights campaigns have become global concerns. Problems of social development-poverty, unemployment, social disintegration and gender issues are also the subject of worldwide campaigns. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>The work of the United Nations Development Program and other United Nations Organizations has contributed much to the globalization. The series of global UN summits on social development, women, population and housing has focused global attention on these concerns. Government have made commitments and set specific targets as their contribution to global solutions. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Parallel streams of globalization are reflected in four major areas of concern; <ul><li>Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Political Institutions and Governance </li></ul><ul><li>Social Institutions and Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Science and Technology </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Challenges and Opportunities of Globalization <ul><li>1. Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Liberalization and Structural Adjustment </li></ul><ul><li>Structural adjustment accelerated the opening up of economy to, the winds of globalization. This included trade liberalization, reform in the financial sector, privatization, fiscal and monetary policy measures (particularly reduction of budget deficits and restructuring of the Central Bank) and other globalization friendly economic policies. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>The mainstream view of structural adjustment considers the process as beneficial to the economy. Implementation of structural adjustment programs facilitated the reentry of the Philippines to the global economy. The alternative view is that structural adjustment entailed horrendous human costs. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Perspective on Globalization <ul><li>Perspective on the implications of globalization and the economy range from the optimistic to the pessimistic. One view holds globalization as the answer to the challenge of global survival. Borderless economies would facilitate the totally free movement of goods, services and people. The full operation of the free market would result in the availability of the best goods at the lowest prices. </li></ul>
  27. 27. 2. Political Institutions and Governance <ul><li>Levels of Governance </li></ul><ul><li>Global Governance are exemplified by multilateral institutions like the UN, WB and the IMF whose policies regulate relationships among member countries and bind them to commitments and conditionalities </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Governance where countries commit themselves to regional organizations which are created for political and trade purposes </li></ul><ul><li>National Governance </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>The role of the State </li></ul><ul><li>The dominant view is that with accelerated globalization and free market competition, whether it is privatization and free market competition, the role of the state should be limited to that of facilitator-the leveler of the playing field, the provider of the basic services and the formulator of globalization-friendly policies. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>The alternative view agrees with the analysis that the present structure and administrative capacity of the government is not sufficient to deal with the complex problems, demands and consequences of globalization. </li></ul><ul><li>The view is that government has a responsibility to promulgate policies and implement programs which will attend to the victims of the dark side of globalization </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Whither Public Sector and Public Sector </li></ul><ul><li>Another consequences of globalization on governance is the blurring of boundaries between the public sector and the private sector and between public administration and private administration, public goods are being produced on contract by the private sector. At the same time, the public sector is also producing more private goods. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Globalization has resulted not only in the opening of economies; it has likewise led to the opening of government to private business. Government offices are continually reminded that they must be run like private business. On the other hand , the private sector is endlessly advised to have a social conscience. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Public Finance </li></ul><ul><li>Even public finances has not been spared from the transforming effect of globalization. On taxes, calls have been made for taxes on global commons, as well as taxes designed to raise resources for the rehabilitation of the environment.  </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>The wide array of financial arrangements which has emerged in the wake of globalization has opened new vistas for resource generation . At the same time, problems of accountability are increasing due to complex organizational arrangements in public programs and projects. </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Administrative Reforms </li></ul><ul><li>The traditional structures of government could not cope with the requirement of accelerated globalization. This is particularly true of governments of developing countries. Hence , there is an inexorable call for administrative reforms. There is a general agreement that governments badly need downsizing and reinventing. </li></ul>
  35. 35. The question is: which function of the government should be downsized and which reinvented? 
  36. 36. <ul><li>Globalization of Corruption </li></ul><ul><li>As expected, one dark side in globalization and governance is corruption. Opening the corridors of government to globalization has laid it wide open to opportunities for venality of unprecedented scale. </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>The Role of Civil Society </li></ul><ul><li>(Parr 1997:1-2) In the globalizing world of the 21 st century, the Civil Society takes on an increasingly powerful role in development and in influencing policies. Globalization has meant a retreat in the role of the state, as market forces determine the course of growth. </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>The rearrangement of roles, between the market, the state and people gives more space for the civil society to organize itself to effectively voice the interests of the people and of the common good. It also gives more responsibility to the civil society to take up the interest of the people whose voices would otherwise be overwhelmed and drowned by the powers of business interests and of the politically powerful </li></ul>
  39. 39. 3. Social Institutions and Culture <ul><li>Dark Side : Social Disintegration </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Employment </li></ul><ul><li>Going Back to Roots </li></ul><ul><li>and Identity </li></ul>
  40. 40. 4. Science and Technology <ul><li>Keeping Abreast </li></ul><ul><li>Moral and Philosophical Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom Line for globalization and Science and Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Human Development </li></ul>
  41. 41. Challenges to Philippine Public Administration <ul><li>What is Public Administration at present? </li></ul><ul><li>How should we now define Public Administration in a borderless, globalizing world? </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Public Administration is not limited to National Administration. Agreements and commitments crafted at the global and regional levels oftentimes provide the policy framework for national Public Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Controversial commitments made during the APEC Summit are well known examples of global and regional commitment which are translated into national policies </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Existing laws and policies need to be overhauled to comply with the requirement of such commitments </li></ul><ul><li>In the Agricultural Sector for example it is said that over 100 laws need to be repealed to comply with APEC Commitments </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>No less than the Philippine Constitution needs to be amended since many of its provisions are not complementary with requirements of GATT/WTO and APEC. </li></ul><ul><li>Philippine membership in GATT/WTO is under obligation to comply with policies, rules and regulations mandated by the WTO </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>In the area of social development, commitments made during the UNDP summits on social development , Women and Environment are expected to be translated into actual policies, programs and projects </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Reestablishing the Locus and Focus of Public Administration. In light of rapid global, regional and national changes, it is time to determine once more the locus and focus of the field of public administration. It Is possible that both are in danger of disappearing under the onslaught of globalization </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>Clarifying Concepts on the Role of the State, the Private Sector and Civil Society </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewing Theories of the Bureaucracy </li></ul>
  48. 48. THE PRACTICE OF PUBLIC OF ADMINISTRATION <ul><li>Socioeconomic Transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Governance </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralization - in the administrative sense can facilitate implementation of global </li></ul><ul><li>governance at the local level. </li></ul>
  49. 49. governance at the local level Can be a powerful countervailing force vis-à-vis globalization in terms of decentralization of power and authority to local government units and communities.
  50. 50. end of presentation