Catalytic Reforming: Catalyst, Process Technology and Operations Overview

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Catalytic Reforming: Catalyst, Process Technology and Operations Overview
Contents
Fundamentals of Catalytic Reforming
Objective
Reaction Chemistry and Mechanisms
Desirable and Undesirable Reactions
Process Variables
Reactor Temperature
Reactor Pressure
Space Velocity
Hydrogen / Hydrocarbon Ratio
Feedstock
Yield Charts
Reforming Process Flow Sheets (PFDs)
Fixed Bed reforming
Semi Regenerative Reforming
(CCR) Continuous Catalytic Regenerative Reforming
Octanizing
Dualforming
RZ Platforming
Reforming catalyst
Catalyst Types
Catalyst Poisons
Catalyst Distribution
Catalyst Sampling
Catalyst Regeneration
Catalytic Reforming Economics Comparison
Key Energy and Environmental Facts
Conclusions

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Catalytic Reforming: Catalyst, Process Technology and Operations Overview

  1. 1. Gerard B. Hawkins Managing Director, CEO Catalytic Reforming: Catalyst, Process Technology and Operations Overview
  2. 2. www.gbhenterprises.com Fundamentals of Catalytic Reforming Objective Reaction Chemistry and Mechanisms Desirable and Undesirable Reactions Process Variables Reactor Temperature Reactor Pressure Space Velocity Hydrogen / Hydrocarbon Ratio Feedstock Yield Charts Reforming Process Flow Sheets (PFDs) Fixed Bed reforming Semi Regenerative Reforming (CCR) Continuous Catalytic Regenerative Reforming Octanizing Dualforming RZ Platforming Contents
  3. 3. www.gbhenterprises.com Reforming catalyst Catalyst Types Catalyst Poisons Catalyst Distribution Catalyst Sampling Catalyst Regeneration Catalytic Reforming Economics Comparison Key Energy and Environmental Facts Conclusions Contents, con’t
  4. 4. www.gbhenterprises.com
  5. 5. Fundamentals of Catalytic Reforming www.gbhenterprises.com
  6. 6. www.gbhenterprises.com
  7. 7. www.gbhenterprises.com
  8. 8. www.gbhenterprises.com
  9. 9. www.gbhenterprises.com Basic catalytic reforming scheme with three heaters, three reactors and recycled hydrogen; the excess H2 is later used in other refining plants.
  10. 10. www.gbhenterprises.com
  11. 11. www.gbhenterprises.com
  12. 12. www.gbhenterprises.com
  13. 13. www.gbhenterprises.com
  14. 14. www.gbhenterprises.com
  15. 15. www.gbhenterprises.com Generalized Platforrming reaction scheme
  16. 16. www.gbhenterprises.com Chemical Reactions
  17. 17. www.gbhenterprises.com Major Reactions Occurring in the Reforming Unit Desirable Reactions
  18. 18. www.gbhenterprises.com Major Reactions Occurring in the Reforming Unit Undesirable Reactions
  19. 19. www.gbhenterprises.com
  20. 20. www.gbhenterprises.com Desirable reactions with hydrogen production
  21. 21. www.gbhenterprises.com Desirable reactions with hydrogen production
  22. 22. www.gbhenterprises.com Desirable reactions with hydrogen production
  23. 23. www.gbhenterprises.com Desirable reactions with hydrogen production
  24. 24. www.gbhenterprises.com Adverse Reactions
  25. 25. www.gbhenterprises.com Adverse Reactions
  26. 26. www.gbhenterprises.com Adverse Reactions
  27. 27. www.gbhenterprises.com Adverse Reactions
  28. 28. www.gbhenterprises.com Adverse Reactions
  29. 29. www.gbhenterprises.com Adverse Reactions
  30. 30. www.gbhenterprises.com Adverse Reactions
  31. 31. www.gbhenterprises.com Chemical Reactions
  32. 32. Processes Variables www.gbhenterprises.com
  33. 33. Processes Variables www.gbhenterprises.com  Process variables that may be adjusted by design or during operation include: Reactor temperature Pressure Space velocity Hydrogen / hydrocarbon ratio Feedstock characteristics The relationships of the variables generally apply to both fixed- bed reforming and continuous reforming.
  34. 34. Processes Variables www.gbhenterprises.com
  35. 35. Processes Variables www.gbhenterprises.com
  36. 36. Processes Variable: Pressure www.gbhenterprises.com
  37. 37. Processes Variable: Pressure www.gbhenterprises.com
  38. 38. Processes Variable: Temperature www.gbhenterprises.com
  39. 39. Processes Variable: Temperature www.gbhenterprises.com
  40. 40. Processes Variable: Space Velocity www.gbhenterprises.com
  41. 41. Processes Variable: Temperature www.gbhenterprises.com
  42. 42. Processes Variable: Hydrogen to Hydrocarbon ratio www.gbhenterprises.com
  43. 43. Processes Variable: Hydrogen to Hydrocarbon ratio www.gbhenterprises.com
  44. 44. Processes Variable: Feed Quality Chemical composition www.gbhenterprises.com
  45. 45. Processes Variable: Feed quality Distillation range www.gbhenterprises.com
  46. 46. www.gbhenterprises.com
  47. 47. www.gbhenterprises.com
  48. 48. Operating Parameters Summary www.gbhenterprises.com
  49. 49. Processes Variables www.gbhenterprises.com Evolution of the relationship between liquid reformate yield versus unleaded RON from the 1950s to the 1990s.
  50. 50. www.gbhenterprises.com
  51. 51. www.gbhenterprises.com
  52. 52. www.gbhenterprises.com
  53. 53. www.gbhenterprises.com
  54. 54. www.gbhenterprises.com
  55. 55. www.gbhenterprises.com Reforming Process PFDs
  56. 56. www.gbhenterprises.com Reforming Process PFDs Catalytic Reformers Utilize Multiple Reactor Beds
  57. 57. www.gbhenterprises.com Fixed bed reformer
  58. 58. www.gbhenterprises.com Conventional Unit
  59. 59. www.gbhenterprises.com
  60. 60. www.gbhenterprises.com Semi-Regenerative Catalytic Reformer Unit Courtesy: UOP
  61. 61. www.gbhenterprises.com Cyclic Regenerative Reforming
  62. 62. www.gbhenterprises.com CCR with stacked reactors Courtesy: UOP
  63. 63. www.gbhenterprises.com Stacked CCR Catalytic Reformer Unit Courtesy: UOP
  64. 64. www.gbhenterprises.com Stacked CCR Catalytic Reformer Unit
  65. 65. www.gbhenterprises.com Side-by-Side Arrangement Courtesy: Axens
  66. 66. www.gbhenterprises.com CCR with side-by-side reactors Courtesy: Axens
  67. 67. www.gbhenterprises.comCourtesy: Axens CCR with side-by-side reactors
  68. 68. www.gbhenterprises.comCourtesy: Axens CCR with side-by-side reactors
  69. 69. www.gbhenterprises.com SR and CCR hybrid process Courtesy: Axens
  70. 70. www.gbhenterprises.com SR and CCR hybrid process Courtesy: UOP
  71. 71. www.gbhenterprises.com Comparison of Semi-Regeneration Reforming Process and CCR Process
  72. 72. www.gbhenterprises.com CCR Platforrming versus Fixed-bed Platforrming
  73. 73. www.gbhenterprises.com Advantages of CCR Continuous Reforming Technology Courtesy: UOP  high utilization of feed due to low operating pressure  on stream factor of more than 95%  flexibility to process a wide variety of feedstock  only two catalyst lifts for minimal catalyst attrition  Stacked reactors for economical design  optimized heat and compression integration for every unit  liquid recovery optimized on every unit.
  74. 74. www.gbhenterprises.com Disadvantages of CCR Continuous Reforming Technology Courtesy: UOP  CCR process shows disadvantages of complicated process flow and more investment as an additional continuous catalyst regeneration system is provided. Note: However, it can contribute to high octane product, high product yield, long unit operation cycle and flexible operation.
  75. 75. www.gbhenterprises.com Comparison of CCR Process and Semi- Regeneration Reforming Process Courtesy: UOP Basis: Same Feedstock processed.
  76. 76. www.gbhenterprises.com Courtesy: UOP
  77. 77. www.gbhenterprises.com Dualforming
  78. 78. RZ Platforrming www.gbhenterprises.com
  79. 79. RZ Platforrming www.gbhenterprises.com Aromatics yields from raffinate
  80. 80. RZ Platforrming www.gbhenterprises.com Hydrogen yield from raffinate.
  81. 81. Reforming Catalyst www.gbhenterprises.com
  82. 82. Catalyst www.gbhenterprises.com
  83. 83. Reforming Basics Bi-Functional Catalysts www.gbhenterprises.com
  84. 84. Catalysis Mechanism www.gbhenterprises.com
  85. 85. Catalyst www.gbhenterprises.com
  86. 86. www.gbhenterprises.com
  87. 87. Objectives Path to Breakthrough Catalysts www.gbhenterprises.com
  88. 88. Catalyst www.gbhenterprises.com
  89. 89. Catalyst www.gbhenterprises.com
  90. 90. Catalyst www.gbhenterprises.com
  91. 91. State-of-the-Art Catalysts www.gbhenterprises.com
  92. 92. WHICH METAL COMBINATION TO CHOOSE www.gbhenterprises.com
  93. 93. SUMMARY - EFFECT OF SECOND METAL www.gbhenterprises.com
  94. 94. Stability www.gbhenterprises.com
  95. 95. SELECTIVITY www.gbhenterprises.com
  96. 96. New Generation of Catalyst www.gbhenterprises.com
  97. 97. Catalysts Poisons www.gbhenterprises.com
  98. 98. Catalysts Contaminants www.gbhenterprises.com
  99. 99. Catalysts Contaminants (Contd…) www.gbhenterprises.com
  100. 100. Catalysts Distribution www.gbhenterprises.com
  101. 101. Catalyst Distribution www.gbhenterprises.com
  102. 102. Temperatures and Compositions inside Reactors
  103. 103. www.gbhenterprises.com Chemical Reactions
  104. 104. Catalyst Sampler www.gbhenterprises.com
  105. 105. Catalyst Regeneration www.gbhenterprises.com
  106. 106. Objectives of Regeneration Section www.gbhenterprises.com
  107. 107. Regenerator Section: RegenC-2 www.gbhenterprises.com
  108. 108. Regen C www.gbhenterprises.com
  109. 109. RegenC Catalyst Regenerator www.gbhenterprises.com
  110. 110. www.gbhenterprises.com Reactor Types
  111. 111. Typical Radial CCR Reactor www.gbhenterprises.com
  112. 112. CCR Reactor Metallurgy www.gbhenterprises.com
  113. 113. Typical Axial Fixed-Bed Reactors www.gbhenterprises.com
  114. 114. Typical Radial Fixed-Bed Reactor www.gbhenterprises.com
  115. 115. www.gbhenterprises.com Catalytic Reforming Economics Comparison
  116. 116. Economics Reforming Comparison www.gbhenterprises.com
  117. 117. Key Energy and Environmental Facts—Catalytic Reforming www.gbhenterprises.com
  118. 118. Summary of Inputs and Outputs of Catalytic Reforming www.gbhenterprises.com
  119. 119. Estimated Energy Use in Catalytic Reforming www.gbhenterprises.com
  120. 120. Conclusions www.gbhenterprises.com

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